AR 95-1 STUDY ENHANCER 2.5 Aircrew and maintenance checklists b. Operator and crew member checklists will be used for before starting engines through before leaving aircraft checks. While airborne, when time does not permit use of the checklist or when its use would cause a safety hazard, required checks may be accomplished from memory. d. Only DA approved operator's manuals and checklists will be used, except as specified in paragraph 9-5. 2.7 Computation of flying time Flying time starts when an airplane begins to move forward on the takeoff roll or when a helicopter lifts off the ground. Flying time ends when the aircraft has landed and the engines are stopped or the flying crew changes. 2.12 Aircraft lighting requirements a. Army aircraft shall be illuminated to at least the minimum standards required by the country in which the flight operation occurs. b. Anticollision lights will be on when aircraft engines are operating except when: (1) Conducting night vision device operations. (2) Conditions may cause vertigo. (3) There may be other hazards to safety. c. Position lights will be on bright between official sunset and sunrise. 2.13 Flight violations Policies and procedures for reporting and investigating alleged flight rules violations area. Violations. Any violation of FAA, International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), host country, and/or any other pertinent aviation regulation will be reported. Any person witnessing or involved in a flight violation involving civil or military aircraft will report it as soon as possible. (1) Violations by military aircraft should be reported to: (a) The commander of the unit, activity, or installation if known, to which the aircraft belongs. 3.11 Prohibited missions a. Army aircraft will not be used to conduct flights for personal use. They will not be used for transportation of personnel or equipment to any place or event in an unofficial capacity. b. Army aircraft will not be used for domicile (place of residence) to duty , or duty to domicile, transportation unless authorized by 31 USC 1344 and approved by the Secretary of the Army. Requests for approval will be forwarded to HQDA (DACS-DMC) for processing. c. Use of Army aircraft exclusively to obtain or renew an FAA rating is prohibited. 3.12 Passenger policy a. Service personnel are authorized to fly as passengers in Army aircraft while on duty and when authorized by their commander. Verbal authority is permitted. "Service personnel " are defined as: (1) Active duty members of the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps, and Coast Guard. (2) Active status member of Reserve Component as defined in DoD 4515.13-R. (3) DoD civilians when on official business. (4) Employees of other U.S. Government agencies and technical advisors to DoD component authorities when traveling on official business for DoD. h. Spouse Travel (1) Within the Department of the Army, accompanying spouse travel eligibility will normally be limited to the spouses of the following officials: ° Secretary of the Army ° Chief of Staff ° Under Secretary of the Army ° Vice Chief of Staff ° Assistant Secretaries of the Army ° General Counsel ° General Officers ( four star General officers and three star commander of USARPAC as specified in DoD directives). (2) As a general rule, spouses, or other dependents, may not accompany Army personnel on official business at government expense. Dependents, other than spouses, are not eligible for accompanying air travel at government expense. 4.3 Publications Aircraft operator's manuals and checklists are the primary references governing the operation of a specific aircraft. ATM, field manuals, technical manuals, and training circulars will be used as required. When differences exist between other publications and this regulation, this regulation has precedence. 4.9.A Standardization flight evaluation. a. Standardization flight evaluation. This flight consists of visual flight maneuvers and/or procedures conducted in each aircraft mission, type, design, and series group (para 4-19) an aviator or nonrated crew member is required to perform. The evaluation is conducted to determine the examinee's ability to perform assigned flight duties. The evaluation will(1) Consist of the flight evaluation described in the appropriate ATM. (2) Be conducted by a designated IP, SP, FI, or SI to establish initial qualification in an aircraft series and, once each year. 4.9.B Instrument flight evaluation. b. Instrument flight evaluation. An instrument flight evaluation will determine examinee's ability to perform assigned flight duties under IMC. (1) The evaluation will be conducted-(a) Per TC 1-210 and the appropriate ATM. (b) Annually, in an aircraft equipped with dual controls, by an IE qualified and current in aircraft category or in a compatible simulator by an IE qualified in the aircraft category. Simultaneous evaluations of two aviators may be conducted if both perform the maneuvers and procedures required by the ATM. (c) Annually in the examinee's primary and alternate aircraft if dual rated and required to fly both categories. (d) With instructor pilots in AH-1, AH-64, OH-58, and OH-6 aircraft, provided they are designated by the commander as an IP in the aircraft being flown, have undergone an instrument flight evaluation in the aircraft category conducted by an IE during APART or Readiness Level (RL) progression, and are current per paragraph 4-18. (2) The commander may direct use of a compatible flight simulator if circumstances preclude safe, affordable, or timely evaluation in the aircraft. (3) Unusual attitudes, simulated engine shutdown or engine failures, and autorotations will not be initiated while under IMC. An IE, IP, or SP qualified and current in the aircraft being flown must be at one set of the flight controls when performing these maneuvers. If the IE is not also an IP or SP, the IE must be evaluated to perform these maneuvers. 4.18 Currency a. If 60 days have elapsed since the last flight as pilot or pilot in command in the aircraft mission, type, design, and series (or series, group, para 4-19) to be flown, the aviator will be administered a proficiency flight evaluation per the ATM. b. Night vision device/ systems currency will be per TC 1-210 and appropriate ATM. c. If 90 days have elapsed since the last flight as a nonrated crew member in the aircraft mission, type, design and series (or series, group, para 4-19) to be flown, the AO, CE, FE, FI, MO, or SI crew member will receive a proficiency flight evaluation per the appropriate ATM. 5.2.B Fuel requirements. b. Fuel requirements. At takeoff, aircraft must have enough fuel to reach the destination and alternate airport (if required) and have a planned fuel reserve of-(1) Rotary-wing. (a) VFR - 20 minutes at cruise. (b) IFR - 30 minutes at cruise. 5.2.H Weight and balance. h. Weight and balance. The PC will ensure-(1) The accuracy of computations on the DD Form 365-4 (Weight and Balance Clearance Form F-Transport/Tactical). (2) That a completed DD Form 365-4 is aboard the aircraft to verify that the weight and center-of-gravity will remain within allowable limits for the entire flight. Several DD Forms 365-4 completed for other loadings also may be used to satisfy this requirement. In this case, the actual loading being verified must clearly be within the extremes of the loading shown on the DD Forms 365-4 used for verification. 5.4.A Instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). a. Instrument meteorological conditions (IMC). During IMC flight, all instruments and communication equipment in the cockpit will be kept in the "on " position and immediately available for use. 5.4.B Over-the-top flights. b. Over-the-top flights. Aircraft will not be flown above a cloud or fog layer under VFR for more than 30 minutes unless-(1) the aircraft is equipped for IMC flight per table 5-2 and not restricted from IMC flight. (2) All instrument flight rules and requirements can be met for the remaining flight. 5.4.D Holding. d. Holding. (1) An aviator may request ATC clearance to hold at any time if fuel and alternate requirements can be met. (2) Holding will be in accordance with DOD FLIP. 5.4.E Overflying national security areas. e. Overflying national security areas. Aviators shall avoid overflight of national security areas below 2,000 feet above ground level (AGL). Exceptions will be per instructions in DOD FLIP. 5.5.A Approach. a. Approach. (1) Acceptance of charted visual approach clearance is not mandatory. (2) When an instrument approach is necessary, an approved procedure will be flown. Approved procedures are published by the military services and FAA in DOD and NOS FLIPs. (3) When published landing visibility minimums require conversion between RVR and miles or metric equivalent, the conversion table in DOD FLIP will be used. RVR is the controlling visibility factor when published and reported for a runway. RVR, however, will not be used with a circling approach. (4) Dual VOR equipment requirements specified on approach charts do not apply to Army aircraft. Off-tuning from the approach aid to identify an approach fix is authorized. Dual VOR approach minimums apply. (5) An approach may be initiated, regardless of ceiling and visibility. 5.5.B Missed approach. b. Missed approach. The published missed approach procedure or other procedures as directed by ATC will be flown. Additional approaches may be flown provided fuel, including reserve, is adequate. An ATC clearance must be requested and approved before proceeding to another airfield. A change of flight plan will be made per FLIP if time permits. 5.5.C Traffic patterns. c. Traffic patterns. (2) Helicopter traffic patterns at Army heliports and airfields are normally flown at 700 feet AGL. At other airports, helicopters will avoid the flow of airplane traffic. 5.5.D Landing. d. Landing. An aircraft will not be flown below the published MDA or an approach continued below the DH unless the following exist: (1) The approach threshold of the runway, or the approach lights or other markings, identifiable with the approach end of the runway or landing area, must be clearly visible to the pilot. (2) The aircraft must be in a position from which a safe approach to the runway or landing area can be made. 7.3 Aircraft weight and balance classifications Army aircraft weight and balance classifications are stated in the appropriate operator's manual and are defined as follows: a. Class 1 aircraft are those whose weight or center-of-gravity limits can sometimes be exceeded by loading arrangements normally used in tactical operations. Therefore, limited loading control is needed. b. Class 2 aircraft are those whose weight or center-of-gravity limits can readily be exceeded by loading arrangements normally used in tactical operations or those aircraft designed primarily for transporting troops and other passengers. Therefore, a high degree of loading control is needed. Also, all aircraft whose weight and balance class is not stated in the operator's manual will be considered Class 2. 7.4 Aircraft weight and balance file a. This file will contain all of the aircraft's weight and balance data. The aircraft designation and serial number will be noted on the file folder. Each aircraft will have its own file that will usually be retained aboard that aircraft. When an aircraft will be operated only in close proximity to its home station or some similar single location, the weight and balance file may be removed from the aircraft at the discretion of the local commander provided the following conditions are met: (1) The file is located so that it is readily available for update in the event of removal or addition of aircraft equipment or other actions. (2) Duplicate copies of all DD Forms 365-4 in the file are carried aboard the aircraft. (3) Local procedures are established to assure that duplicate DD Forms 365-4 carried aboard the aircraft are updated and remain valid. b. The file will include the following forms and charts, which will be completed and retained in accordance with instructions of TM 55-1500-342-23. (1) DD Form 365 (Record of Weight and Balance Personnel). (2) DD Form 365-1 (Chart A--Basic Weight Checklist Record). (3) DD Form 365-2 (Form B--Aircraft Weighing Record). (4) DD Form 365-3 (Chart C--Basic Weight and Balance Record). 7.5 Removal, addition, or relocation of aircraft equipment When aircraft equipment that is part of aircraft basic weight is added to, removed from, or relocated within the aircraft because of maintenance or specific mission requirements, flight in this changed configuration will not be accomplished unless the weight and balance change is documented by one of the following methods: a. Treating the additions, removals, or relocations as a permanent change by making entries on the DD Form 365-3 and establishing a new basic weight and moment. Also if the change in basic weight or moment is beyond the limits stated in TM 55-1500-342-23, prepare new DD Forms 365-4 that reflect the new basic weight and moment to replace those in the weight and balance file. b. If the changes are of a temporary nature, make entries on DA Form 2408-13 series (aircraft inspection and maintenance record) and DA Form 2408-14 (Uncorrected fault record) following the instructions provided in DA Pam 738-751 and TM 55-1500-342-23. Temporary changes in basic weight may be reflected on DA Form 2408-13 series or DA Form 2408-14 for a period not to exceed 90 days. If not accomplished sooner, the DD Form 365-3 will be updated to reflect the temporary change at the expiration of this 90 day period. 7.6 Reviewing weight and balance file a. All DD Forms 365-4 in the aircraft weight and balance file and all duplicate DD Forms 365-4 in the aircraft will be checked for accuracy in accordance with the criteria established in TM 55-1500-342-23 at least every 90 days. New forms must be prepared if changes are required. If no changes are required, the DD Forms 365-4 will be redated and initialed in the date block to certify their currency. b. In addition, all weight and balance records will, as a minimum, be reviewed every 12 months. The last day of the month is the final day for completing the review. For example if the previous review was completed on 8 April, the next review must be completed by 30 April of the following year. This review must include a weight and balance inventory of the aircraft and the following statement entered on the DD Form 365-3: "Annual review and inventory completed." The date and adjusted basic weight and moment will accompany this entry. 7.7 Aircraft weighing a. Each aircraft will be weighed when-(1) Overhaul or major airframe repairs are accomplished. (2) Any modifications or component replacements (including painting) have been made for which the weight and center-of-gravity cannot be accurately computed. (3) Weight and center-of-gravity data records are suspected to be in error. (4) The period since the previous weighing reaches 36 months for a Class 1 aircraft and 24 months for a Class 2 aircraft. The last day of the month is the final day for reweighing. For example, if a Class 1 aircraft was last weighed on 5 January 1990, it must be reweighed by 31 January 1993.