Operating Web(unit-2) Q1) What are Web based application? Ans 1) Web based application refers to any program (including the user interface and client-side logic) that is accessed over a network using HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol). Web based application often run inside a web browser. Common web applications include webmail, online retail sales, online banking, Online Reservation Systems and online auctions Q2.)What is Online Reservation Systems? Ans2) Online reservation systems are computerized systems used to store and retrieve information and conduct transactions related to air travel, hotels, car rental, or other activities. Q3) What are the advantages of Online Reservation System? Ans3) Advantages of Online Reservation System are as follows 1. Save Time: A reservation system saves passenger’s time, because they do not need to wait for hours for the confirmation of their reservation. An online booking system works all the time 24*7. This gives freedom to potential passengers’ to book a ticket anytime they want. 2. Prices: When you book a flight online, you have the freedom to shop around for the best price. Travelers don't get this kind of freedom when booking flights through a single travel agent or calling an airline. Purchasing the ticket online means customers can check out many airlines before making their choice. 3. Changes and Cancelations: Changing or cancelling a ticket is simple when you've booked an airfare online. In many cases, all you have to do is go directly to the airline's website and log-in with your booking information. From there, you can simply change the flight to a later date, upgrade to a different cabin class or cancel your reservation. Q4) What are the advantages of Online Reservation System for provider? Ans4) The advantages of Online Reservation System for provider are as follows 1. Cut Workload: Online reservation systems reduce workloads for staff and optimize customer service. These platforms can make sure that bookings are simultaneous and the availability is updated with each booking processing. 2. Business is open around the clock: Customers who make a decision to book a tour or rental don’t want to wait until you are in the office. They want to lock in the activity on their own schedule. Using an online booking system means that business is open 24 hours a day, seven days a week. 3. Increase Revenues: Another major benefit of an online hotel reservation system is that it's much easier to create, publish, promote and sell packages and add-ons online. You can combine them or let customers choose the package they want. This will further increase the revenue you generate while customers will be able to get exactly what they want. 4. No errors allowed: With an online booking system you avoid all the possible misunderstandings that can happen when booking on the phone. You can customize emails that will automatically confirm the reservation and send your customers all the details. Q5) What are the disadvantages of Online Reservation? Ans)The disadvantage of online reservation system are as follows 1) Internet access is a must: If you don’t have reliable internet access, then online booking system is of no use. You’ll need reliable Internet access to check your reservations and to add bookings that are made online 2) Need to train staff: Once you have the backend setup you will have to train all your employees on the new system. This can take as little as an hour but it’s still downtime you need to account for. And since you’ll be significantly reducing the amount of administrative work you might have to adjust staff responsibilities. 3) Spend some time and money: Finding a good online booking system that meets the needs of your business can be a tiresome process. Before you choose one you will have to read and learn a lot about features or the online booking options. Be prepared to spend some time and money on it. There are always costs involved with professional online booking system – although these are worth it in the long run. Q6) what are the Precautions while Performing Online Transactions? Ans 6) Taking the Precautions while Performing Online Transactions are as follows 1.)Never ever use Pirated Software: Pirated software are not just illegal, it’s the most popular place to get infected with viruses, no matter what antivirus and antimalware you have installed on your computer. If you are a pirated software user then you must have seen some sort of virus warning which are dangerous for Computer. 2.) Install latest security software: The internet is full of malware, spam, and spyware. These software programs can damage your computer. It is necessary to keep your operating system up to date with the latest security software. Install S/ software from a trusted source. Using an ad-blocking software and a spyware detection program are some ways to prevent online fraud. Run virus scans regularly and keep these programs updated. 3.) Secure your passwords: Use passwords which are safe and hard to guess. Passwords including upper and lower case letters, numbers and, symbols are more secure. Try using different passwords for different accounts. Using the same password is risky and more prone to online data breaches. 4.) Email security: Stay away from emails that ask for confidential information. Phishing emails are more common than you can imagine. None of the payment companies or banks asks for your confidential payments data. Do not open emails from a suspicious source, do not open any emails asking for identification information and don’t follow flashy URLs or buttons. Q7. Explain different kinds of online threats. Ans2: Online threats such as Phishing, email spoofing, chat spoofing, etc. Phishing is the attempt to obtain sensitive information such as usernames, passwords, and credit card details (and, indirectly, money), often for malicious reasons. Phishing is typically carried out by email spoofing or instant messaging, and it often directs users to enter personal information at a fake website. Email spoofing is the creation of email messages with a forged sender address. The core email protocols do not have any mechanism for authentication, making it common for spam and phishing emails to use such spoofing to mislead or even prank the recipient about the origin of the message. Q8. Explain the purpose of Internet Security. Ans1: Internet security is a branch of computer security specifically related to the Internet, often involving browser security but also network security. Its objective is to establish rules and measures to use against attacks over the Internet. The Internet represents an insecure channel for exchanging information leading to a high risk of intrusion or fraud, such as phishing. Q9: What are best Practices for online Security? Ans: Some of the best Practices for online Security are given below. 1) Secure transactions: If you are using online shopping or transactions, websites even store your credit card or online banking personal information such as your credit card number, account details, etc. This information can be tracked and used by unauthorized users often known as hackers to misuse this information. Again, ensure the website is legitimate and uses secure practices for performing and maintaining online transactions. 2) Install firewalls: Firewalls could be software or hardware and can assist in keeping a computer and a network secure. Firewalls analyse the network traffic and determine if the traffic should be allowed or not. 3) Never install software from unknown sources: As they might not be trustworthy; download only from well-known or reputed websites. Verify the source if it is legitimate by searching the internet or referring to comments from other users before downloading them. 4) Use strong passwords: A combination of alphanumeric and special characters could be used for creating a password that is not so easy to crack or guessed by other users. Do not keep passwords such as your favourite color, friends or relatives name, bike number, mobile number either as single or combined option. These passwords are easy to guess if a user knows you personally. Change your password frequently at least 2 or 3 weeks so that your account information remains secure. Q10: What are the objectives of E-governance? How E-Governance does empowers the citizens. Ans: E-Governance which also known as electronic governance is basically the application of Information and Communications Technology to the processes of Government functioning in order to bring about ‘Simple, good, Accountable, corruption free, Transparent’ governance. E-governance can take place in four major types of interactions: 1. Government to Government (G2G) where information is exchanged within the government. 2. Government to Citizen (G2C) where the citizens have a platform through which they can interact with the government and get access to the variety of public services offered by the Government. 3. Government to Businesses (G2B) where businesses are able to interact with the government easily. 4. Government to Employees (G2E) where interaction between the government and its employees occurs in an efficient and speedy manner. The objectives of e-governance can be stated as follows: 1. To support and simplify governance for government, citizens, businesses etc. 2. To reduce corruption in the government department. 3. Anyone can share their views for the growth of country. 4. To ensure speedy administration of services and information To make government administration more transparent and accountable people can interact with govt through different channel while addressing the society’s needs and expectations through efficient public services and effective interaction between the people, businesses, and government. Q11: Mention any three advantages of Online reservation and two challenges faced by end user while booking online railway ticket. Ans : Advantages of online reservation are: 1 . At any time and from any were you can book your tickets. 2. Easy payment options. 3 .Your business is open around the clock 4. You can have various options while choosing your tickets Two challenges faced by end user while booking online railway ticket. 1. The biggest obstacle is poor connectivity in the net. 2. There are agents which book tickets and sell that tickets with high rates. Q12) what is online shopping? Ans : Online shopping is a form of electronic commerce which allows consumers to directly buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using a web browser. Consumers find a product of interest by visiting the website of the retailer directly or by searching among alternative vendors using a shopping search engine, which displays the same product's availability and pricing at different e-retailers.Customers can shop online using a range of different computers and devices, including desktop computers, laptops, tablet computers, smartphones, and smart speakers. Q13) What are the Benefits of Online Shopping? Ans)The benefits of online shopping is given below. 1. No pressure shopping: Generally, in physical stores, the sales representatives try to influence the buyers to buy the product. There can be some kind of pressure, whereas the customers are not pressurized in any way in online stores. 2. Online shopping saves time: Customers do not have to stand in queues in cash counters to pay for the products that have been purchased by them. They can shop from their home or work place and do not have to spend time traveling. The customers can also look for the products that are required by them by entering the key words or using search engines 3. Increased Variety: Most physical stores have a limited range of products. They can only hold so many items, and there are often many policies affecting the availability of products. Online Shopping allows you to find many varieties of products that you wouldn’t be able to find in a physical store. You can make a comparison among online products. 4 Reasonable Prices: The vast majority of online stores offer prices that are much lower than what you will find at a physical store. There are a few reasons for this. The first is because many people use the Internet to find cheaper items. Online business owners understand this. They will usually reduce their profit margin to get more customers. Q14) What Is an Online Course? Ans) An online course is a way to study or gain some new knowledge from Computer-based training, Web-based training, Internet based training, online training. They can either be paid or offered for free. Some are offered by educational institutions, while others are produced by experts in their field. The most important thing for an online course is for it to be engaging and to deliver a clear outcome. Some of the feature of online course as follows 1.) An online course is a method to facilitate skill development and instructional education to every all kind of humans worldwide without the rich and poor gap. 2.) An online course is less costly and comfortable. You can do it on your home in computer, mobile, and tablet. 3.) Online course is the fastest way to learn any technical and non-technical skills by using the internet in mobile, computer or tablet. 4.) An online course is the new revenue model for many institutions, colleges, and universities. 5.) Universities are expanding the education facilities worldwide from metros to villages. They are getting more students for top-rated degree courses online. 6.) All type of online courses and degrees are less costly for students and providers. 15) What are the Phases in a Web Application development Project? Ans) There are 6 phases in a web Application development. 1. Requirement or Information Gathering 2. Planning 3. Design 4. Development 5. Testing and Delivery 6. Maintenance Requirement Planning Design Development Testing Maintenance 1) Requirement or Information Gathering: It is the most important phase of development. The choices made here are reflected in the end product. This process deals with to get Requirement or information from the intended users. The requirement gathering can also start from oneself. The requirement of the company must also be taken into consideration while developing and designing a website 2) Planning: With all the information that has been gathered from stage one and here it is decided how to design and implement it and are planned according to the type of website and target audience. 3) Design: Once the Planning has been completed, it’s time to design each page of the web application. At this stage, graphic designers approved design with custom graphics, logo, colours, typography, animations, buttons, drop-down menus and more based on the project needs. Thus, your web app gets a tangible identity. 4) Development: At this stage the development of web is begun according to the requirement of the client and design of web site. The process begins with first developing the home page followed by the interior pages. The main focus is given to the navigational structure of the site. 5) Testing and Delivery: In this phase the product is put through various testing environments and tools designed and used by web development services to make the product to remove its bugs and errors . After testing, when approval is given to website, the website is ready for deployment. 6) Maintenance: Web development services not only make sure the installation of the application but they are also responsible for subsequent maintenance and upgrading if and when needed.