Web services for public-private innovation networks Ja cu da sredim oko veb servisa a ti mozes da vidis kako da povezemo IT i public-private innovation networks. Saljem ti i neke radove koje sam nasao. I Introduction Intensive changes and development of new complex information and communication technologies have led to organizational and structural changes. Without having global connections for knowledge and information sharing today sustainability of innovation proces ses is reduced. Thus, these changes in movements of enterprises’ boundaries to access different expertise and technological fields are required. Most of innovation networks involve complex knowledge, innovation practices and producing a technological innovation. The part of complex knowledge and research and development resources could be acquired through cooperation of universities, research and development institutions and centers which are the public in nature. In order to stay competitive , commercial enterprises involve new technologies into their operations. Integration of new technologies is seen as a way to boost efficiency and productivity of enterprises. The fact about new technologies integrations is evident since successful innovators spend a significant amount of their budget on implementation processes of modern information technologies [a]. Appliances of web services is in expansion…. Today we can find … web services that are … Key features of enterprises’ web based systems tha t allow users to retrieve information based on their own needs are interactivity and personalization [a]. Such interactivity and personalization send back top -down and centralized models of networked policy-making, and bring forward new trends addressed to bottom-up models. The new policy network approaches view network as non -hierarchical and inter -dependent relationships of actors who share common interests and whose cooperation leads to the best ways of achieving common goals. Since costs and demands for public services have been increased and public budgets in many developed countries are not sufficient for such demands, new solutions have to be found. Establishment of public private partnership is seen as possible solution where public and private organizations collaborate. In such organization, private organization access to resources of public organizations and make new profits, while from the other side public organizations have opportunity to exploit experience and flexibility of private organi zations and to transfer their risks. Within public -private cooperation the both sides have common interest and can benefit from such cooperation [d]. Efficient public -private interaction processes should obtain innovation process that leads to outputs composed of new technological innovations. In this paper will be presented a conceptual framework with the structural elements of the public private innovation networks (PPINs). These elements we consider as required for efficient innovation proces s design. II Public-private innovation networks The network can be defined as a group of individuals or organizations (actors) that are inter related and connected [e] . The network is composed of actors, resources that can be shared among actors, mechanisms that provide coherence to the network and activities among actors in network that include the outcome of network [f]. Networks can be applied very successful for producing innovations in nowadays environments. By using network we have an open model for producing innovation on sustainable way. In such environments accessing external knowledge and technological resources are key activities. In this manner, innovation networks raised up. Innovation networks represent social and dynamic environments where different actors collaborate in order to produce innovations. Different actors include small and medium enterprises, universities, innovation center s, industry associations as well as government agencies [g]. This networks provide resources that pr esent the basis for the production of technological solutions. Further, inter -organizational learning is enabled. Actors in innovation networks become crucial in today’s knowledge -based economy. They exchange knowledge, technologies, skills and competences in order to produce different forms of innovations. Goals of different networks are different. Some networks exist in order to develop technical solutions to specific problems, create new business models and new products, while the other to empo wer marginalized groups by fostering innovations appropriate to their resources and needs [h]. Every network should follow certain policy. Key policy issues related to the emergence and continued success of innovation networks include their sustainability, so cial considerations and the changing roles of public and private actors in the network [h]. Public private innovation networks present collaboration among public and private actors where innovation outputs are embodied into technological artifacts [d]. They are effective for developing technical and commercial innovations which include complex issues, and where t he problems and the potential solutions that innovation processes will explore are defined at the beginning of processes. III Web services Veza sa IT se ogleda u sledecoj recenici, koju dalje treba razraditi: Successful innovators spend a significant amount of their overall budget on information technology. IV Public Private Innovation Network Conceptual Framework We define PPIN framework as an social, complex, open, interactive process of developing innovations. On Fig.1 is shown interaction of public and private actors with web based system that is used as user interface for interactions with intern system service s as well as extern services. The system supports different activities within PPIN and corresponding processes of developing innovations. In such environment public and private actors interact dynamically with intensive use of social capital . Figure 1. Public private innovation network concep tual framework Services in this system we define as grouped system functionalities which together belong to one service that are accessible via internet. Users can access to system services over web based system. Corresponding web based systems that can be successfully applied for PPIN are promising Wiki portals. Intern services we divided into basic services, services for learning, services for knowledge management, and services for interaction with public services. It is necessary to provide the interaction with extern services, such as for example services offered by YouTube, SlideShare, Google, etc. It should be noted that these services can developed by using modern Web 2.0 technologies, which were discussed in this paper. Basic services are responsible for the asynchronous actors communication in PPIN , which include forums and commenting over contents. Also, the notification should not be omitted, which ensure actors to be informed of any changes made over the appropriate contents. We count users and groups management as basic service, which performs the function of authentication and authorization system. Different contents blending by using web mash-up technology can extend basic services. Services for learning should provide basic functionality for creating and using learning resources and corresponding literature materials . Wiki portal can provide collaborative development of materials, contents and documents different extensions. This service should provide functionality that have social networks web sites such as interconnection of users, publishing of blogs, development of personal portfolios and mash-ups of applications in order to manage multimedia contents. Services for knowledge management should provide data storage, data retrieving and knowledge acquisition. In order to retrieve data mechanisms for advanced search documents should be provided. Further, features such as easy navigation, automatic generation of adjacent links, dynamic drop-down menus. The concept of collaborative tagging should provide a collaborative content self-organization, where it is easier to retrieve necessary information and knowledge. Services for interaction with public services should provide external content aggregation and integration of heterogeneous information. Promising approach that can be used for content aggregation is web mash-ups of different internet applications. Generated content represents a various Web resources involved in different locations. Applications that can be used are widgets that are offered for free on the Internet. It is possible to integrate Youtube videos, SlideShare presentations, and Flickr images under various system content. Literatura: [a] Darrell M. West, Jenny Lu (2009). Comparing Technology Innovation in the Private and Public Sectors, Governance Studies at the Brookings Institution [b] Anna mária Inzelt , Private sector involvement in science and innovation policy- making in Hungary, Scie nce and Public Policy March 2008 [c] Public–Private Innovation Networks in Services edited by Faı¨z Gallouj, Luis Rubalcaba and Paul Windrum, Science and Public Policy 41 (2014) pp. 401 –402 [d] https://ori-nuxeo.univ-lille1.fr/nuxeo/site/esupversions/7d5d222e -4f6b-40ac-97cf80f169e40467 [e] Iacobucci, D. (1996). Networks in Marketing, Thous and Oaks: Sage. [f] Gipouloux, F. (2000). Networks and Guanxi: Towards an Informal Integration through Common Business Practices in Greater China. Chinese Business Networks: State, Economy and Culture. Singapore: Prentice Hall and Nordic Institute of Asia n Studies, pp. 57-70. [g] Toedtling, F., Lehner P., Kaufmann, A. (2009). Do Different Types of Innovation rely on Specific Kinds of Knowledge Interactions? Tehnovation 29, pp. 59 -71. [h] http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTARD/Resources/335807 - 1330620492317/8478371-1330712114326/Module1 -TN2.pdf The policy network approach (summarised by Lyall, 2007) means “relatively stable relationships that are non-hierarchical and interdependent in nature, linking a variety of actors who share common interests with regard to policy … that cooperation is the best way to a chieve common goal.” (Borzel 1988 cited in Lyall, 2007, p. 5). Networked policy -making moves away from the centralised, top -down model and pays much more attention to dialogue.