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Deadly Unna Workbook digital copy

‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 1
Student Workbook
Phyllip Gwynne
ⒸAngie Barillaro
Radiant Heart Publishing
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 2
‘Deadly Unna?’ Table of Contents
Introduction & About the Author
Pre-reading Worksheet
Context & Background
Indigenous Poem
Words & Terms to Know
Context Worksheet
Connections & Reflection Questions
Comprehension Questions
Style and Structure – Point of View
Literary Elements
Views and Values
Creative Task
Film vs Book
Writing about the Text: Paragraphs
Essay Scaffold
Monologue Activity
Essay Topics
Oral Presentation
Narrative Elements
Text-inspired Creative Writing Task
Vocabulary Answers
Context Illustrations
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‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 3
Introduction ‘Deadly Unna?’
Published in 1998, ‘Deadly, Unna?’ was the debut novel of Phillip Gwynne. This teenage novel is set in a fictional, small
coastal town in South Australia, believed to be near the Aboriginal Mission called the Point. The novel can be described
as a bildungsroman or a rites-of-passage story about Gary "Blacky" Black, a white boy, and his Aboriginal friend and
team-mate, Nunga Dumby Red. The novel is written from Blacky's point of view and covers the build up to the local
football grand final and the summer after. Throughout it all, the focus is on Blacky’s growing awareness of the racist
attitudes within the community and the lack of justice this creates. Finally this forces Black to stand up for what he
believes, even in the face of opposition and possible punishment. The novel received positive reviews and won two
important awards:
Children's Book of the Year Award: Older Readers (1999)
Victorian Premier's Prize for Young Adult Fiction (1999)
‘Nukkin' Ya’, the sequel to ‘Deadly, Unna?’ was published in 2000.
A film adaptation of both novels, ‘Australian Rules’, was released in 2002, also written by Phillip Gwynne.
Inspiration behind ‘‘Deadly Unna’
The author has said that the novel and Blacky’s voice, were inspired to some extent from his own life and memories about
growing up in the country, being in a big family and playing footy. Phillip Gwynne goes on to state ‘Then it occurred to me
one day that I could use that voice (or something close to it) to write a story, to write fiction. It’s then that the voice started
to change, became somebody else. It’s funny, I have vivid mental pictures of all the characters in the Point and the Port,
except for Blacky. He has no face, no body.’
Taken from: Interview with Phillip Gwynne by Judith Ridge ‘Back to Misrule’ originally published in:
Viewpoint: On Books for Young Adults Spring 2000, Volume 8 N3
Quotes from Reviews:
‘The climax of the novel is, as I have indicated, a violent and tragic act. But Gwynne’s novel shines with humanity, hope —
and humour. I finished this book feeling I had visited a very real place, and had come to know some very real people. I also
felt uplifted by, and somehow even proud of Blacky’s final stand against the many forces which oppressed him and his
Nunga mates. In a time when we have very real reason to fear for the future of relations between Indigenous and nonAboriginal Australians, Blacky and Deadly, Unna? gave me reason to believe that all can be well.’ by Judith Ridge
Viewpoint: On Books for Young Adults, Volume 6/2 1998.
‘The inhabitants of Gary Black’s small town on the coast of South Australia are very typical of Australians at large. At times
it’s subtle; other times, blatant; but always casual. No one wastes much energy in doing anything about it. Everyone seems
to think the same way, and anyone who disagrees – like possibly Blacky’s mum – keeps their opinions to themselves. The
idea that someone would speak up and denounce a person for making a racist comment is laughable. And of course, the
kinds of things said about the Aborigines are things that white Australians are just as guilty of: alcoholism, laziness, theft
etc. When the white kids – Blacky and his friends – hear that a group of young Nungas are heading into town, they get all
tense and antagonistic – a kind of inherited rivalry exists between them, something they’ve picked up on from their parents
and other adults in the community, and imitate without really understanding just what they’re perpetuating.’
Task: Research the author, Phillip Gwynne and write a paragraph about him.
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 4
What I Know ‘Deadly Unna?’
With a partner or on your own, discuss and jot down what you already know about these areas related
to the text you are about to read.
Indigenous Australians Today
Indigenous Australians - History
Australian Rules Football &
Indigenous Australians
Australian Rules Football &
Perceptions of Rural Australia
Australian Identity
After people have shared their brainstorms, write down some ideas that others shared:
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Understanding Context Reading ‘Deadly Unna?’
Context can be described as the world or background information of your novel. If you understand the
historical, geographical, social and other backgrounds of the novel and author you will understand it
further. This page includes the types of questions to ask about context in order to find information.
If the world of the novel is not NOW – what era is it set in?
What was happening in the world at that time?
How is this era remembered by historians?
What did everyday life look like at the time?
If the novel is modern or contemporary – what aspects about life does the author focus on and
If the novel is based on a few decades ago, what changes have occurred since then?
Where in the world is the novel set?
What is important or noticeable about this part of the world?
Which elements of the natural environment or landscape or climate has influence on the lives of
What does the built environment (buildings, homes etc.) reveal to us about the people and the
lives who live there?
In what way is this society structured and organized?
Are their classes of people? Who has the power? Who is powerless?
Economically: How are money and other resources shared?
Are their outsiders or marginalized people who are ‘invisible’ and ‘silent’?
Gender: Are there differences between how males and females are treated?
Are there dominant and minority cultures represented? How do they live?
Is religion a part of life. If so, what role does it play in peoples’ lives?
What is the culture? How do people live?
Who is the author? When did he/she live?
Education? Social class? Personal culture?
What kind of world did he/she live in?
Important experiences that shaped the author’s life?
Views and values held by the author? (What was important to the author)
Family influences?
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 6
Exploring Context in ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
Setting: The novel is set in recent times (70s, 80s) on a peninsula in South Australia. Blacky, his family and other ‘whites’
live in ‘the Port’, and the Indigenous people live at ‘the Point’ – both areas keeping mostly separated and to themselves.
Life is seasonal – winter and summer, which is also how the novel is organized. In winter, life is fairly quiet, but in the
warmer weather, there are many campers and other tourists around the beach.
What does this setting reveal to us about the people and their lives?
Imagine what it would be like living in a seasonal place which is quiet for half the year and then flooded with
visitors. Write a paragraph about this.
Another aspect of setting is time – or the era the novel’s action takes place. ‘Falling from Grace’ is a modern
novel, set around 2004. (Kip is 14 and was born in 1990).
Phillip Gwynne has commented that he kept the era of the novel to mostly the 1970s but was not strict about this.
What were some of the differences you noticed from then and now?
Find out in what ways Australian Rules football has changed since the 1970s.
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 7
Context - ‘Deadly Unna?’ What the 1970s Looked Like…
Malcolm Fraser, Prime Minister
Prime Minister, Gough
Lava Lamp
Computer floppy disc
Pong Video game 1972
Women’s Liberation Protest
1973 Volvo Sportswagon
The Vietnam War (1955–1975)
Sony Walkman
*Pong:By Owltom at German Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=7062422
*Sony Walkman: By Binarysequence - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, By Mike Powell - originally posted to Flickr as Erika,
Beach 10, CC BY-SA
*Flares By Mike Powell - originally posted to Flickr as Erika, Beach 10, CC BY-SA 2.0,
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 8
Context - ‘Deadly Unna?’ What the 1970’s Looked Like…
The Brady Bunch is an
American sitcom created by Sherwood
Schwartz that aired from September 26,
1969, to March 8, 1974, on ABC. The
series is about a large blended
family with six children. It took off in
popularity after it was cancelled and
went into syndication and shown all
around the world. The focus was on
problems solving, positive/happy
endings and open communication. The
Brady’s were the perfect family. It would
be great to view an episode and see for
yourself what the show was like.
Gilligan’s Island – Although filmed in the 1960s, this show was repeatedly shown and watched by children, teenagers in
the 1970s – especially in Australia. The story evolves around the boat SS MINNOW with its Captain and first-mate
Gilligan, who are taking five tourists on a short tour but become shipwrecked on an island in the Pacific Ocean. On the
island they make many efforts to be rescued, but Gilligan always seems to get in the way.
Try and watch some or all of an episode of the above shows, jotting down your impressions to share
with your classmates.
What do these shows represent in ‘Deadly Unna?’ Find a quote.
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 9
Context - ‘Deadly Unna?’ Indigenous Australians – Basic Timeline
120,000 BP
Evidence of the use of fire in Lake George, NSW – seen as evidence of earliest human
85,000- 60 000 BP
Evidence of Aboriginal existence in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory
Dutch journeys to Australia recorded
Macassans and Aborigines trading on the North Eastern Coast of Northern Territory
Dutchman Dirk Hartog lands on the Western Coast of Australia
Dutchman Abel Tasman reaches southwest Tasmania and claims it for Holland, calling it Van
Dieman’s Land
Captain Cook arrives at Possession Island off Cape York Peninsula and raises the British flag
Arrival of the First Fleet. Estimated Aboriginal population 750,000 to 1 million. A smallpox
epidemic wipes out half the Aboriginal population as they have no immunity to European
1790 onwards
Aborigines dispossessed of their land whenever challenged by white settlers. Laws are later
introduced that allow white settlers to shoot Aborigines on the spot if they are a ‘problem’.
Governor Macquarie introduces regulations to restrict the free movement of Aborigines.
1820 onwards
Continuing conflicts with Aborigines, many massacres and deaths.
Act for ‘Protection and Management of Aboriginal Natives’ passed in Victoria. Board of
Protection is established and 11 000 hectares of land are reserved temporarily for Aborigines
to live on. 1883 sees NSW follow suit and then in 1888 Western Australia also copies the
Victorian idea.
Federation: Commonwealth of Australia created and Aborigines are excluded, thus the States
maintain their own power over their Aboriginals. White Australia Policy means that Aboriginals
are legally excluded from voting, pensions, Armed Forces, government employment and
maternity allowance.
Australian Protections Act 1909 NSW allows the removal of Aboriginal children from their
Australian Aboriginal Progress Association established to start campaigning for rights.
First Native Welfare Conference where the Assimilation policy was adopted to make Aboriginal
people the same as White Australians.
Australia Day – a Day of Mourning is held by the Australian Aborigines League and Aborigines
Progressive Association.
Aboriginal Protection Board abolished and replaced with Aborigines Welfare Board
Ongoing Aboriginal strikes for fairer pays and working standards
Commonwealth Citizenship and Nationality Act makes all Australians citizens but Aborigines
are still not legally recognized in their states.
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Atomic tests ‘Operation Totem’ conducted at Emu, South Australia leaving Aborigines suffering
radiation sickness. Another atomic test in 1956 at Maralinga and then 1957.
Formation of the Federal Council for the Advancement of Aborigines – they begin a long
campaign to end constitutional discrimination.
Aborigines given the right to vote in Commonwealth elections.
Sydney University hosts ‘Freedom Rides’ to show the appalling living conditions of Aborigines
and the level of discrimination they are exposed to. Integration rather than assimilation
becomes the new focus.
Australian Referendum: 91% vote YES to count Aboriginal people as citizens and allow the
Commonwealth government to make laws for them.
Aboriginal Tent Embassy set up outside Parliament House Canberra with Aboriginal flag. In the
1970s there are many small victories for recognition of rights, including land rights.
Racial Discrimination Act passed. Prime Minister Gough Whitlam gives land back to Gurindji
Link Up NSW begins reuniting families separated by the Stolen Generation
Aboriginal Land Rights Act, NSW begins to deal with dispossession and dislocation of people
Uluru is handed back to the Aborigines as traditional owners.
Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody
Bicentennial celebrations of European settlement. Thousands of protesters march for
Aboriginal rights.
High Court of Australia rules in the Mabo case ‘that native title exists over particular
kinds of land – unalienated Crown land, national parks and reserves – and that Australia
was never “terra nullius.’’
The WIK Case
Prime Minister Kevin Rudd apologies on behalf of Australia for the Stolen Generations.
Add some important dates and events for Indigenous people since 2008:
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 11
Context - ‘Deadly Unna?’ Indigenous Australians
Transportation of Convicts from England to Australia
Due to the overcrowded goals in England, it was decided by the British Government to transport convicts by ship to
Australia. Convicts were transported in appalling conditions and imprisoned when they got to Australia. This was the
beginning of white Australia – The British believed Australia was an ‘unoccupied’ country despite the indigenous
population – having declared it as “terra nullius” or ‘nobody’s land’. Of course this reflected the values of many Empires
such as Great Britain that sought to colonize (take over) many nations for their own profits.
Australia’s Indigenous Population
There were of course the Indigenous people here, the Aboriginals or original inhabitants of the land. During the
eighteenth century, the British and many other European countries engaged in ‘colonialisation’ of various countries
such as African and Asian nations. It was common place to view Indigenous cultures as ‘native’, ‘uncivilized’ and
inferior to white society.
 How would the British settlers have viewed the Indigenous people upon arrival in Australia? What do you
think the Aboriginals would have thought about the white settlers?
Indigenous Reactions
English Settlers Reactions
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 12
Context - ‘Deadly Unna?’ Indigenous Australians
Australia’s Racist Past
In 1895, the Education Act gave white parents the right to object to the presence of Aboriginal children attending the same
school as their children. This meant Aboriginal children became less and less present in schools and education.
In 1897 the West Australian Government set up the Aborigines Act 1897, which was to control all Aboriginal affairs. The
budget was inadequate resulting in worsening conditions.
Leading up to the 1930’s and 1940’s Aboriginals were forced to live in ‘camps’ or Settlements away from the rest of the
community where every aspect of their life was controlled.
This is referred to as ‘institutionalized racism’. The aim was to see the race die out – and to this aim thousands of children
were forcibly taken and placed into white institutions, farms and homes with devastating consequences. This practice
continued until the 1970’s.
Aboriginals were not registered as citizens until the 1960’s and in 1967 were included in the constitution.
Racism and the Struggle for Citizenship
A citizen is a member of society who has
The right to freedom (civil rights)
The right to political participation
The right to social support
Aboriginals had none of these rights – due to the racist values of white society who failed to understand a culture so
different to their own. This allowed them to be treated as a sub-class of society with no rights.
Aboriginal land ownership not recognized
Denial of the value/existence of Aboriginal laws
No legal rights and exclusion from giving evidence
The 1816 Martial Law (NSW) allowed for aboriginals to be shot on sight if they were near white settlements
1824 (Tasmania) whites were allowed to shoot Aboriginals
By the 1860’s and up to the 1970’s – Aboriginal children could be removed to be relocated and ‘re-socialized’
By Federation, it was declared that ‘Aboriginal natives shall not be counted’
Aboriginal men who served in World War I were not given the same support as the white soldiers were given
upon return.
Later, more and more reserves were sold off to white farmers – leaving the worst land for the Aboriginals. No
compensation was allowed. Many dispossessed Aboriginals had to build shelters on the outskirts of towns and life was
harsh. It also made it easy for the justification of the forced removal of children.
Why is it important to heal from past hurts before people can move forward?
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Context - ‘Deadly Unna?’ Indigenous Australians
The National Petition for Constitutional Change
By 1962, the FCAA – Federal Council for Aboriginal Advancement petitioned for the removal of all legislations that
discriminated against Aborigines. This led to a Federal Referendum in 1967 and nearly 91% of the population voted yes to
the removal of discriminating policies, however progress was to be much slower.
Rights Achieved
1960 – Able to receive the old age, invalid, widows pensions as well as other support
1962 – The right to vote was granted in Commonwealth elections
1967 – Able to be included in the National Census
1969 – Welfare board replaced by Child Welfare Act (NSW)
1973 – Able to get a passport without special permission
1974 – Indigenous organizations able to purchase land
1975 – Commonwealth Racial Discrimination Act made it illegal to discriminate on the grounds of race, colour or ethnic
What did the loss of land, without compensation, signify about the citizenship status of Aboriginal people?
Until the last few decades Aborigines were not included in the history books, why?
3. The Protection Acts denied citizenship rights to Aboriginal people, therefore infringing the human rights and
citizenship rights of Aboriginal people. What problems did this create?
4. What was life like for Aboriginals forced to live on Missions?
Context - ‘Deadly Unna?’ Indigenous Australians
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 14
Exploring My Own Views and Values about Indigenous Issues
Why Problems Exist
Existing Problems
List your personal and educational exposure/study to Indigenous texts – novels, plays, films,
documentaries etc.… Comment about each one
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 15
Context - ‘Deadly Unna?’ Indigenous Australians
On 13 February 2008, the then Prime Minister Kevin
Rudd gave a formal apology on behalf of the previous
governments whose policies and laws "inflicted profound grief,
suffering and loss on these our fellow Australians". Rudd
became the first Australian Prime Minister to publicly
apologise to the Stolen Generations on behalf of the
Australian federal government. Thousands of people gathered
to hear the apology all around Australia. National Sorry Day is
an annual event that is now held in Australia every 26th May.
One of three posters produced by Batchelor Press/Batchelor Institute to commemorate the day Australian Prime Minister
Kevin Rudd apologised to the stolen generation (13th February 2008).Scarlet23 - http://batchelorpress.com, CC BY-SA 3.0,
Closing the Gap
In an attempt to address and fix the wide gap in equity between Indigenous people and non-Indigenous, the
government set off with its ‘Closing the Gap’ project in 2008. The areas of focus included health, death rates,
education, work and other areas. After ten years the progress has been reviewed but it has been small,
leading to a call for further reform and changes and more self-management and input by the Aboriginal
‘We as a nation have for several years now been at risk of failing to address the national priority we have set for ourselves
of addressing this most fundamental of rights. While the approach has all but fallen apart, with the right settings and right
approach to co-designing a new and reset Strategy. With Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people inherently
embedded in leading, designing and implementing these efforts, we can start to meet the challenge of health inequality,
and live up to the ideals that all Australians have a fundamental right to health’ 2018 A TEN-YEAR REVIEW: THE CLOSING
© Australian Human
Rights Commission 2019.
Spain Australia France Canada
Average Life Expectancy at Birth 2015
Indigenous Australians
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 16
Context - ‘Deadly Unna?’ Indigenous Australians
Find a poem written by an Indigenous person or about Indigenous issues and explore the meaning.
Paste your poem here
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 17
Context - ‘Deadly Unna?’ Words and Terms to Know…
The use of slang and terms used by young and old in ‘Deadly Unna?’ adds a great deal of humour and
authenticity in the characterisation. For each word, write down a brief meaning and use it in a sentence that
reveals its meaning.
Pg 15: Spewin'
Pg16: Munga
Pg 21: Bagsed
Pg 21: Brudda
Pg 25: Nukkin Ya
Pg 27: Youse
Pg 32: Wonky
Pg 44: Gents
Pg 50: Gypping
Deadly, Unna?
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 18
Context - ‘Deadly Unna?’ Words and Terms to Know…
In pairs, discuss what the following terms mean and come up with your own simple definitions
The Stolen Generation
Now discuss the following quotes:
‘I do not accept that there is
underlying racism in this country.’
John Howard, Prime Minister 2905
‘Racism is never really seen, it's only
really felt.’ Phill Moncrieff,
Aboriginal artist
‘Like Martin Luther King, I have a
dream. That, one day, a Nyungar
family will be born free of racism.’
Dennis Eggington, Aboriginal
Legal Service of Western Australia
‘I draw the line when told I must pay
and continue paying for something
that happened over 200 years ago.’
Pauline Hanson
"We've had to put up with a lot [of
racism] unfortunately... you become
quite tolerant because if you don't you
become very angry and you do things
you probably don't choose to do,"
Adam Goodes
‘Like Martin Luther King, I have a
dream. That, one day, a Nyungar
family will be born free of racism.’
Dennis Eggington, Aboriginal
Legal Service of Western Australia
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 19
Plot ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
This is a plot model developed in 1863 by Gustav Freytag, a German writer.
1. Exposition OR Introduction
The exposition which introduces the characters, setting, context and other points to help orient the reader
to understand the rest of the novel.
2. Rising action OR CONFLCTS & Complications
Rising action is the conflict/s and how the characters feel about this. Rising action involves the build-up of
events until the climax. Action must be taken and they will have many problems to overcome.
3. Climax
The climax is the turning point or the highest point of drama in the story. The protagonist often has to make
a decision to take action and face the enemy or conflict head on. This section reveals much about the true
nature of characters, especially the protagonist.
Character/s take actions to resolve the problem.
5. Denouement- ENDING
The conflict/s have been solved OR the author may leave room for ambiguity or interpretation. We may
learn about happens to characters in the future, but this is optional.
Use this information and your PLOT OUTLINE sheet to create your own plot diagram – or use
the worksheets that follow.
As you read the novel, fill in your plot events sheet
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 20
Plot & Narrative Structure ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
The plot is a summary of the actions or events that take place in the novel. The narrative structure refers to
how the text is set out or how the story is told. Each form chosen by the author has its own structure.
Use the following list to think about the plot in your text.
1. Beginning…
Introduce People, World, Life
2. Problems/Issues…
Identify any Conflicts
3. Crisis…
Something goes wrong and needs to be addressed or resolved
4. Turning Point…
A key moment when action/ change must be taken
5. Climax…
Build-up of tension
6. Denouement…
Falling action; how everything works out
7. Resolution…
The End
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 21
Plot ‘Deadly Unna?
Plot – Events
As you read your text, jot down notes about what happens in each chapter.
Plot – Events
Plot – Events
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 22
Plot ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 23
Vocabulary 1 ‘Deadly Unna?’
Match the words with their meanings or
1. Looking on the positive side
2. Skinny and weak looking
3. Sides
4. Derogatory slang for a woman ‘slut’
5. A big hit or bashing
6. Head cut off
7. Slang for migrants; may be racist
8. Petrol station
9. Pubic lice or ‘crabs’
10. Suicide mission Japanese pilots
11. Perfect; pure; pristine
12. Fishing gear
13. Derogatory term for the French
14. To take a sniff, or a bad smell
15. Rotting, disgusting smell
16. A reference to Europeans
17. Unbelievably; hard to believe
18. To leer or stare in a sleazy manner
19. Hideous
20. A safe haven or retreat
21. Hard to tell the difference or separate
22. Truth; believable
23. The end of; downfall
24. With great emphasis
25. Structure projecting from land to water.
26. Hard to know; to have no idea
27. Complaining all the time
28. Chance of something happening
29. To move back in shock in fear of attack
30. Fighting usually involves gangs
31. To tempt or allure someone
32. To throw high over a wall etc.
33. Former or formerly known as…
34. Racial slur referring to Aboriginals
35. Cheating or swindling someone
36. Water catcher on a boat or rubbish
37. A follower who does not think
38. Structures where a boat may be
39. A hovel or run down shack/home
40. Incredibly angry
41 To move into one direction off centre
42 Learning reading disorder
43. Slow, heavy movement
44. Chaos
45. All fine; the real thing
46 Lazy, unmotivated
47 To get going or to build up speed
48 To beat or win a game by a wide margin
or to literally pulp something to break up its
49. Shouting very loudly
50. Bowed or crooked legs
Use the following words in sentences.
Perm Gallivanting Smirk
Snicker Abalone
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 24
Vocabulary ‘Deadly Unna?’ 2
Try and match the words on the left with
the meanings and synonyms below:
1. Together as one
2. Evil, crazy fairy
3. Curves
4. To take over a country by force
5. Slang for drunk or someone who is rich
6. Imagine or see the future or an outcome
7. Weak and small
8. Secretly, slyly
9. Searched through for something
10. Over excited and worked up
11. To bounce off something
12. Fakes
13. A banquet of food to choose from
14. A tall tower-like structure for electricity
15. Mean-spirited; nasty
f6. Powerful wind
19. Feels for or searches in the dark
20. Climbing up to escape something
21. To push something very heavy
22. Darkness, fear of something coming
23. To be in a daze
24. To sneak around quietly
25. To fall down deeply
26. Bitter or harsh tasting
27. Animal fat for cooking
28. To get caught on something
29. Puzzled
30. Aware and awake
31. Shaped like a cylinder
32. Wild
33. To run words together when speaking,
often due to being drunk.
34. Sharp bits of broken glass
35. Messy, chaotic, disorder
36. Fluid leaking through something
37. Slightly open
38. Fluorescent coloured clothing
39. Small hut or cabin
40. To open or rip apart
41. Image or drawing in shadow or black
42. Bleary, red eyes
43. Noisy
44. Transform in a surprising manner
45. Fluid or waste produced by the liver
46. Hard to understand
47. To cut into two or to be drunk
48. To feel shy or awkward
49. Lifted up
50. Spread out
51. Feeling sorry for oneself
52. Eaten through
53. Screaming wildly and abusingly
54. Series of events one after the other
55. The highest point of a wave
Slang Words and Idioms + More
Dettol Popular personal disinfectant
Hoon Troublemaking young person
Sheilas Slang for ‘girls’ or ‘women’
Possie Slang for ‘gang’ or group
Slang for homosexuals (derogatory) and
also cigarettes
Boong Slang for Aboriginal
Aboriginal; usually derogatory
CWA Country Women’s Association
Carked it
Four n Twenty Popular meat pie
Poofter Slang for homosexual – derogatory
Dobber Slang for someone who ‘tells’ or talks
Durrie A roll your own cigarette
Kiss for a long time; fondle
Crack a Wobbly Have a tantrum
Jezza Great 70’s football player who scored
‘mark of the year’ – Alex Jesaulenko
Fair Dinkum something is ok
Chocolate power to mix with milk
Big Smoke
The city
Mission Reserves where Aboriginals were forced
to live under strict supervision, in the past.
The whites
The Aboriginals
Marx Brothers Famous comedy act
Reform School Where children, especially
boys were sent if they could not be ‘controlled’.
Land of Nod
White surfie or skater
The Marx Brothers
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‘‘Deadly Unna’?
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‘‘Deadly Unna?’
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‘Deadly Unna?’
Personal Reflection on the Text
Parts of the text I enjoyed …
Parts of the text I found uninteresting…
Confusion about the text OR questions I need answered…
If I could, I would change the following about the text…
Something/s I would like to explore further after reading this text…
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 28
Connections ‘Deadly Unna?’
Explore the meaningful connections you have to the text.
Text and Self: Life, Family, Friends, Places, Feelings (Personal Connections)
1. Does this text remind me of my life? What similarities exist between my life and this text?
2. How is this text different from my life?
3. What have I learned about myself, life or others as a result of reading this text?
Text and World: News, TV, Radio, History, Films
1. How does this text relate to the world around me today? How is this text different from the things that happen
in the real world?
Text and other texts: Genre, Themes, Plot, and Characters
1. How is this text similar to other texts I have read before? How is it unique and different?
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 29
Comprehension Questions ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
1. After inspecting the front cover and reading the blurb, what did you predict ‘Deadly Unna?’ would be about?
2. What are your impressions of Blacky (Gary) and the life he lives with his family, after reading chapter 1?
3. As the novel continues, we learn that it is written in the first person point of view. What are the positives of
first person point of view stories? What are the limitations?
4. Re-write any short paragraph, changing it from first-person point of view narrative to the third person.
Describe how this changes the story.
5. The novel is filled with humour – how is this created? Find 2 quotes.
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Comprehension Questions ‘Deadly Unna?’
6. How do we know that football is a big deal in the community?
7. To what extent do you think the novel ‘rural Australian’ rather than Australian? Discuss.
8. Name-calling and ‘nick-names’ like ‘gutless wonder’ can cause problems for people, yet people often defend
the use of them as ‘just joking’. What do you think?
9. Discuss the perception of women and girls, even though they are not the focus of the novel.
10. Why has the author chosen to write many short chapters?
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Comprehension Questions ‘Deadly Unna?’
11. Blacky calls his brother ‘Team-man’ and a lemming. Discuss the positives and possible negatives about
being a loyal fan and a follower.
12. List and explore some of the racism within the novel, which seem to reflect how things have always been.
13. Choose 3 minor characters and outline why you think they are in the text? What do they add?
14. As the novel is narrated by Blacky and his immediate concerns, what do we not learn about some of the
other characters?
An emu caller Toby Hudson CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9745605
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 32
Comprehension Questions ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
15. What evidence is there to support that Blacky is more sensitive and responsible than many of the others?
16. The presentation of men and boys seems to be quite negative. To what extent do you agree? Support your
17. Blacky’s father has serious problems with alcohol and anger management. To what extent has the family just
learned to ‘live with it’? Are there any other options?
18. Describe Dumby Red – using quotes to support your ideas. How does Blacky’s attitude towards him change?
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Comprehension Questions ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
19. Explore the separation between the Aboriginal community and the white community, except for football.
20. Why are there so few Aboriginal spectators at the Grand Final?
21. How do the townspeople react to the shooting? What are the underlying views and values?
22. Blacky is shocked by the lack of interest in Dumby after his death. What does this reveal about Blacky and
how he is growing into a man?
McRae, Tommy, approximately 1836-1901, Aboriginal
family hunting goanna, Wahgunyah Region, Victoria,
1881 nla.obj-153003497
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Comprehension Questions ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
23. Why is removing the graffiti so important for Blacky? What does its removal, especially with his brothers and
sisters achieve?
24. When Blacky goes to Dumby’s funeral at the Point, what does he discover or realise?
25. Some people have objected to this novel on the grounds that it depicts ‘the Ugly Australian’. Find out what
that means – is it fair criticism?
26. Reflecting on the novel, what was the author’s purpose in writing the novel?
27. What became of the characters after the novel closes?
27. The novel reflects the 1970s and 1980s – do you think that things have improved regarding race relations
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 35
Character Exploration 1 ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
Gary “Blacky” Black is the narrator and protagonist of the novel, living in a small rural coastal town called the Port. His
family comprises his parents and seven siblings. At the age of fourteen, life is filled with the usual teenage challenges and
issues about growing up, although living with an alcoholic, abusive father is very challenging, Gary’s mum is loving and
supportive, basically holding the family together. Gary is smart but also finds responsibility intimidating. When the town
looks up to him as the possible hero of the football team, Blacky is overwhelmed and quite anxious. He is also unable to
live up to his father’s expectations of being a ‘real man’, when they go out on his boat, as his father calls him a ‘coward’.
Although laid back and relaxed along with the other townspeople, Blacky soon realises that he needs to challenge his own
beliefs and stand up for what he believes in – even if it goes against the community.
Gary’s growing up begins when his indigenous friend Dumby Red is shot and killed. He is shocked at the town’s lack of
compassion and response, realising that whilst they may use Aboriginals in their football team, they have no interest in
them beyond this. Blacky makes the decision to attend Dumby’s funeral, which is quite a radical decision, as the two
communities do not normally mix. To attend the funeral, Blacky defies his father and the way things are done, requiring
much courage and strength of purpose.
Reflect on a time when you felt you had to make a stand that went against what others expected.
Dumby Red – an indigenous member of the Point community who becomes Blacky’s close friend and teammate.
Dumby is always well-groomed and proud of his handsome appearance. He is a star on the football team due to being the
fastest runner and a skilful player, whilst also being generous to the other players. When Blacky was under attack by an
opposing player, Dumby stepped in to rescue him, after which they became friends. Dumby’s sister Clarence also
becomes Blacky’s friend – and seeing her sitting beside the racist graffiti is one of the catalysts for Gary removing the
graffiti. When Dumby did not receive the ‘best player’ award, Blacky is incensed and realises just how racist the town is.
This forces him to re-evaluate his own attitudes and form his own values. Dumby and two other boys from the Point were
later involved in robbing the local pub when Big Mac shoots and kills him. His funeral is held at the Point community, and
Blacky is the only person from the Port who attends to pay his respects.
Although Dumby is good-looking and talented, he is not arrogant or selfish. Can you think of someone else who
looks out for others and is not afraid to share the limelight? (In your life or other)
Tim “Best Team-man” Black – Tim is Gary or Blacky’s older brother, who has won the ‘best team-man’ trophy many
years in a row. This nickname is given to him because of his minimal efforts at home and for the family. He is quite happy
to blame someone else for his own wrongdoing as long as he does not get into trouble. This shows a lack of maturity and
refusal to accept responsibility, however given the stress and fear of living with an alcoholic and abusive father may
explain this. Like his brother Gary, Tim is also a victim of his father’s disapproval and abuse, bordering on life threatening
situations. Although the novel’s focus is on Gary’s development, Tim also experiences growth when he steals the father’s
car to stop him from hurting Blacky and anyone else. This impresses Blacky, who realises there is much that he can do to
protect his siblings and family.
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Character Exploration 2 ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
Darcy – Darcy is Blacky’s understated elderly neighbour who breeds and sells maggots for the locals and tourists
who come to fish on the jetty. He tells Blacky many stories about his time in the Royal Australian Air Force during
World War II, although the local rumours deny he actually went to war. Darcy is a world of wisdom and is very
important for Blacky, representing a kind father or grandfather figure, because Blacky’s real father is so inadequate
and unable to support him or the rest of the family. Darcy also represents the values of the rest of the community,
which leaves Gary disappointed.
Coach “Arks” Robertson – Arks is the coach of the football team and the owner of the town’s general store. He
gained this nickname because he pronounces ‘ask’ like ‘arks’. In the past he was a famous football player but his career
ended with an injury. This led to his wife leaving him, so he bought the local store to earn a living. Blacky sees the coach
as having foolish and unrealistic aspirations of success. Arks has poached players from the Point as they give the town a
winning edge, due to their strength, although he finds them undisciplined and uninterested in following his rules. When
Dumby dies, Arks draws the line between life and football, so the team does nothing to honour Dumby’s memory.
Although he is happy to work with indigenous youth if they give the team a winning edge, Arks has no interest in them as
people. He certainly has no intention of breaking the community status quo.
 What makes an effective and inspiring sports’ coach for a team? Discuss the qualities and attitudes
needed. OR discuss the opposite – a not so great coach?
Gwen “Mum” Black – Gwen Black is Gary’s mother who is loving and nurturing towards her family in her interactions
with Gary, we can see she is the opposite of her husband. She is positive, supportive and caring, whilst her husband is
often absent and an abusive alcoholic. Gwen never stops working as a homemaker doing her best for her eight children,
in poor circumstances. She allows herself her Mills and Boons romance novels borrowed from the library and her baths as
her escape. Gwen has had all her teeth pulled out but never got used to dentures. She is the perfect example of too much
responsibility, as she wears herself out and has nothing left for herself. Her focus is on her children and hoping they will
be able to improve their lives via a good education.
 What factors may contribute to women like Gwen not leaving their husbands and putting up with abuse?
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Character Exploration 3 ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
Bob “The Old Man” Black – Bob Black is Gary’s father, who is stuck in failure and anger. He is a raging alcoholic but
we do not know much about his life before the novel. Bob is an unskilled fisherman who has not been able to improve his
craft, leading to repeated problems. His heavy drinking leads to outbursts of rage towards others including his sons,
calling Black a ‘gutless wonder’. Both his sons just want approval and positive attention from their father, but this is not
possible. Bob represents toxic masculinity, and there seems to be a few men in the town like this. They put on the
bravado of being ‘real men’ who have tough, macho images, but their refusal to face their feelings and authentic truth
leads them to the pub, away from their families.
 Comment on the presentation of men and masculinity in the novel.
Pickles – Pickles has poor hygiene and is also a poor football player, but is on the team because of his parents, who are
big spenders at Ark’s store. He is immature and obsesses about girls he claims to have gone out with, which is untrue.
For a while he was breeding his own maggots but could not compete against Darcy. He is typical of many of the racist,
sexist residents of the Port who are obsessed with the sea and fishing.
Slogs Kneebone – Slogs is the town butcher who spends time at the pub with Gary’s father. He is loud and enjoys the
racist jokes and Gary realises that Slogs was the ‘author’ of the graffiti. This confirms the sickening reality about how
racist and uncaring most of the adults in his town are.
Victor “Big Mac” McRae – Big Mac owns the local pub and is the president of the football club. He too is famous for his
racist outbursts and jokes – and he shot and killed Dumby and his friends during the alleged robbery. No one blames or
attacks Big Mac’s actions, and in fact most defend what he did. Big Mac represents the violence and destruction that often
accompanies racist attitudes.
Cathy – Cathy is an attractive “camper,” or tourist who arrives at the Port in the summer, with her family. She is clearly a
stereotype of a beautiful, self-obsessed, spoilt private school teenager. Although Team-man and Pickles
call her “stuck-up”, Blacky is infatuated with her. Cathy is not really aware or interested in the locals or the indigenous
community. Blacky betrays himself when he denies knowing Clarence in front of Cathy, which he later regrets. He makes
up for this by going to Dumby’s funeral rather than Cathy’s farewell party.
Lovely – Lovely is Dumby’s older cousin who was the ‘brains’ behind the pub robbery. Once a football star but has fallen
into a life of crime.
Tommy Red – Tommy Red is Dumby and Clarence’s father, who is tolerated because he is friendly and seen as a
model citizen. This allows him the ‘privilege’ of drinking at the front of the bar instead of at the back where the indigenous
patrons sit. He is touched by Blacky’s attendance at his son’s funeral.
Thumper – Thumper is the star player of the opposing team in the Final – the Wangaroos.
Thumper is a huge and aggressive player, which is why Blacky fears playing against him.
However, Blacky’s accidental tackling of Thumper makes him look brave and tough – the most important thing to
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Character Exploration 4 ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
Andrew and Craig McDermott – Andrew and Craig McDermott are wealthy tourists, seen as ‘dumb’ by Blacky. They
are also attending the elite Kings College, and show an interest in Cathy.
Mad Dog – A violent player who attacks Blacky – who is fortunately rescued by Dumby.
Mad Dog is racist.
Carol/Colin Cockatoo – Colin is the former first ruck of the Port’s football team, who is disqualified when the truth
about his age is revealed. This leads to Blacky becoming the first ruck.
Minor Characters
“Mum” Red – “Mum” Red is Clarence and Dumby’s mother.
Dazza – Dazza is Blacky’s friend who believes Dumby got what he deserved.
Mark Arks – Mark Arks is the son of Coach Arks and the captain of the football team. He wins the top award instead of
Dumby making Blacky very upset.
Greggy Black – Greggy is Blacky’s younger brother, who looks up to his father, until he sees how abusive he can be.
Sharon Black – Sharon is Blacky’s eldest sister, who is very neat and tidy. She takes over her mum if she is not there.
Mick – Mick is Pickles’s father who shares the same characteristics as Bob – alcoholic and abusive. His condition makes
him unreliable and unemployable.
Shirl – Shirl is Pickles’s mother and also a heavy drinker and smoker.
Rocker – Rocker is the town mechanic and often at the pub instead of being home with his family.
Jimmy Downes – Jimmy Downes is a boy from Blacky’s school who is always getting into fights, yet is seen by the men
as the ideal image of masculine toughness.
Clemboy – Clemboy is Dumby’s cousin from the Point. Dumby passed the ball to him in a game.
Mrs. Ashburner – Mrs. Ashburner is the town’s Librarian, Sunday school, teacher and swim instructor. She is religious
and strict.
Kevin Black – Kevin is one of Blacky’s younger brothers.
Jenny Black – Jenny is one of Blacky’s younger sisters.
Claire Black – Claire is one of Blacky’s younger sisters.
Sid Red – Sid is Dumby and Clarence’s uncle and Lovely’s father.
Deano – Deano is one of Blacky’s friends from the Port.
The Local Member – The local member gives speeches and hands out awards at the football celebrations.
Write a profile of the town based on the ‘minor characters’ who live there
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Character Exploration 5 ‘‘Deadly Unna?’ Minor Characters
Thinking about the text you have studied, explore and answer the following questions.
Who are the characters in this text?
Who are the most interesting characters? Why? Which characters are developed and which
characters are one dimensional?
A character who is mentioned but not developed is… What role does this character play?
A character who is never heard, or is silent? ... Why is this character silent? If he/she did speak,
what would he/she say?
A character who could be changed or improved? How?
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Character Exploration 6 ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
Choose 3 characters from the novel to fill in this worksheets.
Character 1
Character 2
Character 3
Who is this character?
Who is this character?
Who is this character?
Physical Description
Physical Description
Physical Description
Describe his/her personality?
Describe his/her personality?
Describe his/her personality?
What is this character’s
What is this character’s
What is this character’s
What is his/her point of view
towards life?
What is his/her point of view
towards life?
What is his/her point of view
towards life?
What motivations drive this
character? Values?
What motivations drive this
character? Values?
What motivations drive this
character? Values?
What imagery is associated with
this character? Symbolism?
What imagery is associated with
this character? Symbolism?
What imagery is associated with
this character? Symbolism?
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Character Exploration 7 ‘‘Deadly Unna?’ COMPARISON
Character One:
Character Two:
Protagonist or role in the text:
Protagonist or role in the text:
Turning Points/Crisis:
Turning Points/Crisis:
Decision/s Made:
Decision/s Made:
Actions Taken:
Actions Taken:
Themes and Ideas Explored:
Themes and Ideas Explored:
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Character Exploration 8 ‘‘Deadly Unna?’ Profile of:
I am…
My attitudes…
My background…
Key moments…
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 43
Point of view refers to how the story is being told by the narrator. Some texts have multiple narrators, and some
texts mix things around for a particular reason. This refers to novels and short stories in particular.
First Person
‘ ‘Well, after a long time I heard the
clock away off in the town go
boom – boom – boom – twelve
licks; and all still again – stiller
than ever. Pretty soon I heard a
twig snap down in the dark
amongst the trees – something
was a stirring. I set still and
listened. Directly I could just barely
hear a “me-yow! me- yow!” down
there. That was good! Says I, “meyow! me-yow!” as soft as I could,
and then I put out the light and
scrambled out of the window on to
the shed. Then I slipped down to
the ground and crawled in among
the trees, and, sure enough, there
was Tom Sawyer waiting for me.’
From ‘The Adventures of
Huckleberry Finn’ Mark Twain
Second Person
"You have brains in your head. You
have feet in your shoes. You can
steer yourself any direction you
choose. You’re on your own. And you
know what you know. And YOU are
the guy who’ll decide where to go."
(Dr. Seuss, Oh, the Places You’ll Go!
Third Person
“It was a bright cold day in April, and
the clocks were striking thirteen.” George Orwell, 1984
What are the strengths and
weaknesses of each point of
“It was a dark and stormy night; the
rain fell in torrents, except at
occasional intervals, when it was
checked by a violent gust of wind
which swept up the streets” - Edward
George Bulwer-Lytton in Paul
Words to Use
I, me, mine, myself, we, us,
ours, ourselves
Words to Use
You, yours, yourself, yourselves
Words to Use
He, she, it, him, her, his, hers,
himself, herself, itself, they, them
theirs, themselves
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 44
Narrative point of view refers to the perspective from which the story is told. In a novel or short story
there are various possibilities.
Who is telling this story?
First Person
The first person narrator is usually the main character and is limited to that characters point of view.
Narration is usually from the “I” point of view and is ideal in diaries and letters where an immediate connection is needed
with the reader.
Second Person
This is not often used. It involved speaking directly to the reader in the “you” form. The reader feels very involved.
Third Person (Limited)
The story is told by a narrator who is not a character, but separate. The reader sees everything through this narrator’s
point of view.
Third Person (Omniscient)
The story is told from the narrator’s point of view – all seeing, all knowing.
Narrative Point of View
Who is telling the story in your text? Find some quotes to support your comments.
What is the impact of this/these narrative choices? (How does using this point of view influence the
reading of the novel?
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‘Deadly Unna?’
Style & Structure Literary Elements
Question & Response
First person narrative point of view from What are the advantages and disadvantages of this?
Gary ‘Blacky’
*As readers we can follow Gary’s personal
learning curve and emotional growth as he
realizes he needs to take action rather than
remain passive.
*His emotions become especially powerful
as if he is speaking intimately to us and
trusting the reader with his inner world.
Gritty Descriptive Writing which reflects
the rough people in the community who
struggle with personal issues like
alcoholism and failure.
Dialogue includes slang and language as
spoken by siblings and teenagers.
Characteristics of Genre Realism
The novel’s graphic detail tells it like it is, which has exposed the
community as being racist, uncaring and ‘ugly’ in many ways. Some
people have objected to this saying that the characters are ‘caricatures’
or exaggerations of real people. Moreover, the Aborigines are not given
a strong voice, presenting them as nothing but ‘victims’.
 Find some examples of realism in a description and/or
shorter quotes:
*Many short, untitled chapters
The book’s PLOT progresses in
chronological order. From before his
grand final game through the grand final
game and after.
Tone and Mood
The tone is seemingly calm but also tense due to the lack of harmony
between the two communities, which is reflected in the relationships
and many of the negative family groups
THREE significant symbols are Dumby’s
funeral, The Brady Bunch and the graffiti.
What might these represent?
Given that the town is so racist and Dumby is an Aborigine
foreshadows the award for best player being given to someone else on
the team.
Protagonist and Antagonist
Blacky is the protagonist. The racism is the antagonistic factor in his life
The contentiousness between both sides of town is understated and
passive. This adds a dimension that suggests the racism is embedded
and no one wants to change things.
Blacky only learns the true value of his friendship with Dumby after he
is shot, leading him to stand up for him and go to his funeral.
● Uses everyday language
● Features everyday characters in everyday
● Descriptions of setting and characters to
create life-like, real scenes,
Objects and characters so readers feel like they
are experiencing the reality of the characters
● The central character is often involved with
an inner or outer problem or antagonist which
leads to him or her growing and becoming a
better person.
● Both character and plot are heavily
influenced by the ideas or themes important in
society – overcoming racism.
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 46
‘Deadly Unna?’ Style & Structure Literary Elements HUMOUR
Humour may seem odd in a novel about racial discord, but it serves many purposes in literature. These
may include:
Entertainment – make us laugh, which is an art in itself and not easy to achieve
Release the tension or shift the focus during otherwise serious moments
Add a touch of humanity
Reveal something about characters. (In ‘Deadly Unna’, much of the humour reveals how bright, witty and
aware Gary is)
Attract attention, laughter and admiration from mates – making a character feel popular
Humorous Quote
Why is this funny?
‘The whole tribe was there, sitting
around the kitchen table, waiting for
dinner to be served. Except for the old
man, of course. As usual, he was down
the pub.’
‘I don’t know what Arks, I mean Mr
Robertson, expects of me.’
‘That you do your best. That’s all
anybody expects of you. Do
your best and he’ll be happy as Larry.’
Gary’s family observations are on the
mark and here he creates an image of
a team waiting eagerly for a feed.
‘It’s just a game of footy, Blacky. The
team, the town, the glory – that’s all crap.
What’s important is your life […] If you try
to stop the Thumper, you’ll be killed. If
not killed then crippled.’
Teenagers use very graphic, real
language rather than dress things up to
be nice. Here we also see the use of
‘My own son a gutless wonder. A
gutless fucking wonder.’
I rubbed my forehead. I’d never felt so
ashamed in all my life.’
Although sad that a father could treat
his son like this, here the use of irony
makes us both bemused and angry. Of
all the people to talking about being a
‘gutless wonder’…!
‘He’s a character ain’t he, that Tommy
Red?’ said the old man, when he’d gone.
‘He sure is,’ said Slogs. ‘Pity there’s not
more like him out there.’
‘Hey,’ said Big Mac. ‘Did ya hear the one
about the boong and the priest?’
Here there is irony as the reader
realises the ridiculousness of the
statement ‘Pity there’s not more like
him…’ How would they know if they
have nothing to do with most
Aborigines? And then to go on to a
racist joke in the next breath further
emphasizes what their problem is.
Find quotes for this:
Descriptions of people and how they
Find quotes for this:
Grossness becomes commonplace.
Function in the novel –
apart from being funny?
Mr. Robertson is clearly a stereotype
and caricature whom Gary finds
hilarious. Laughing at how someone
speaks is politically incorrect. Gary also
loves language and words, and he is
often amazed by his mother’s idioms
such as ‘happy as Larry”. Who is Larry?
Many of the characters are odd
or just eccentric.
There is often a contrast between
how the character sees himself
and who they really are – such
as Pickles.
We love to read about the gents
but also squirm with disgust,
especially Pickle’s maggots.
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 47
‘‘Deadly Unna?’
Every text has underlying values – qualities and beliefs that are important according to the author. Values are
related to what we deem as important in life and the ethical ways to behave in our society. Values can vary from
society to society and be linked closely to religion and culture. In Western society we value freedom of speech as
an important element of democracy. Our values are influenced by our families and cultural experiences. As
people grow and change, experiencing various events, their values often change. We express our values through
our thoughts, feelings, actions and beliefs. It is challenging to meet or understand others who hold opposing
values to our own.
When a writer creates a text, there is often an underlying purpose and focus which drives the
creation. The themes of a novel usually reflect on the views and values of the writer, but does
not mean that they are identical. A writer may value the state of the earth’s environment and
be concerned about how it is treated. Such a writer may choose to create a story about the
results of extreme neglect, to get readers thinking about their personal and collective
In every text you read or view, these questions will help you understand the decisions made in
creating the text:
 What does the writer want the reader to consider?
 What matters to the writer?
 How does the writer see humanity and society?
 Is there an underlying belief system (religion, philosophy) that the writer supports?
Elements of the novel are all part of understanding these views and values.
For example:
Plot – will be appropriate to explore the themes, views and values
Characters – will drive the plot. How does the author position characters both positively and
negatively? Which characters are made to look most sympathetic to the reader?
Setting – What does the setting add to the text? Why was this setting chosen?
Narrative choices – Point of view; how the text is organized all support the themes. How?
Language and Literary Elements- all reflect the themes and views and values.
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Thinking about your novel, what do you think are the views and values of the author? Brainstorm with a
partner and share your ideas.
What is the novel communicating about the following?
Vulnerable people
Growing up from
childhood to adulthood
Being active rather
than passive –
The connectedness of
all people.
What important messages from ‘Deadly Unna?’ do Australians still have to learn?
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 49
‘‘Deadly Unna?’ Thinking about
Themes Family and Team Unity
What are the big ideas or concepts (themes) that are explored in the text?
Questions to think about as you fill in your theme worksheets
Uniting as a TEAM and a FAMILY
Everyone talks about the power and importance of team work and a loving, supportive family. It is clear
that many of the people in Blacky’s community feel disconnected and unhappy. Others, like Blacky himself
live in families struggling with an abusive parent where everyone suffers. In fact whilst many ‘mates’ gather
together at the pub every day, these are superficial friendships. At the start of the novel, Blacky does not
enjoy being on the football team and people do not look out for each other.
Death changes everything, and once Dumby dies Blacky begins to understand the power of friendship and
family ties. This explains why he feels compelled to do something to honour Dumby’s death and express
his sorrow to his family by attending the funeral. Dumby has been his only real friend who stuck his neck
out for him. The novel teaches us that friendship and being a team member come with responsibilities and
On the family front, Blacky says he hates the TV show ‘The Brady Bunch’ because the family in this show
is too perfect and every episode ends so neatly, with all problems resolved. Furthermore the adults on this
show are nurturing and encouraging of all of the children, but also allow them to have their own space. Of
course this is miles away from Blacky’s family situation with his alcoholic and abusive father. He cannot
really turn to anyone for help, forcing him to make his own decisions which starts with figuring out what is
worth standing for. He cannot rely even on Tim, his older brother as he is struggling with dealing with his
own fears and problems with his father. However this begins to change when Tim steals his father’s car to
protect Blacky from his father.
Blacky chooses to honour his friendship with Dumby by attending his funeral and then removing the graffiti.
in doing this with his siblings, he is starting a positive chain of events which hopefully will grow. He is also
showing he can be a supportive bigger brother that his family can turn to when they need him. At the
funeral, Dumby’s family are touched by Blacky’s attendance at the funeral.
We may not be born into perfect ‘Brady Bunch’ families but through our beliefs, words and actions we can
become better people and create the family we need.
 Complete the statements below:
A positive family is…
Belonging to a team means…
The responsibilities of being a friend include…
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 50
‘Deadly Unna?’ Theme - Consequences of Racism
Racism is a key theme in ‘Deadly Unna?’ and it is a serious problem in Australia. Research has shown
that there are many negative consequences of racism, which include:
Poor Health
Not Using Public Services
The stress from racism leads to a
negative state of mind which
contributes to poor mental health as
well as physical problems related to
the immune, endocrine,
cardiovascular and other systems.
This impacts on health but also
serves to isolate Indigenous
Australians, making them feel less
connected to society.
Are Australians racist?
There may be a reluctance or fear
of going out within the community
or taking part in educational
opportunities. This relates to an
erosion of confidence based on
the negative experiences as a
This can lead to dangerous behaviour result of racism.
Depression is common and this can
also be associated with ‘not taking
care of oneself’, leading to poor
eating habits and not being motivated
to get help from health providers.
with drugs, alcohol and at risk
Furthermore, many Indigenous
Australians have experienced
"I have family members who can't
discrimination at the hands of
take it as well as I can. They react
health workers, which creates an
with violence, with drinking, drugs.
avoidance of much needed
These types of things are a coping
services. There is now more
mechanism because people don't
training of health care workers into
understand how much racial abuse
can hurt people. It can put people into indigenous issues, to try and
depression." Adam Goodes
overcome this problem.
The resulting lack of sleep and
depression can also lead to
suicide in some people.
‘Three out of four Indigenous
Australians experience racism in
their everyday lives.’
Gary Highland, National Director,
Australians for Native Title and
How does racism show itself in ‘Deadly Unna?’ Find three examples with brief relevant quotes.
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 51
‘Deadly Unna?’ Theme –
The Injustice of Racism and the need to take Action.
At the start of ‘Deadly, Unna?’ fourteen-year-old Gary “Blacky” Black knows that the black and white communities live
separately and do not mix, except for football. This is just a reality that seems to have always been this way, but the
issues around the injustice of racism only come to life once he makes friends with Dumby Red, a ‘Nunga’ or Aboriginal –
and team-mate on his football team. It is then that Blacky wakes up to the discrimination and injustice of racism.
The racist views of the community are never challenged and no-one has ever crossed the line, instead they just remain
passive, which allows the racism to continue. It takes a brave person to stand up against the popular way of life, and
hopefully that will encourage other people to think about their behaviour and follow.
Through his friendship with Dumby, Blacky begins to see through the lies that are created by segregation. Blacky is
shocked by the lack of respect shown to Dumby by the community in general and by the football club in particular. It is
when we befriend and interact with those who are ‘different’ from us that we develop an open mind and feel less
suspicious of others.
Segregation in the novel is represented by the fact that the black and white communities have very little interaction.
 Aboriginals are not permitted to drink in the front part of the pub, but are sent to the back, and usually have to
use the back entrance.
 The Point where the Aboriginals live is mostly unknown to the white people of the Port.
 In the locker room there is no racial intermingling
 Instead of getting to know each other, rumours are spread about the ‘wild’ ways of the Aborigines, and the
diseases they carry. This creates further racism and fear and helps to keep things the same.
 Inferior white football players are chosen over much better Aboriginal players
 Dumby was clearly the one who deserved to win the top prize after the final, but it was given to Mark Arks, the
white son of the football team’s coach.
 These realities are unjust but everyone is complacent and never complains.
 Once Blacky develops a friendship with Dumby and his sister Clarence, he feels greater pressure to defend
them, and begins to feel very uncomfortable about the graffiti. It still takes him a long time to take action because
it is not easy to openly say something that goes against what everyone else believes. It takes much time and
courage to move from feeling uncomfortable to taking action and fighting against inaction.
 In the pub, everyone laughs at Big Mac’s racist jokes.
 Once Dumby is killed Blacky believes he must take action because he can no longer keep his thoughts to himself
– he must speak out and take action in honour of his friend.
 Sadly, Blacky has to realise that most of his community, including people like Darcy whom he likes, are happy to
remain passive and do nothing.
Discuss a real news event that showed the power and need for people to take action against racism.
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 52
‘Deadly Unna?’ Theme –Racism - BELONGING Versus ALIENATION
It is important for a community to feel that they belong to their society. Since the beginning of British Colonization of
Australia, the Aborigines have been pushed out from their own native country, lost their land rights and their way of life.
They have been forced to become a marginalised part of society and were victims of hatred, violence, and
A loss of the sense of belonging is inevitable in such cases of injustice. Racial discrimination has a profound effect on
peoples’ lives and it limits what they can do and how they can do it. Up and until 1973, Australia was guided by the “White
Australia Policy” which favoured white immigrants from Britain and some parts of Europe and restricted Asian
immigration, but it also highlighted how Aboriginals were viewed. Overall, Aboriginals were viewed as the lowest class of
people in Australia by the various white governments.
In the past and to a great extent today, we see how segregated the community is. The whites lived in the town, and the
Aboriginals lived on the edge of it, as second-class citizens. The dominating principle was assimilation which assumes
the white European culture is ideal. By ‘European’, we mean British or Anglo Saxon culture. When Queen Elizabeth II
visited Australia in the early 1950s, she was taken to some country areas such as Shepparton in Victoria. Whilst there, the
local governments blocked off the area where the Aboriginals lived from the Queen’s view with hessian sacks-a clear
message to the Aboriginals that they were not wanted and did not belong.
The forced removal of Aboriginal children from their mothers was devastating to everybody involved: the children, the
parents and the siblings, as well as the rest of the community. These victims became known as ‘the STOLEN
GENERATION’ Many children were treated as slaves/servants in their new ‘families’; abuse was also common.
Alienation is the feeling of not belonging anywhere and leads to despair and can lead to a vicious cycle of destructive
behaviour/apathy. When we feel alienated, we feel disempowered and stuck as well as undervalued.
In traditional Indigenous society, meaning and a sense of belonging was created by many factors:
Religious or spiritual beliefs
Rich and complex rituals for everything, adding poignancy and depth to life.
Polygamy, or men having many wives was the norm and part of belonging to the community.
Warriors and warrior culture was accepted and respected.
Tribal Laws and the way of life were readily accepted and followed at all times, with their various consequences.
Magic and sorcery were very real and powerful forces for the Aborigines.
The community was structured in a certain way and this too was respected.
Aborigines were at one with the land, creating a strong connection.
Living was always communal.
Hunting and gathering food was an essential part of everyday life.
How does any of this information relate to the Indigenous community at the Point and in the novel?
In what ways were the indigenous community made to feel that they did not belong?
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 53
‘Deadly Unna?’ Theme – Growing up is hard to do
Growing Up
When we first meet Gary he seems to be running scared and hoping to stay out if the spotlight and remain safe. That
includes not having to live up to expectations, because he lacks the confidence to believe he can achieve things, and also
lacks the maturity to embrace responsibility. This is not surprising given the dominant male culture around him, starting
with his father who lets me know that he is a major disappointment, a ‘gutless wonder’. As children most of us can rely on
our caregivers and other adults around us in order to stay safe and happy. Gary does not have this safety net – he can
turn to his mum but she has her own issues to deal with and must be always run off her feet. As a young teenager, Blacky
resents having expectations placed on him because he is afraid of failure, and he wants to stay out of harm’s way. He is in
a typical self-protective mode and has not learned think through expectations and responsibilities. Given his age (14), that
is quite normal and he is only imitating most of the adults around him, who tend to worry only about themselves and not
involve themselves in the wider world. Of course the novel is from Gary’s point of view and we do not really see another
side of characters, which is one of the limitations of first person point of view. Despite this it is clear that Gary is a caring,
intelligent and sensitive young man with an open mind.
The turning point in his life is when he befriends Dumby and he sees firsthand the extent of the community’s racism and
lack of concern for others. Events have conspired in Blacky’s life to force him to grow up, such as going from second ruck
to first ruck, placing much pressure on him. At first he is resentful of all these expectations, and he may feel worried and
angry about his mum who does EVERYTHING for her family whilst her husband is getting drunk at the pub, and does not
bother to attend any important events involving his children. Blacky only sees responsibility in the two extremes of his
father and mother – either all out sacrifice or total selfishness and doing nothing.
By the time Gary has worked out that even though others do not want to change or improve things, he needs to make a
stand to support the person he wants to grow up to me. In other words he realises his own personal power and agency –
he can change the world in small steps and make a difference. While Gary stands at Dumby’s coffin he realises that he
feels better about himself now that he has faced his fear of disapproval, because he has made the right choice for himself.
Some things and people are worth the sacrifice.
 What are some of the issues or moments that have challenged you to face your responsibilities and/or
make a grown up decision?
What causes do you believe in enough to take action?
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 54
‘Deadly Unna?’ Theme – Masculinity
It is fair to say that males and females have often had to consider the impact that gender places on them, which comes
complete with social expectations. These expectations vary from minimal to very strict, depending on the culture, era and
other influences as you grow up. It is only since the 1950s that larger numbers of female have dared to step outside the
stereotypical view of women, and even more recently that people have begun to challenge their perceptions of what does
being a man mean? What makes a real man? Nowadays there are individuals who do not identify with any gender and
those who do not feel comfortable with the gender they were born into. Clearly, gender is an explosive and controversial
issue for many.
Not so in ‘Deadly, Unna?’, where it is clear to Blacky that in order to be a ‘real man’, he needs to be tough, aggressive and
powerful. This is what his father expects him to be, so when Blacky and his brother show fear or so called lack of courage,
they are both seen as failures. This view of males and masculinity is dominant at the Point, but it does not reflect who
Blacky is, as he is also clearly sensitive, intelligent and witty. Blacky learns to face his fears not because he wants to be
tough but because he wants to be a better person stand up for what is important. Jimmy Downes, Blacky’s schoolmate is
aggressive and always starting fights, which is seen as an admirable quality. When Dumby dies, Blacky realises how
gutless his friends and the adults really are, when they do not feel the need to make any gesture of sympathy towards
Dumby’s family. In facing his father, who is a bully and very poor role model, Blacky shows true courage and takes his first
steps to become a man, with a nobler outlook on life.
Do you feel pressured by gender
Does Australia embrace the
misogynistic male, making him a
A misogynist is a sexist male or woman-hater.
What pressures are there on
football players and other sports’
people to be less sexist and
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 55
‘Deadly Unna?’ Theme – Masculinity poster or digital presentation
Your task is to create a poster on paper OR a
visual digital program exploring WHO is the
Australian male. Use this as a planning page.
Who are the men celebrated by the media, TV and others
in society?
What qualities do they embrace?
Are they inclusive or do you have to be a certain way?
Australia’s culture of mateship, larrikins and other maleonly groups has been called sexist and racist. What do
you think?
Above Left: Archie Smith of the Brisbane Lions winning a ruck contest against NT Thunder ruckman, Jonathon Miles,
during a North East Australian Football League (NEAFL) match on 4 July 2015 at TIO Stadium in Darwin, Northern Territory.
Middle: Flickr user Mugley - https://www.flickr.com/photos/91256982@N00/307473865/, CC BY-SA 2.0,
Above Right: Paul Hogan Commonwealth of Australia (National Archives of Australia) http://www.naa.gov.au/about-us/media/images/cabinet/1980-81/charity-concert.aspx, CC BY 3.0 au,
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 56
‘Deadly Unna?’ Quotes from the Text
"Are we doing anything for Dumby's funeral", blunt reply of
"sport's one thing, this is another."
"The goonyas change on one side, the nungas change on
the other. It’s just the way it was."
"We 'preciate ya coming." Sid to Blacky
"My own son, a gutless fcking wonder."
"I got angrier. I could feel it growing inside me, getting
bigger and bigger, stronger and stronger." Blacky’s anger
about Dumby not getting the award.
‘If you wrote something like MONICA IS A SLUT it wouldn’t
last very long, maybe a week, but BOONGS PISS OFF
had been there for ages’.
‘Even though the Point was only a half an hour's drive from
the Port, the two towns didn't have much to do with one
another. The footy was really the only place where Nungas
and Goonyas got to hang around together.’
‘Next Saturday we play Wangaroo for the Peninsula Junior
Colts Premiership. The whole town is talking about it. It's
the biggest thing to happen here since the second prize in
the S.A. Tidy Towns Competition (Section B.) Jut shows
what sort of town I live in. Hopeless.’
‘Apparently his old man dragged him out of school when he
was twelve. He decided his son had a big future in the
family business. Thumper’s been digging graves ever
since’. Blacky is talking about the Thumper.
'I could hear the old man's voice. He was yelling again. I
started running'
‘She was perfect, absolute perfection. By the end of that
week I was more smitten than ever, smitten to the power of
‘You’ve got to look like you’re trying to stop him, though. If
you don’t then you’re a gutless wonder. A gutless wonder
is about the worst thing you can be in our town. If you’re a
boy that is.’ (Ch.2)
‘Nukkin ya?’ said Pickles. ‘Geez, you’re talking like one of
them now.’
‘So what,’ I said.
‘Well I s’pose he is a mate of yours and all,’ said Pickles.
‘Matter of fact, he is,’ I said.’
Themes and Comments
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 57
‘Deadly Unna?’ Creative Tasks – Choose one activity rom the following ideas. Check
with your teacher if you want to work with another person or small group.
Write a 250 word commentary about the ideas behind your project and how you went about
creating it.
Use any art medium to
create ART WORKS
inspired by your text.
Using a coat hanger
or other material, plan
and make a MOBILE
inspired by the text.
Transform a section of
your text into a COMIC
NOVEL on paper or
Design a DIORAMA
based on a section of
your text.
Create a TRAILER,
promote your text.
Make MODELS of a
few objects of
significance from
your text.
With a small group, choose a
section from your text and
DRAMATIZE IT. Perform the
scene to the class.
Take a section of your
text and make it
Choose or CREATE A
BOX and decorate it
to promote the text.
You could use a
cereal box or make
your own.
Research and create a
REPORT about a topic
related to your text.
the class in a 2-5 minute
presentation. You can use
digital support if desired.
section of your text
into another form,
such as a picture
book or poetry.
Inspired by any aspect of
your text, such as a key
theme or character,
create a PHOTO ESSAY
or a photographic
exhibition for public
display. You need to take
your own pictures – make
sure you gain permission
from people before you
take their picture.
promote your text and
to tell them more
about it, design a
special bag or other
container and fill it
with things that
represent the text or
something important
to one or more of the
Divide your text up into
sections and key events.
Create a SOUNDTRACK for
the text.
Devise a PUZZLE,
GAME or prize based
on the text.
Create a
SCRAPBOOK, journal
and diary as might be
kept by a character
from your text.
You have read the
book or seen the
film/play – now take
the Reality Tour!
Plan and create an
itinerary, brochure,
map that will cover
your tour, which will
feature all the
important places in
your text. This can be
completed digitally
OR on paper.
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 58
‘Deadly Unna?’ Comparing the novel to the film ‘Australian Rules’
The film ‘Australian Rules’, directed by Paul Goldman, is based on the novels ‘Deadly Unna’ and ‘Nukkin Ya’, by Phillip
Gwynne. The 2002 film stars Paul Goldman, Nathan Phillips, Luke Carroll, Tom Budge, Brian Torry and Lisa Flanagan.
The film’s unique look is due to the use of a chocolate filter over the lens to give the film a coloured wash and distinctive
look. ‘…It gives a golden haze, but it’s not nostalgic, it still has a very contemporary, bold look.’
Director’s Statement
“AUSTRALIAN RULES tells the story of a young white boy growing up in a small coastal town in Australia. It's about all
the kinds of courage it takes to grow up in a country that still refuses to. It's about taking a stand, about the responsibilities
of manhood and nationhood. It's about relationships: between fathers and sons, mothers and sons, husbands and wives,
blackfellas and whitefellas. It's also about the courage it takes to love. I wanted to make a film that talked back to this big,
secret country that we live in." --PAUL GOLDMAN
Review Excerpts
…a funny, sad, scary and poignant story with a powerful message; a moving ode to reconciliation. Australian Rules offers
a rich examination of identity and ‘manhood’ in Australia, and a powerful study of race relations. ..The film is a story of
mateship and love that is both confronting and sensitive. The story clearly takes a strong anti-racist stance.
Jo Litson, If Magazine, August 2001
“After watching Australian Rules, student audiences are ready to laugh about the ‘light and frothy’ side of the film. But
they also develop very strong views about the ‘bad seeds’, and are ready to debate the big issues. They are incensed that
Gary’s father appears to get away with his violence, and they are heartened by Gary’s humanity. It is a film that provides
rich classroom discussions on issues that matter in the Australian community. Australian Screen Education, December
2002, Libby Tudball
”…9 out of 10 … a beautifully written and acted drama …It uses amusing football action, sinister domestic drama and
harsh violence to deliver an enormously satisfying story ….'The three young lead actors are just terrific, everyone a star.”
“All the key characters are warm-blooded and real. There's a chilling edge that you won't get with any film made overseas,
because this is about Australia and, ultimately, Australia's personal loss.” - Rob Lowing, The Sun-Herald
Write your own email to a friend about your response to watching the film ‘Australian Rules’
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 59
‘Deadly Unna?’ Comparing the novel to the film ‘Australian Rules’
What is your overall impression of the book and the film?
What do you think that the film did well in comparison with the book?
To what extent is the film a faithful adaptation of the book? Discuss
What will a reader gain from watching the film?
What will a person who has not read the book, but seen the film, gain from reading the book?
Overall what were the positive features of the film – or what stood out the most for you?
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 60
‘Deadly Unna?’ Writing better Paragraphs 1
In order to improve your essay writing, it is important to work on the building blocks of paragraphs.
Your paragraphs
need to be clear, informative and include a topic sentence, relevant explanations
 sentence, as well as text support or evidence. The important difference between an
of that topic
excellent paragraph and a weaker one is lack of focus and the amount of appropriate detail.
The racism in the Port residents is so deep it is taken for granted.
Explanation and Evidence
The white residents at the Port seem to go on with their everyday lives, quite happy not to stir the pot, and like
to keep things the way they have always been. With regards to the Aboriginals at the Point, they may as well
not exist as the two communities rarely intermingle, unless it is to make the local football teams more
powerful. On some occasions there may be racist graffiti scrawled around the place, such as ‘Boongs, piss
off!’ but the racism within the community is so entrenched that everyone gets it, and no one has to say
anything. This is something about his town that Gary Black has only begun to realise and think about. At the
Port, segregation is never questioned or challenged. It is understood that the Aboriginal patrons must drink at
the back of the pub, and the change room lockers also keep separate areas for black and white players. When
attitudes are so deep that they are never aired or challenged, people are stagnating in beliefs that limit both
themselves and those they view as lesser. Friendships and relationships are needed between people before
there can be any understanding and empathy between people. Communication is not a strong point with the
white men at the pub, as they neglect their wives and children, drinking their beers, always happy to laugh at
some sexist and /or racist joke. Even Darcy, Gary’s wise ‘father-figure’ mentor harbours racist views when
Gary mentions the graffiti. ‘I’m not sure if Darcy was making fun of me. There was a little smile on his
face.’ Once Gary Black forms his friendship with Dumby, he connects and genuinely opens himself to
authentic communication and empathy. Without this there can be no compassion for others, which is what the
Point is like when no one makes any effort (except Gary), to pay their respects on the death of Dumby, their
star football player. In such a community the Aboriginal people have learned to stay out of sight as much as
possible, and the expectations of the local residents ensures that things will always stay the same, until
someone like Gary comes along and begins to ask questions.
Now you have a go planning your own paragraph for the above topic sentence:
Topic Sentence The racism in the Port residents is so deep it is taken for granted.
Explanation and Evidence
Remember to use TEEL for each paragraph Topic sentence
Explanation Evidence Link
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 61
‘Deadly Unna’? Writing better Paragraphs 2
There comes a point where we can no longer be passive and do nothing about racism; we need to
Topic Sentence
(First Sentence) take action.
Explanation 1 Evidence 1 quote
Explanation 2 Evidence 2 quote
Topic Sentence Adolescence is a challenging time when we need to discover who we really are.
(First Sentence)
Explanation 1 + Evidence 1 quote
Explanation 2
Explanation 2 Evidence + quote 2
Remember to use TEEL for each paragraph Topic sentence
Explanation Evidence Link
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 62
‘Deadly Unna?’ Writing about the Text – Literature Response Essay
Writing a Text Response Essay
Purpose: Your essay will be a response to a question where you state a main idea/thesis or contention and
provide support from the text.
Your essay must be academic and formal sounding, using the best language skills you have. Avoid slang or first
person language, such as personal statements ‘I think’ or ‘In my opinion’ etc.
There is no need to ‘signpost’ or tell the reader ‘I will be discussing’. Just be confident and make firm
Structure of the Text Response
a. Opening statement – to introduce the themes in the question generally. Make it interesting so it hooks in
your reader.
b. Thesis statement – reveal your thesis or contention in relation to the topic.
State the text’s genre, title, author/director/playwright/poet etc.
C. Summary of Ideas to support your thesis statement: Do not make them specific or include detail – they
should reflect your topic sentences.
II. BODY PARAGRAPHS – 3 to 5 paragraphs
a. Topic Sentence: Each paragraph can only be about one main idea, which is stated in the (usually first) topic
b. Elaborate and provide textual support for the topic sentence.
c. Linking Statement: Sum up and link your paragraph’s point/arguments to your overall thesis.
a. Reword your thesis in an interesting way.
b. Summarize your main ideas as discussed in your topic sentences. Do not introduce any new ideas or
c. Concluding Statement should be strong, punchy and engage your reader.
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 63
‘‘Deadly Unna?’
Essay Topic: The gritty realism of ‘Deadly Unna’ presents a harsh world lacking in compassion, in desperate
need of reform.
Brainstorm the topic/Find key words:
Gritty; realism; harsh; no compassion; needs reform
Topic Sentences based on brainstorming above essay topic:
1. ‘Gritty realism’ best describes the genre of ‘Deadly Unna’ as it exposes the harsh world of the novel.
2. The author’s use of powerful colloquial language, slang, and descriptive writing serve to sharpen the reality of this
3. These literary elements combined with the plot and characters support the theme of the need for compassion and
racial reconciliation.
Introduction – This needs to include:
 A general opening
Phillip Gwynne’s 1998 novel ‘Deadly Unna?’ depicts life in a harsh rural community that is holding on to racist beliefs
and practices at the expense of others.
 And a variation of your topic sentences.
This world is created largely due to the powerful colloquial language and descriptive writing of the author. When
combined with the excellent plot and characterisation, the novel’s key them of the need for racial reconciliation is
brought to life.
Paragraph 1
Topic Sentence
(First sentence)
‘Gritty realism’ best describes the genre of ‘Deadly Unna’ as it exposes the harsh world of the novel.
Explanation & Evidence
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 64
Paragraph 2
Topic Sentence
(First sentence)
The author’s use of powerful colloquial language, slang, and descriptive writing serve to sharpen the
reality of this world.
Explanation & Evidence
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 65
Paragraph 3
These literary elements combined with the plot and characters support the theme of the need for
Topic Sentence
compassion and racial reconciliation.
(First sentence)
Explanation & Evidence
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 66
Conclusion – Rewrite your contention or thesis in a refreshing and engaging manner
Quotes to use:
Notes & Planning
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 67
‘Deadly Unna?’
Task: You are to use your novel as well as your own ideas to create a monologue for any character from the novel. A
monologue is a speech made by a single character who is on his/her own and expressing his/her inner ideas, feelings
hopes and past or future events. You may speak to the audience or another character, OR imagine there is no audience –
making it an internal monologue, spoken aloud. A Statement of Intention must also be completed.
Choose your character.
Choose the part of the text you will be basing your monologue around.
Work through the questions below.
Fill in your Statement of Intention.
Write your monologue. Feel free to choose quotes or phrases from the novel. 150 words would
be ideal.
o Make sure you reveal the character’s feelings and state of mind in your performance to the
Text Title:
Text Author or Creator:
Gender: _____ Age:___
Character name:
Type of monologue:
Personality description:
Where are they?
Which section of the text
will they refer to? Why?
Internal_________ OR To a specific character/audience ______
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 68
Monologue issue or
conflict/s this character is
dealing with:
What does the character
How will you end the
Statement of Intention
Write down the decisions you made in planning, writing and performing your
Discuss the challenges you had to overcome, and anything else that is relevant.
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 69
‘‘Deadly Unna?’
Introduction is
satisfactory but could
be stronger.
Introduction is limited
and creates some
confusion about the
There is no
Memorization** All lines are correct.
Most lines memorized.
Monologue needs much
more rehearsal.
Monologue is not
Characterization Strong choices are
made to create
character fully.
Character is present
but needs to be further
Limited characterizationnot maintained throughout
Character is not
Excellent depth of
understanding of the
character and his/her
Solid understanding of
character and his/her
Limited understanding of
character and his/her
Little or no depth of
Monologue is easy to
understand and hear.
All words are clear and
loud enough to hear
with good vocal
Most of the monologue
is easy to understand
but needs more work
on two or more of the
following (vocal variety,
projection or diction).
Some parts of the
monologue lacked clarity
and need attention.
Monologue was
hard to hear
Emotion is believable
and matches the
character’s style.
Emotion is somewhat
believable and mostly
matches the
character’s style.
Emotion is not always
believable or relevant to
the character.
Emotion is
Quality of
and Vocal
Introduction is clear
and confident and
immediately engages
the audience
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 70
‘Deadly Unna?’
1. If we spend time getting to
know others and develop
empathy and compassion,
there would be no room for
racism. Is this the message of
‘Deadly Unna?’
2. The tragedy of Phillip
Gwynne’s novel ‘Deadly Unna’
is the life-giving friendships that
were never made, as a result of
racist attitudes. To what extent
do you agree? Discuss.
3. In Phillip Gwynne’s novel
‘Deadly Unna’, the refusal to
acknowledge the mistakes of
the past and heal from them
creates a stagnant society.
4. ‘Deadly Unna’ is about
transitions and turning points in
people’s lives, especially
children. To what extent do you
agree? Discuss.
5. Gary Black realises that
sometimes action speaks
louder than words, and one
must step out and stand up for
an important cause. Discuss.
Above Left: Kerrie 2015 PREMIERS, CC BY-SA 2.0,
https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=52160397Sherrin Kangaroo Brand football. Sherrin is the official game ball
of the Australian Football League
Above Right: Cyril Rioli during the AFL round two match between Hawthorn and Adelaide on 1 April 2017 at the Melbourne Cricket
Ground in Melbourne, Victoria.
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 71
‘Deadly Unna?’
In pairs or groups, you are to research and present an oral presentation (speech) about a relevant
aspect of your text or its background.
Your talk must be 3-5 minutes long
You may use cue cards to refer to/glance only (Do not read)
Your voice must be clear, animated and loud enough for the audience to hear without strain.
It is important to make regular eye contact with your audience.
Your stance should be relaxed and confident.
Appropriate gestures will engage the audience.
Topics to choose from are:
Australian Rules is still riddled
with racism.
Profile of a famous Indigenous
The gap between how Indigenous
Australians and other Australians
live is still too wide.
Story-telling: Learn an Indigenous
story or picture book and present
it to the class.
Persuasive Speech: That ‘Deadly
Unna’ represents the ‘ugly white
‘Black Lives Matter’ - Australia
Case Study presentation of
someone from the Stolen
The damaging consequences of
To what extent do non-indigenous
citizens care about Indigenous
issues and racism?
Presenting an Indigenous
Australian artist, musician, filmmaker or dancer.
Poetry reading – profile of an
Indigenous poet and his/her
You may negotiate another topic with your teacher. No topic should be repeated, so
register your choice immediately.
Assessment Rubric- Oral Presentation
Quality of research and
information delivered;
Organization of material;
Structure of speech
Voice: pacing, volume,
variation and clarity
Body language
Eye Contact with audience;
Use of cue cards
Total out of ______
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 72
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 73
Comment on the descriptiveness of this section? Which
senses does the author appeal to, in order to create imagery
for the reader?
How has the
author used
humour in
this section?
What effect
does it have?
A phrase which likens two things to enhance meaning – ‘Life is like a box of
Symbolism Objects, colours, sounds, animals, places etc. that are used to symbolise concepts
The mood, sound, voice or atmosphere -which has been created by the language
and elements used by the writer. It is referred to as emotions, such as joyful, ETC.
What does any dialogue reveal about
What else does the dialogue reveal?
Use of exaggeration, often
for humorous effect
The pictures created by the
writer, using
metaphors, personification etc.
When words are used to
mean the opposite of what is being stated
A figurative (not real)
term/image to create meaning - ‘Her head
When human qualities are
given to an object, concept, and animal for effect
To repeat words or phrases
to create emphasis or a pattern
Are there word groups that influence the tone
of this section? Comment on the vocabulary or
words chosen. How do they fit in with the
Figurative Language is when words are used
creatively to reveal more than their literal
meaning. The literal meaning refers to words that
mean exactly what they sayThe man slowly ate his dinner at 7pm.
Using figurative elements such as a simile
reveals further information about the man’s mood
and life:
The man ate his dinner slowly as every mouthful
sank like an anchor to the burning pit of his
Has the author used figurative language in
this passage and for what purpose?
What stands out to you in this section of
the text and why?
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 74
‘Deadly Unna?’ Exploring Narrative Elements Response
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 75
1 ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
Your task is to plan, write and edit a Text-inspired Creative Writing piece based on the original text you are
studying. This will also be accompanied by a Written Explanation Task of about 200 words.
Your creative writing must reflect and/or develop an aspect of your novel in some way. Your piece must
be related to the novel ‘Deadly Unna? or inspired by it.
First read through all the information provided
Then start with your brainstorm and planning sheet
Decide the form you will choose for your piece, after checking the features of different forms and types.
You may need to research this further. Be realistic, you are not writing a novel or play so make sure your
goal is realistic.
Keep referring the checklist.
Start your draft.
As part of your final piece you may include some parts of the text but most should be your original work.
Fill in your Written Explanation Task
You are free to come up with your own ideas, or use those provided below. Whilst there are many ways to
approach the Text-Inspired Creative Writing Task, below are some suggestions that are appropriate and
Transforming and Adapting – Change
Take a section of the text and transform it by adapting it to another form. I.e. novel to poetry or scene.
Create a graphic novel section inspired by a section of the text.
Change an event in the plot to create another outcome. Write the story.
Create an alternative resolution or ending to your text.
Take an event from the text and write a feature article.
Write a diary entry from the perspective of one or more characters revealing something new.
ADD to the text
Create an Epilogue – what needs to be said after the text ends?
Write a Prequel to the text. What may have happened before?
Create a few poems inspired by the text.
Choose a landscape from the text and allow it to narrate.
More Ideas…
Interview a character from a text.
Write an editorial on some issue or theme raised by the book.
Write a legend, fable, or myth inspired by the novel.
Character Focus
Allow another character to present his/her point of view about an event in the text.
Fill in the backstory for a character. Who are they? What has his/her life been like?
Change the gender of a character.
Regress a character back to his/her childhood.
Age a character into the future.
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 76
2 ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
Planning Page
Text Connections:
Moment of time from original text?
How will my piece connect to the original text?
Is your piece set before, during or after the original
Purpose of my creative writing?
Format I will use?
Are you aiming to shed new light on the text or
explore a character further? Etc.
Will it be the same as the original text or will you be
adapting and transforming it to another format? I.e.
go from a play to a short story? Etc.
Main theme/ideas to explore…
Ideas Brainstorm
Checklist: You need to include all of the following
Clear relevance to ‘Deadly Unna’ (but you do not need to use the story or characters)
A clear and appropriate setting
At least two characters, one fully developed
Vocabulary that reflects the theme and tone of the piece
Use of at least 3 narrative elements appropriate for your chosen form
Conventions relevant to the form chosen See Forms sheet
Exploration of a theme relevant to ‘Deadly Unna’
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 77
3 ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
Personal Writing
- Diaries, Journals, Reflection
To reveal the inner self/beliefs/emotions. Exploration.
- Letters & Emails
Opinion Writing
- Editorials and Speeches
- News and feature articles
Writing about people/self
Autobiography Biography Memoirs
To communicate and relate with others about life and
To voice point of view. To persuade.
Scripts/Plays/Scenes /Monologues
To entertain. To be performed. To educate.
To express, to educate, to explore, to entertain
Narrative fiction and Short Stories
To explore ideas. To entertain.
To inform and educate.
To provide insights about the self and others and moments in life.
Text-inspired Creative Writing Assessment Rubric
Above standard
Needs work
Quality and depth of
ideas and a clearly
developed theme
Connection to original
Carefully considered use of
thought-provoking ideas
and a well-explored theme.
A sophisticated connection
with the original text that
enhances and stimulates
the reader.
Well-chosen and executed
conventions of the form
Characters are realistic
and authentic.
Setting and other elements
enhance the reading
experience and craft of
Excellent accuracy in
spelling, punctuation and
grammar. Vocabulary
chosen is relevant,
engaging and enhances
the reading experience.
Fluent and engaging.
Considered and
intelligent ideas and a
developed theme.
Some clear
connections to the
original text, needs
greater depth.
Relevant conventions
chosen; execution
needs development.
Characters are limited
in their authenticity.
Setting and elements
are all present but
used without great
Mostly accurate use
of spelling,
punctuation and
grammar. Vocabulary
chosen is relevant,
Some appropriate ideas
although further depth is
A limited connection to
the original text.
Some appropriate
conventions used
Characters are too onedimensional.
Some elements are
present but used without
effect. More effort
Some accurate use of
spelling, punctuation and
grammar. A limited
Satisfactory fluency,
but needs work on
being more engaging.
Limited cohesiveness,
some confusion for the
Use of conventions in
relation to form chosen
Development of
An engaging setting
and use of narrative
elements as
appropriate to the form
Accurate spelling,
punctuation and
grammar. Diverse
range of vocabulary
A cohesive and
engaging response
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 78
4 ‘‘Deadly Unna?’
Written Explanation
Title of piece:
1. Discuss the form chosen and reasons for this choice.
2. Who is the narrator? What is the narrative perspective? Why?
3. Who is the target audience? How have you achieved this?
4. What elements of ‘Deadly Unna’ have you explored in your creative response? Why?
5. Describe the choices behind your use of language? features did you use and how do they relate
to the original text?
6. What narrative elements and conventions have you used? How did you use them?
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 79
4 ‘‘Deadly Unna’?
Novel (Fiction)
Many specific types of poetry/structures to follow
or free form (ode, epic, sonnet, ballad etc.)
Organised in an anthology collection
Instead of paragraphs there are stanzas
Poem’s narrator is usually called the ‘speaker’
Less narrative and often organised around a
feature such as an emotion or image
No or little characterisation
Language is the focus so words are used
Sound is important in a poem
Meaning is layered and complex
Poetic or figurative elements such as imagery,
symbolism, personification etc. add to the poem
Rhyme and rhythm schemes may be present
Time and setting not essential
Play or Drama
Organised in acts and scenes
To be performed in front of an audience
Live action with dialogue by actors
Includes stage directions
Language depends on play – ranges from
naturalistic to poetic depending on the
Involves interpretation from the written play
to the stage – from the director, producer,
technicians (sound, light, sets) and
Changes to the play’s context are often made
to the original play i.e. changing the setting
or gender
Dramatic elements include actors’
characterisation with gestures, expressions,
voice and movement.
Genres are varied such as tragedy or comedy
Narrative - Short Story - Fiction
Condensed fiction; Shorter in length than a
Less development of characters; can have
focus on an aspect of a character
Focus is on specific time and situation
Various endings; resolution, ambiguous
Setting established succinctly
Various genres – war; humour etc.
Use of language is tight and important due to
the limited number of words
Figurative /literary elements are often evident
Narrative and point of view as per novel
Prose/Paragraphs organised in sections – chapters
Plot structure is usually beginning, middle, end
Main character/s are complex and interact
Minor characters serve specific purposes
Context is depicted
Narrative voice – first, third and sometimes second
Narrative has a climax and resolution or other such
as builds to an anti-climax
Settings are developed
Literary elements such as symbols, images are
used to develop key themes
Belongs to one or more genres such as horror,
romance, historical fiction etc.
Non-Fiction – Memoir, Biography, Autobiography
 Real people and places described –based on real
memories, research and so on
 Narrative usually chronological but there are many
 The focus is on one individual or an event and its
effect on individuals, such as war etc.
 Memoirs and autobiographies are usually first
person narrative
 Biographies are usually written in the third person.
 Setting and context are established
 Organised in sections
 Factual/memoirs
 Supporting material i.e. photos, Maps
‘Mise en scene’ or everything on the screen – a shot is
the basis of the film
Films usually run for 90 to 120+ minutes
Soundtrack and music are very important
Strong narrative drive which adds tension and
excitement, engaging the audience
Sometimes a narrative voice over
Actors play characters according to the script, director’s
interpretation and self
Different camera angles are used to vary shots and
convey information
Film shots are edited to create the intended effect
Computer-generated imagery may be added to some
Many genres such as thriller or western etc.
Film is essentially visual in how it communicates and
engages with the viewer.
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 80
Vocabulary 1 ‘Deadly Unna?’ Answers
Flanks 3
Entice 31
Bellowing 49
Wallop 5
Amok 44
Momentum 47
Slack 46
Moll 4
Legitimate 45
Bandy 50
Optimism 1
Munga 9
Brawling 30
Scrawny 2
Thrashed 48
Servo 8
Dump 39
Boongs 34
Erstwhile 33
Indistinct 21
Decapitated 6
Froggies 13
Wogs 7
Continentals 16
Flinch 29
Incredulously 17
Kamikaze 10
Catapulting 32
Putrid 15
Grotesque 19
Emphatically 24
Immaculate 11
Sanctuary 20
Whiff 14
Veritable 22
Perve 18
Probability 28
Demise 23
Veered 41
Trundling 43
Whinging 27
Ropable 40
Jetty 25
Dyslexic 42
Lemmings 37
Bilge 36
Tackle 12
Moorings 38
Gypping 35
Foggiest 26
Match the words with their meanings or
1. Looking on the positive side
2. Skinny and weak looking
3. Sides
4. Derogatory slang for a woman ‘slut’
5. A big hit or bashing
6. Head cut off
7. Slang for migrants; may be racist
8. Petrol station
9. Pubic lice or ‘crabs’
10. Suicide mission Japanese pilots
11. Perfect; pure; pristine
12. Fishing gear
13. Derogatory term for the French
14. To take a sniff, or a bad smell
15. Rotting, disgusting smell
16. A reference to Europeans
17. Unbelievably; hard to believe
18. To leer or stare in a sleazy manner
19. Hideous
20. A safe haven or retreat
21. Hard to tell the difference or separate
22. Truth; believable
23. The end of; downfall
24. With great emphasis
25. Structure projecting from land to water.
26. Hard to know; to have no idea
27. Complaining all the time
28. Chance of something happening
29. To move back in shock in fear of attack
30. Fighting usually involves gangs
31. To tempt or allure someone
32. To throw high over a wall etc.
33. Former or formerly known as…
34. Racial slur referring to Aboriginals
35. Cheating or swindling someone
36. Water catcher on a boat or rubbish
37. A follower who does not think
38. Structures where a boat may be
39. A hovel or run down shack/home
40. Incredibly angry
41 To move into one direction off centre
42 Learning reading disorder
43. Slow, heavy movement
44. Chaos
45. All fine; the real thing
46 Lazy, unmotivated
47 To get going or to build up speed
48 To beat or win a game by a wide margin
or to literally pulp something to break up its
49. Shouting very loudly
50. Bowed or crooked legs
Contours 3
Phonies 12
Loaded 5
Ricochet 11
Banshee 2
Surreptitiously 8
Colonised 4
Pylons 14
Unison 1
Envisaged 6
Moping 51
Snide 15
Puny 7
Smorgasbord 13
Hyperactive 10
Heaved 21
Slinked 24
Rummaged 9
Clambered 20
Bile 45
Acrid 26
Gropes 19
Gloom 22
Plummet 25
Spate 54
Crests 55
Squall 16
Trance 23
Perplexed 29
Seeping 36
Splificate 47
Snagged 28
Consicuous 30
Self-Conscious 48
Slurred 33
Ranting 53
Lard 27
Ramshackle 35
Shards 34
Feral 32
Cylindrical 31
Transmogrified 44
Ajar 37
Incomprehensible 46
Bloodshot 42
Silhouette 41
Racket 43
Prised 40
Hoisted 49
Gnarled 52
Fluoros 38
Spread-Eagled 50
Shack 39
‘Deadly Unna?’ Student Workbook ©Angie Barillaro Radiant Heart Publishing Page 81
Above left: Polywaffle;
Silos; Brylcream gel;
Left: Vegemite; Lost in
Space and Kaiser Bill
LOST IN SPACE: By Source, Fair use, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?curid=10295003 Irwin Allen © CBS.
By Tristanb - en.wikipedia.org: 23:18, 18. Jan 2004 . Tristanb (Talk) . . 460x521 (64363 Byte), CC BY-SA 3.0,
Above Left: Luna
Park; Catherine
Wheel; Monaro
Left: 1979 Cassette
Player; cassette tape;
Slim Dusty
Delete - Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=45160617
Hopscotch; Monopoly; Barbie and ‘kero’ or kerosene.