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Operating Web(unit-2)
Q1) What are Web based application?
Ans 1) Web based application refers to any program (including the
user interface and client-side logic) that is accessed over a network
using HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol). Web based application
often run inside a web browser. Common web applications
include webmail, online retail sales, online banking, Online
Reservation Systems and online auctions
Q2.)What is Online Reservation Systems?
Ans2) Online reservation systems are computerized systems
used to store and retrieve information and conduct
transactions related to air travel, hotels, car rental, or other
Q3) What are the advantages of Online Reservation System?
Ans3) Advantages of Online Reservation System are as
1. Save Time: A reservation system saves passenger’s time,
because they do not need to wait for hours for the
confirmation of their reservation. An online booking
system works all the time 24*7. This gives freedom to
potential passengers’ to book a ticket anytime they want.
2. Prices: When you book a flight online, you have the
freedom to shop around for the best price. Travelers don't
get this kind of freedom when booking flights through a
single travel agent or calling an airline. Purchasing the
ticket online means customers can check out many airlines
before making their choice.
3. Changes and Cancelations: Changing or cancelling a ticket
is simple when you've booked an airfare online. In many
cases, all you have to do is go directly to the airline's
website and log-in with your booking information. From
there, you can simply change the flight to a later date,
upgrade to a different cabin class or cancel your
Q4) What are the advantages of Online Reservation System
for provider?
Ans4) The advantages of Online Reservation System for
provider are as follows
1. Cut Workload: Online reservation systems reduce workloads for
staff and optimize customer service. These platforms can make sure
that bookings are simultaneous and the availability is updated with
each booking processing.
2. Business is open around the clock: Customers who make a
decision to book a tour or rental don’t want to wait until you are in
the office. They want to lock in the activity on their own schedule.
Using an online booking system means that business is open 24
hours a day, seven days a week.
3. Increase Revenues: Another major benefit of an online hotel
reservation system is that it's much easier to create, publish,
promote and sell packages and add-ons online. You can combine
them or let customers choose the package they want. This will
further increase the revenue you generate while customers will be
able to get exactly what they want.
4. No errors allowed: With an online booking system you avoid all
the possible misunderstandings that can happen when booking on
the phone. You can customize emails that will automatically
confirm the reservation and send your customers all the details.
Q5) What are the disadvantages of Online Reservation?
Ans)The disadvantage of online reservation system are as follows
1) Internet access is a must: If you don’t have reliable internet
access, then online booking system is of no use. You’ll need reliable
Internet access to check your reservations and to add bookings that
are made online
2) Need to train staff: Once you have the backend setup you will
have to train all your employees on the new system. This can take
as little as an hour but it’s still downtime you need to account for.
And since you’ll be significantly reducing the amount of
administrative work you might have to adjust staff responsibilities.
3) Spend some time and money: Finding a good online booking
system that meets the needs of your business can be a tiresome
process. Before you choose one you will have to read and learn a
lot about features or the online booking options. Be prepared to
spend some time and money on it. There are always costs involved
with professional online booking system – although these are worth
it in the long run.
Q6) what are the Precautions while Performing Online
Ans 6) Taking the Precautions while Performing Online Transactions
are as follows
1.)Never ever use Pirated Software: Pirated software are not just
illegal, it’s the most popular place to get infected with viruses, no
matter what antivirus and antimalware you have installed on your
computer. If you are a pirated software user then you must have
seen some sort of virus warning which are dangerous for Computer.
2.) Install latest security software: The internet is full of malware,
spam, and spyware. These software programs can damage your
computer. It is necessary to keep your operating system up to date
with the latest security software. Install S/ software from a trusted
source. Using an ad-blocking software and a spyware detection
program are some ways to prevent online fraud. Run virus scans
regularly and keep these programs updated.
3.) Secure your passwords: Use passwords which are safe and hard
to guess. Passwords including upper and lower case letters,
numbers and, symbols are more secure. Try using different
passwords for different accounts. Using the same password is risky
and more prone to online data breaches.
4.) Email security: Stay away from emails that ask for confidential
information. Phishing emails are more common than you can
imagine. None of the payment companies or banks asks for your
confidential payments data. Do not open emails from a suspicious
source, do not open any emails asking for identification information
and don’t follow flashy URLs or buttons.
Q7. Explain different kinds of online threats.
Ans2: Online threats such as Phishing, email spoofing,
chat spoofing, etc. Phishing is the attempt to obtain
sensitive information such as usernames, passwords,
and credit card details (and, indirectly, money), often
for malicious reasons. Phishing is typically carried out
by email spoofing or instant messaging, and it often
directs users to enter personal information at a fake
website. Email spoofing is the creation of email
messages with a forged sender address. The
core email protocols do not have any mechanism for
authentication, making it common for spam and
phishing emails to use such spoofing to mislead or
even prank the recipient about the origin of the
Q8. Explain the purpose of Internet Security.
Ans1: Internet security is a branch of computer
security specifically related to the Internet, often
involving browser security but also network security.
Its objective is to establish rules and measures to use
against attacks over the Internet. The Internet
represents an insecure channel for exchanging
information leading to a high risk of intrusion or
fraud, such as phishing.
Q9: What are best Practices for online Security?
Ans: Some of the best Practices for online Security are
given below.
1) Secure transactions: If you are using online
shopping or transactions, websites even store your
credit card or online banking personal information
such as your credit card number, account details, etc.
This information can be tracked and used by unauthorized users often known as hackers to misuse
this information. Again, ensure the website is
legitimate and uses secure practices for performing
and maintaining online transactions.
2) Install firewalls: Firewalls could be software or
hardware and can assist in keeping a computer and a
network secure. Firewalls analyse the network traffic
and determine if the traffic should be allowed or not.
3) Never install software from unknown sources: As
they might not be trustworthy; download only from
well-known or reputed websites. Verify the source if it
is legitimate by searching the internet or referring to
comments from other users before downloading
4) Use strong passwords: A combination of
alphanumeric and special characters could be used for
creating a password that is not so easy to crack or
guessed by other users. Do not keep passwords such
as your favourite color, friends or relatives name, bike
number, mobile number either as single or combined
option. These passwords are easy to guess if a user
knows you personally. Change your password
frequently at least 2 or 3 weeks so that your account
information remains secure.
Q10: What are the objectives of E-governance? How
E-Governance does empowers the citizens.
Ans: E-Governance which also known as electronic
governance is basically the application of Information
and Communications Technology to the processes of
Government functioning in order to bring about
‘Simple, good, Accountable, corruption free,
Transparent’ governance.
E-governance can take place in four major types of
1. Government to Government (G2G) where
information is exchanged within the government.
2. Government to Citizen (G2C) where the citizens
have a platform through which they can interact
with the government and get access to the variety
of public services offered by the Government.
3. Government to Businesses (G2B) where businesses
are able to interact with the government easily.
4. Government to Employees (G2E) where interaction
between the government and its employees occurs
in an efficient and speedy manner.
The objectives of e-governance can be stated as
1. To support and simplify governance for
government, citizens, businesses etc.
2. To reduce corruption in the government
3. Anyone can share their views for the growth of
4. To ensure speedy administration of services and
To make government administration more
transparent and accountable people can interact
with govt through different channel while
addressing the society’s needs and expectations
through efficient public services and effective
interaction between the people, businesses, and
Q11: Mention any three advantages of Online
reservation and two challenges faced by end user
while booking online railway ticket.
Ans : Advantages of online reservation are:
1 . At any time and from any were you can book
your tickets.
2. Easy payment options.
3 .Your business is open around the clock
4. You can have various options while choosing
your tickets
Two challenges faced by end user while booking
online railway ticket.
1. The biggest obstacle is poor connectivity in the
2. There are agents which book tickets and sell that
tickets with high rates.
Q12) what is online shopping?
Ans : Online shopping is a form of electronic
commerce which
buy goods or services from a seller over the Internet using
a web browser. Consumers find a product of interest by
visiting the website of the retailer directly or by searching
among alternative vendors using a shopping search engine,
which displays the same product's availability and pricing at
different e-retailers.Customers can shop online using a
range of different computers and devices, including desktop
computers, laptops, tablet
computers, smartphones,
and smart speakers.
Q13) What are the Benefits of Online Shopping?
Ans)The benefits of online shopping is given below.
1. No pressure shopping: Generally, in physical stores, the sales
representatives try to influence the buyers to buy the product.
There can be some kind of pressure, whereas the customers are not
pressurized in any way in online stores.
2. Online shopping saves time: Customers do not have to stand in
queues in cash counters to pay for the products that have been
purchased by them. They can shop from their home or work place
and do not have to spend time traveling. The customers can also
look for the products that are required by them by entering the key
words or using search engines
3. Increased Variety: Most physical stores have a limited range of
products. They can only hold so many items, and there are often
many policies affecting the availability of products. Online Shopping
allows you to find many varieties of products that you wouldn’t be
able to find in a physical store. You can make a comparison among
online products.
4 Reasonable Prices: The vast majority of online stores offer prices
that are much lower than what you will find at a physical store.
There are a few reasons for this. The first is because many people
use the Internet to find cheaper items. Online business owners
understand this. They will usually reduce their profit margin to get
more customers.
Q14) What Is an Online Course?
Ans) An online course is a way to study or gain some new
knowledge from Computer-based training, Web-based
training, Internet based training, online training. They can
either be paid or offered for free. Some are offered by
educational institutions, while others are produced by
experts in their field. The most important thing for an online
course is for it to be engaging and to deliver a clear
Some of the feature of online course as follows
1.) An online course is a method to facilitate skill
development and instructional education to every all kind of
humans worldwide without the rich and poor gap.
2.) An online course is less costly and comfortable. You can
do it on your home in computer, mobile, and tablet.
3.) Online course is the fastest way to learn any technical
and non-technical skills by using the internet in mobile,
computer or tablet.
4.) An online course is the new revenue model for many
institutions, colleges, and universities.
5.) Universities are expanding the education facilities
worldwide from metros to villages. They are getting more
students for top-rated degree courses online.
6.) All type of online courses and degrees are less costly for
students and providers.
15) What are the Phases in a Web Application development
Ans) There are 6 phases in a web Application development.
1. Requirement or Information Gathering
2. Planning
3. Design
4. Development
5. Testing and Delivery
6. Maintenance
1) Requirement or Information Gathering: It is the most
important phase of development. The choices made here
are reflected in the end product. This process deals with to
get Requirement or information from the intended users.
The requirement gathering can also start from oneself. The
requirement of the company must also be taken into
consideration while developing and designing a website
2) Planning: With all the information that has been gathered
from stage one and here it is decided how to design and
implement it and are planned according to the type of
website and target audience.
3) Design: Once the Planning has been completed, it’s time
to design each page of the web application. At this stage,
graphic designers approved design with custom graphics,
logo, colours, typography, animations, buttons, drop-down
menus and more based on the project needs. Thus, your
web app gets a tangible identity.
4) Development: At this stage the development of web is
begun according to the requirement of the client and design
of web site. The process begins with first developing the
home page followed by the interior pages. The main focus is
given to the navigational structure of the site.
5) Testing and Delivery: In this phase the product is put
through various testing environments and tools designed
and used by web development services to make the product
to remove its bugs and errors . After testing, when approval
is given to website, the website is ready for deployment.
6) Maintenance: Web development services not only make
sure the installation of the application but they are also
responsible for subsequent maintenance and upgrading if
and when needed.