Uploaded by Banjie Sarmiento

Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering
Central Dogma of Genetics
source: https://ib.bioninja.com.au/
Lesson Objectives:
Outline the processes involved in genetic
2. Discuss the application of Recombinant DNA
Technology (rDNA)
What are GMOs?
source: https://abcnews.go.com/Health/campbell-soup-major-company-list-gmo-ingredients-nationwide/story?id=36173389
rDNA Technology
• replacement of genes
• is a method used in genetic engineering to manipulate an
organism’s DNA.
• “ joining together of DNA molecules from different organisms
and inserting it into a host organism to produce new genetic
combinations that are of value to science, medicine,
agriculture, and industry.” (Encyclopedia Britannica,2020)
What are GMOs?
• result of technology that has altered the DNA of living
organisms (animals, plants, bacteria)
Other terms:
• GM seeds
• Transgenic
• Biotech seeds
• Biotechnology
• Genetic modification
Source: https://www.pinterest.ph/pin/322781498294224842/
How are GMOs created?
1. Why did scientists develop GM papayas?
2. What problem was solved?
3. What are the four steps in creating a GM
General Steps in Creating a GMO:
1. Identification of the organism that contains the desired gene
2. Extraction of the entire DNA from the organism
3. Removal of the desired gene with the use of a restriction
enzyme that cuts the DNA from a specific nucleotide
4. Insertion of the new gene to another organism
Frayer Model
Seatwork: Based on the figure, answer the
following questions:
1. What is the vector of the engineered gene? (1 pt)
2. Why is BT corn beneficial to farmers? (3 pts)
3. Discuss the three requirements to make a genetically
engineered corn. (6 pts)
Requirements for genetic engineering:
1. DNA sequence that codes for a
desired trait
2. Vector to transfer the DNA
sequence into another genome
3. Genome of the target species
How does this differ from Mendel
and his peas?
Selective breeding
-involves modification of genes
which naturally occur in the
Genetic engineering
-very fast
-can introduce genes into an
organism that would not occur
Next Lesson:
Video link:
Questions (individual):
1.List three products of rDNA technology and their corresponding benefits.
2. How does it feel that Dr. Pamela Roland, a plant geneticist, is married to an organic
farmer? Do their philosophies complement each other or do they contradict each
other? Explain.
3. Should we continue to receive assistance from western scientists regarding GMOs or
are we better left alone? Explain.
Reading Assignment (by pair):
Article Title:
Torn at the Genes: One Family’s Debate Over Genetically
Altered Plants
Answer the ten questions embedded in the link.
Role of rDNA Technology in Improving Life
source: https://www.hindawi.com/journals/ijg/2016/2405954/
source: teachengineering.org
Other applications
• Potato - modified to produce a beetle killing toxin
• Yellow squash – modified to contain to viral genes that resistant the
most common viral diseases
• Develop foods that contain vaccines and antibodies that offer valuable
protection against diseases such as cholera, hepatitis, and malaria
• Canola – modified to resist one type of herbicide or pesticide
Benefits of Genetic Engineering
and Modifying
1. Higher yielding crops, more efficient use of land
2. Can save money and promote higher profits
3. Longer shelf life, less waste
Example: Tomatoes from genetically
modified seeds stay fresh
4. Enhanced taste and quality
5. Reduced maturation time
Benefits of Genetic Engineering and
Increased and improved nutrients and stress tolerance
- A single gene genetically engineered into
cauliflower can increase production of beta-carotene
100 times.
- A gene can be implanted into a soybean upgrading
the soy
protein to a quality equal to that of milk.
- Corn can be modified to contain its two limiting
amino acids,
lysine or tryptophan
7. Improved resistance to disease or illness
- Foods can be enhanced with phytochemicals that
help maintain health and reduce the risks of chronic
Benefits of GMOs.....
Improved crop resistance to disease, pests, weeds and
9. New products and growing techniques
- “Individuals allergic to milk may be able to buy milk that
has been treated with the lactase enzyme” (Whiney, 2002).
- Creating decaffeinated coffee beans are in a process of
Benefits of Genetic Engineering and
• Society
– Increased food
security for growing
populations and
growth challenges
(Human Genome Project Information (2003),
Risks associated with Genetic
1. Safety
– Potential human health implications.
– Potential environmental impact.
• Out-crossing
– Inevitable out-crossing of transgenic plants with naturally occurring ones.
– Creation of super-weeds
– Creation of biological weapons.
2. Access and Intellectual Property
– Domination of world food production by a few companies
and developing countries.
Risks associated with Genetic Modification – cont.
3. Ethics
– “Playing God”
– Tampering with nature by mixing genes among species.
4. Labeling
– Not mandatory in some countries (e.g., Canada and the United States).
– Mixing GM crops with non-GM confounds labeling attempts.
5. Society
– New advances may be skewed to the interests of rich countries.
(Human Genome Project Information (2003), http://www.ornl.gov/sci/techresources/Human_Genome/elsi/gmfood.shtml)