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Factors and effects of urban to rural migration: Case study of Kigali city
inhabitants’ resettlement in Mayange sector in Bugesera district. [ we will keep
updating it] !!
Rural to urban migration is a form of internal migration that refers to the movement of people from
the country side to cities usually the capital and secondary cities. In Africa, it is estimated that over
20 million people move from rural to urban areas between 1950s and 1970s (Lall, Selod, &
Shalizi, 2006). During 1960s, rural to urban migration was intensive in Europe due to industrial
development and job opportunities(Albert & Hárs, 2012). Rural to urban migration in Latin
American began 1930s with movement of people from rural areas to the cities (Dufour &
Piperata, 2004). The analysis of inter-municipal youth migration flows between 2010-2015
indicated that 9%, 6% and 10% of all total migrants from Mexico, Peru and Ecuador respectively
moved from rural areas to urban areas for employment opportunities(Cazzuffi & Fernández,
2018). Rural to urban migration was mainly due to the pull and push factors; push factors included
lack of jobs, lack of access to land, famine, drought, various kind of poverty (Macharia,
2003). while pull factors mainly includes employment as very many rural dwellers move from
agricultural to industrial and services jobs, high wages, high labor demands, better standards of
living, better services and infrastructure provision in urban centers(Helbich & Leitner, 2009).
In countries with higher number rural dwellers, agriculture is the common practiced economic
activity, with the increasing agricultural mechanization and limited access to credits and
technology, as greatly posed as barrier to effective agricultural production and this has led to ruralurban migration. The increasing levels of urbanization in southern countries have severely
influenced rural to urban migration (Tacoli, 2003). This has resulted into shortage of adequate
housing, overcrowding and congestion, emergency of slums and informal housing occupation,
pollution and supply of unclean water that result into the easy spread of diseases such as dysentery,
cholera (Janet &Paul, 2019).
In recent years more developing state and governments have embarked on the rural development
programs to help slow down the rural urban migration. In 2013, 80% of the governments had
policies in place to lower rural to urban and this was reflected as an increase from 38% registered
in 1996, according to world population policies(United Nations, 2013). In addition migration
generally is a continuous and repeated event rather than a single event and difficult to measure. It
also lacks of standard data sources or uniform approach due to the factor that it is studied by the
researchers in all social science (National Research Council, 1993).
Most of the recent studies have shifted from the rural population movements towards the cities to
the reverse situation. Nearly any city has been formed and reorganized by suburbanization process,
which have provoked population development to urban fringes. Occupants benefit from a few
points of interest of these areas, including better air quality, living close to nature, enjoying
attractiveness of landscapes, less traffic, whereas still having great accessibility to the center city
(Helbich & Leitner, 2009).
Urban to rural migration
Due to high level of urbanization the world urban areas have been greatly overcrowded this has
increased exposure to environmental hazards, shortage of affordable housing and high cost of land
etc…., (Tacoli, McGranahan, & Satterthwaite, 2015). These pose health threats to people and
as a result people result to move safer areas. In European and American cities have under gone a
change their spatial patterns where they have been changed and organized by urbanization process
(Helbich & leitner, 2009). In the United States, suburbanization started in 1970s and was also
observed in Europe in the early 1990s, for example in Spain and Italy(Caglar, 2015). This has
been characterized by rapid movement of people from the urban area to the country side which is
referred to urban exodus(Helbich & Leitner, 2009). Over 40% of all people living in urban areas
consider leaving the areas for environment that are less crowded. This has stimulated population
movement to urban fringes and probably rural areas (Green, 2013). In the modern world the
leading of urban to rural migration is mainly the need to efficient access to public goods like good
air quality, living close to nature and enjoying attractiveness of landscapes, less traffic
etc..,(Helbich & Leitner, 2009). Other than the basic economic activities are increasing in rural
areas such as industrialization, rural electrification, quality infrastructure, high agricultural
productivity and postharvest processing. These are mainly through lowering transport costs and
economies of scale. Although, with the best of these economic activities, rural areas do not provide
such a potential source of labor. Therefore, this limited labor supply in the country side will require
rural in migration (Brown & Wardwell, 2013). Urban to rural migration was not applied to one
country like the USA, but it also exists in other countries like Japan, Norway, Sweden, Italy,
Denmark etc..,. Each of these countries have experienced either a reversal in direction or a decrease
in the number of rural to urban migrants. This instance emerged in France, Germany, and
Netherlands in 1960 but spread to the countries in 1970 (Brown & Wardwell, 2013). In the past
2-3 years, large US cities have experienced a huge wave of urban to rural migration of almost
27,000 residents aged 25 to 39 residents mainly referred to as millennials moving from urban to
rural areas. In 2018, 38,000 millennials migrated from New York City to the country side due to
presence cheap and school (John&Paul, 2019). In Rwanda urban to rural was considered the
second most common type of migration in 2011 making up to 27% of all internal population
movement and rural were destination of 61% of internal migrants since 2011 (World Bank, 2017).
Kigali city districts are also the main origin of migrants moving elsewhere, 43% of all recent
migrants in the bordering centers came from Kigali city (World Bank, 2017).
Problem statement.
Kigali city established in 1907 as Germany colonial outpost and trading center, is the capital and
the largest city of Rwanda. It is located between 290 44’0’’ E, 290 43’0’’ E and 20 35’0’’ S, 20
37’0’’E. Kigali city covers 730km
(Manirakiza, Mugabe, Nsabimana, & Nzayirambaho,
2019). The administration reform of 2005 made Kigali city of five provinces of Rwanda
(Twarabamenye, 2020). It is made up of three districts of Gasabo, Nyarugenge, and Kicukiro
with 35 sectors (City of Kigali, 2013), 161 cells and 1061 villages (Manirakiza et al., 2019). It
is among the fastest growing cities in Africa with a strong population annual growth rate of 4.0
%( NISR, 2012). The population of Kigali city was approximately 1.3 million people with gross
density of 1780 people per km2 in2018 (City of Kigali, 2020). Urban extent was 13880ha in 2014
increasing at an average annual rate of 4.9 % since 1999. The urbanized areas was occupied the of
the land area 12.1% while the remaining 87.9% is rural area(Baffoe, Malonza, Manirakiza, &
Mugabe, 2020).
The current development of Kigali is guided by different zoning regulations established in
2008(Manirakiza et al., 2019) .And revised in 2020 (Enrico et al., 2020). The aim of Kigali
zoning regulations was to provide a consistent framework implementing the city’s updated master
and directing public and private sector growth (Enrico et al., 2020). The goals, definitions and
regulations ensure that construction proceeds in logical pattern in the city. Kigali zoning
regulations included: agricultural zone that aim to protect the sustainability of agricultural in the
city by preventing farm land from being converted to non-farming uses, natural conservation zone
that aims to conserve designated open space in its natural state, industrial zone that regulate
industrial uses within the various industrial zones of Kigali, public facilities regulations that apply
public facilities provided for the wellbeing of the community within various government owned
or privately owned the in Kigali city and mixed-use and commercial zones in Kigali are governed
by regulations and guidelines that apply to mixed-use and commercial uses within the city’s
various commercial zones (Enrico et al.,2020). Etc..,
According to Kigali master plan 2020, the existing land uses in Kigali included; residential,
commercial, public facilities, industries, natural area agriculture, open space, water bodies,
infrastructure and special uses. Agricultural, natural area, residential and infrastructure take up
most of Kigali land area with 457.95 km2, 123.61 km2, 80.87 km2 and 27.99 km2 respectively (City
of Kigali, 2020). To meet the housing standards, an individual should request for construction
permit from city of Kigali one stop center. All arrangements of the Rwanda building code, counting
the securing of essential building permits and certificates of inhabitance, along with the necessities
of all other appropriate developments codes or directions, might be met to set up an adornment
private unit (Baffoe et al., 2020). The adornment unit should fulfill these standards: living area of
an accessory residential unit shall occupy a minimum of 9 m2 per single occupancy and 15 m2 for
double occupancy, in no case shall the floor area exceed fifty(50%) percent of the gross
livable floor area of total structure, etc..., (Enrico et al.,2020).
The median cost of construction of residential houses is 12 millions Rwandan Francs with variation
of approximately 3% in either direction, accounting for 60% of the total value of the property each
of housing owners possess (City of Kigali, 2020). Regardless of the fact that some Kigali districts
like Nyarugenge has over 700000 confirmed clay deposits (MINICOM,2011), construction
materials are still expensive in Kigali city. Housing affordability in East African cities like Kigali
is commonly impacted by low household income, high construction costs, limited access to bank
loans, construction materials, and investment taxes (Uwayezu & Vries, 2020). This suggests a
two pattern of migration out of Kigali. On the one hand, due to the high cost of living ( high
housing costs), relatively young, low to middle income city dwellers are pushed out of the capital
and settle in its rural fringes, close enough to benefit from the city’s economic density (World
Bank, 2017). On the other hand, city dwellers who are relatively older and uneducated, and for
whom the city does not provide sustainable employment [Not complete idea !!]. Males are less
likely to leave but this effect is mediated by age: as men grow older they are more likely to leave
city. Between 2002 and 2012, the population the sectors bordering Kigali increased 40%,
compared to 30% overall increase (World Bank, 2017). The migration to the outskirts of the
capital reflects both a push towards density and a push out of the city: 54% residents in Kigali are
poor and low income, earning between 38 and 225$ per month. Around 13% of them are extremely
poor, earning less than 38$ per month. Access to decent housing has thus been a major concern
for the city’s poor, low and middle residents (Uwayezu & Vries, 2020). It appears that other
factors, such as the higher price of land in Kigali and stricter building codes are driving expansion
into neighboring districts, rather than a lack of land. This results in difficulty obtaining permits
and high construction costs (World Bank, 2017). These factors have sparked growth on the city's
outskirts. There are also reasons to believe that zoning has stifled both population densification
and the growth of some economic activities in Kigali, where stricter zoning standards were adopted
earlier than in other cities (informal sector). This is because the misalignment of zoning and
existing land use can necessitate extensive resettlement and redevelopment (as seen in some of
Kigali's settlement upgrades), and in some cases increases the risk of displacing the urban poor.
This is due in part to the fact that the adopted zoning standards, which include building regulations,
minimum plot sizes, and maximum plot coverage ratios, limit both residential and commercial
activities. This is likely to drive some investors, as well as general economic activity, to areas
where zoning has not yet been completed and/or planning codes are not strictly enforced (World
Bank, 2017). People choose to live in a specific neighborhood for a variety of reasons, including
the availability of basic social infrastructure (e.g., schools, health centers, water and electricity),
the affordability of the land, the type of construction material used, and the overall view of the site.
The ease of obtaining a building permit, as well as social cohesion, are also important(Baffoe et
al., 2020).
We need to add some sentences about the consequences of the migration
Example 1: the achievement of the urbanisation goals as stated in the NST1 and Vison 2050 may
not be possible if people are leaving Kigali city!
Example 2: what about impacts on land use in the destination areas, speculative land market and
land deprivation for the existing landowners, etc.
Example 3: positive aspects of this migration for the destination areas !! , etc.
Another short text is needed: it should be about the destination areas for people who migrate from
Kigali city towards the neighbouring rural areas. Bugesera should be mentioned, so that it becomes
possible to introduce Mayange sector as the study area.
Research Objectives
Main objective
The main objective of this study is to analyse the determinants of urban to rural migration between
Kigali city and rural neighbourhoods and their social, economic and environmental effects. This study
will be carried out in Bugesera district, Mayange sector which is one of the destination areas for
the migrants from Kigali city.
Specific objectives
1. To ascertain main factors influencing the migration of Kigali city inhabitants towards the
neighboring rural Districts
2. To analyze the pulling factors for the migration of Kigali city inhabitants to Mayange
3. To identify possible social, economic and environmental effects of population migration
from Kigali city to Mayange sector.
4. To suggest strategies for mitigating negative effects resulting from this migration
Research questions
1. What are the main factors that influence the movements of people from Kigali city to its
neighboring districts?
2. What are the pulling factors that attract people from Kigali city to mayange sector?
3. What impacts have the migration of Kigali dwellers had on the availability and
affordability of land and housing in mayange sector?
4. What are possible social, economic and environmental effects of population migration
from Kigali city to Mayange?
5. What are the effective strategies to minimize negative effects caused by migration of
people from Kigali to mayange sector?
Study area
Improvement is needed: Make a brief presentation of the study area in relation to Bugesera District, and
point out the issues of the current movement of people towards that areas.
The study area of our research is Mayange sector, it is one of 15 sectors that make up Bugesera
district. It located between 2011’34’’S and 3007’19’’E in the center of Bugesera district, bordered
by Gashora and Rilima in the east; Nyamata in the north; Musenyi, Mareba and Ngeruka in the
west; Kamabuye and Rweru in south. It covers the total surface area of 146.8 square kilometers
with seven cells, villages and population of 29835 people with population density of 203
inhabitants per Square kilometer. Many of the residents in Mayange sector are farmers.
Research methodology [ Talk about all research
methods that you will use in a summarised way, but one by one]
See the example:
This qualitative study will be based on primary and secondary data sources. Essential information
almost spatial information will be collected through interviews, studies by surveys, field
observation and coordinate perceptions. The interviews will be based on organized close and openended questions and unstructured questions to enable respondents give reliable information. The
respondents will be chosen according to their origin (birth place) location, level of education and
jobs due to different levels of education of responders, interviewers had to interpret/translate
responses from Kinyarwanda as local language to English due to their prepared semi structured
questionnaire. Field observation will be used to identify different development patterns of different
fields in the sector like access to the roads and fresh water in many areas, electrification, different
infrastructures like markets, hospitals and health centers, schools and universities, industries all
achieved by cooperation of private government and private sectors.
The fundamental research method for this study is literature review; this mainly included; Books,
journal articles, reports, government documents served to review the literature related to urban_
rural migration. The authors are social scientists and geographers both from Rwanda and other part
of the world. The data banks and search engines of PDF Drive, Google Scholar and web citation
index will also be used to retrieve articles and books. The statistical materials have been found on
the website and annual of National Institute of Statistics of Rwanda (NISR) and World Bank
statistics on Rwanda. All these were used in the collection of data. The acquired data from either
primary or secondary sources will then be analyzed, manipulated, managed, compiled and
disseminated into clear illustrations like maps, tables, graphs and related pictures and discussed
Data manipulation and analysis will mainly be done using the GIS software. This will include the
production of different kinds of maps, tables and graphs like the land use maps. These will be used
to in the interpretation of different phenomena of our study.
Research matrix
Revise it , based on the new research objectives
Research objectives
 To ascertain
main factors
the migration
of Kigali city
towards the
rural Districts
Research questions
What are the
main factors
that influence
the movements
of people from
Kigali city to
its neighboring
Research methods and
data sources
-Interview, surveys by using
observations, and
- Literature review about
urban-rural migration.
-review of some
government documents and
reports about internal
-review of documents about
the general development of
Kigali neighbor hood
Expected data
- Factors influencing
the migration of
Kigali city
inhabitants towards
the neighboring rural
 To analyze
the pulling
factors for the
migration of
Kigali city
inhabitants to
 To identify
economic and
effects of
from Kigali
city to
What are the
pulling factors
that attract
people from
Kigali city to
What are
possible social,
economic and
effects of
migration from
Kigali city to
-review of some
government documents and
reports about internal
-review of documents about
the general development of
Kigali neighbor hood
-Interview, surveys by
using observations and
-Literature review about the
cost of living in Kigali city
-review of documents about
the general development of
Kigali city (master plans.)
-community based
interviews based on the cost
of utilities
Cost of land
and housing
in mayange
 Cost of
materials in
 Cost of social
services like
education and
health in
Rental costs in
mayange sector
 Movement
effects of
moving from
Kigali city to
 - Possible
solutions to
the negative
effects caused
by migration
of people
from Kigali to
 Extent
degradation as
result of
from Kigali
city to
 Different
 To suggest
strategies for
resulting from
this migration
What are the
strategies to
negative effects
caused by
migration of
people from
Kigali to
-Interview, surveys by
using observations, and
-Review of literature about
the pulling factors to
mayange sector.
-review of literature about
the pushing factors from
Kigali city.
-Review of documents on
the general push and pull
factors of urban –rural
carried out by
between the
cost of
utilities like
electricity in
Kigali city
and mayange.
Cost of food
stuffs in
sector and
Kigali city
To know
those negative
Possible ways
to mitigate
resulting from
To know
measures of
of Rwanda
that taken in
order to
control urban
to rural
migration this
can help to
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