# Lesson-Plan-Gr-8-technology-T1-W2-3

```TECHNOLOGY LESSON PLAN GRADE 8
8
TERM
1
Role Players
(WHO is going
to teach/
guide/
support…)
Aim/ Purpose/ Topic/ Content/ Concepts/ Skills
(WHAT am I going to teach/ guide/ support…)
Definition of frame structures.
- Purpose of structural members (components) in wood and steel roof
trusses (king and queen post, strut, tie, rafter, tie beam).
- Learners identify structural members and type of force (shear,
torsion, tension, compression) acting on them in given frame structures.




- The use of internal cross-bracing and triangulation to provide stiffness.
TEACHERS
• Structural members under tension/compression (worksheet).
Structural members
2 and 3
Teaching Methodologies &amp;
Classroom Management
Skills
(WHAT am I going to use to
teach/ guide/ support…)
(HOW am I going to teach/ guide/
support…)
• Case study: Electrical pylons – use pictures of a range of pylon designs
noting:
- The variety of designs that solve the same problem effectively.
WEEK

discuss the content.
Explain new vocabulary
and terminology.
Do the activity together
as a class. Educator
guide learners through
the steps and explains
the concepts.
Teacher could develop a
Worksheet and learners
complete
Teacher introduce the
FAT
Resources/ LTSM
Paperbased
Resources
Each
learner
copy of
the notes
and the
activity.
Pages 1 to
4
Digital
Resources
www.youtub
e.com/watch
?v=l6oyuw4V
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www.youtub
e.com/watch
?v=M2mov38
DobM
www.youtub
e.com/watch
?v=f_yPXLcj2B
8
• Structures that span over space:
- Beams: steel I-beams (girders), concrete lintels; beam and column
bridge.
- Alternative bridge supports: suspension bridges; cable-stayed bridges.
- Arches: arches in buildings, bridges, dam walls.
www.youtub
e.com/watch
?v=JpN6GAo
uo2Q
- Cantilevers: simple cantilever, cable stayed cantilever.
Structural failure – the three most likely ways structures fail are:
- Fracture of a member – due to lack of strength.
- Bending (flexing, buckling) – due to lack of stiffness (rigidity).
- Toppling over – due to lack of stability (top heavy, narrow base).
www.youtub
e.com/watch
?v=aKWKpZyi
DlY
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PARENTS
LEARNER
Informal /
Formal
Assessment
s
Values 
Taught




•
•
•
Child reads through the content. Parent and child discuss.
Explain new vocabulary and terminology.
Discuss the world of work and ask child to think of more jobs where Technology is used.
Do the activity together. Guiding your child through the steps of the content and design process.
Learners participate in the discussion.
Learners complete the activity on page 3 and 4. The focus is on structures, forces, investigate and design.
This should be done together as a class.
Possible examples include as well as the PAT 1
acknowledgement, attentiveness, neatness, reflection, creativity, design awareness
Define frame structures by studying the drawings below.
- Purpose of structural members (components) in wood and steel roof trusses (king and queen post, strut, tie, rafter, tie beam).
Identify the type and purpose of the different structural members above?
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-
Identify the type of force (shear, torsion, tension, compression) acting on frame structures.
• Case study: Electrical pylons – use pictures of a range of pylon designs noting:
- What is function of pylons?
- What strengthening techniques are used in the pictures to provide stiffness?
• Identify the forces of tension/compression
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Structural members
• Structures that span over space:
- Beams: steel I-beams (girders), concrete lintels; beam and column bridge.
Alternative bridge supports: suspension bridges; cable-stayed bridges.
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- Arches: arches in buildings, bridges, dam walls.
- Cantilevers: simple cantilever, cable stayed cantilever.
Structural failure – the three most likely ways structures fail are:
- Fracture of a member – due to lack of strength.
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- Bending (flexing, buckling) – due to lack of stiffness (rigidity).
- Toppling over – due to lack of stability (top heavy, narrow base).
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Total: 70 Marks
This document is a guideline that educators can use to set their own assessment task for term 1.
Over the next four weeks learners will investigate and design a model of a machine that can crush grains like maize or wheat to make flour.
They can start the task after the first week. Each week learners can complete a part of the PAT, as the concepts or skills are covered in class.
In this way learners will have more time to complete the PAT.
Name
Investigate
(30 Marks)
Design
(40 Marks)
Possible mark
Investigation
15
Design brief, Specifications and constraints
15
Sketches of possible ideas
-
Make a 3D isometric projection of the idea with
dimensions and drawn to scale
Make a working drawing in 2D showing one view
with dimensions and line types.
Communicate: a sketch enhanced using two of
TOTAL
Learner’s mark
16
20
4
70
POSSIBLE SCENARIO
How do maize become maize meal? Before machines were invented to grind or crush the seeds, it took a lot of hard work to make maize meal.
Think about the following: How strong and stable the structure should be? What materials and tools do you need to make the structure? How
easy will it be to make the structure? How hard and fast will the pestle hit the floor? What is the mechanical advantage of the lever?
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A family or a community or a business wants you to make meal or flour from maize, wheat or another grain. They want a quick and easy way to
make the meal or flour that does not require a lot of hard work.
INVESTIGATE
[15]
1. Evaluate: learners examine information on several complex structures and list advantages and disadvantages in the designs
Look at:

The shape and length of the levers and
the pestles

The mechanisms that move the beams
up and down

How strong and stable the structure is

How the different parts are assembled?

1.1
Which ideas or aspects of the ideas will you use in your own design? Explain why
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
[4]
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Complete the table. Pay special attention to the last two rows of the table on advantages and disadvantages
DESIGN A
DESIGN B
[11]
DESIGN C
Strength and stability
of structure
Materials and tools
needed
How easy to make?
How hard and fast will the pestle
hit the floor?
of lever
DESIGN BRIEF, SPECIFICATIONS and CONSTRAINTS
[15]
2. Identify the design aspects:
a. What is it? (what is needed?)
b. Who it is for? (Target)
c. What it is for? (Function)
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3. By making use of the above design aspects, complete the…
DESIGN BRIEF.
(5)
I am going to design a ………………………… (what is needed) for a ………………………………………………………. (who is it for) that
…………………………………………………………………………………. (what is it for).
4. LIST SPECIFICATIONS.
(5)
What different mechanisms could make the grain crusher work? What forces should the structure be able to withstand? Do I have to work
according a budget? Etc.
a. …
b. …
c. …
d. …
e. …
5. List the constraints.
(5)
How much time do I have to design and make the model? What materials can I find easily to build the model? What tools do I already
have with which I can make the model? Etc.
a. …
b. …
c. …
d. …
e. …
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6. DESIGN ( POSSIBLE IDEAS )
DO AFTER THE SKILLS MENTIONED IN WEEK 4 &amp; 5 WERE ADDRESSED
[40]
6.1 Sketch possible ideas you plan to make
[ not for marks ]
6.2 Make: a 3D isometric projection of the idea with dimensions and drawn to scale
[16]
DO AFTER THE SKILLS MENTIONED IN WEEK 4 &amp; 5 WERE ADDRESSED
Example of an Assessment rubric for the isometric drawing
Drawn to scale and scale is indicated
Dimensioning done neatly and correctly
Line quality (Dark outlines, light construction lines)
Neatness and accuracy of the drawing
Total
Good
4
3
Elementary
2
Poor
1
/ 16
Good - al aspects are correctly done
Adequate – most of the aspects are correctly done
Elementary – a third of the criteria is met
Poor – less than a third of the criteria is met
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6.3 Make: a working drawing in 2D showing one view with dimensions.
Example of an Assessment rubric for the working
drawing
Wrote a heading and indicated scale
Drawn to scale and scale is indicated
Dimensioning done neatly and correctly
Line quality (Dark outlines, light construction lines)
Neatness and accuracy of the drawing
Total
Good
4
[20]
3
Elementary
2
Poor
1
/ 20
4 - Good - al aspects are correctly done
3 - Adequate – most of the aspects are correctly done
2 - Elementary – a third of the criteria is met
1 - Poor – less than a third of the criteria is met
6.4 Communicate: a sketch enhanced using two of colour, texture or shading
[4]
DO AFTER THE SKILLS MENTIONED IN WEEK 4 &amp; 5 WERE ADDRESSED
4 - Good - enhancing techniques are correctly done
3 - Adequate – Most of the enhancing techniques are correctly done
2 - Elementary – a third of the enhancing techniques is met
1 - Poor – less than a third of the enhancing techniques is met
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