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Management Batch 2- Organizing
Job Design and Work Schedules
Job Design – process of laying out job responsibilities and duties and describing how they
are to be performed.
A. Four (4) Major Dimensions of Job Design (Frederick Morgeson and Stephen Humphrey):
1. Task Characteristics
2. Knowledge Characteristics
3. Social Characteristics
4. Contextual Characteristics
Task Characteristics – how work itself is accomplished and the range and nature of
tasks associated with a particular job.
ex. A manager of a steel mill – using a spreadsheet to make time-series analysis of
demand for recycled steel by manufacturers of washing machines.
+ Autonomy – how much freedom and independence incumbent has to carry out his assignment.
a. work scheduling
b. decision-making
c. work methods
+ Task Variety – degree to which job requires worker to use a wide range of tasks
+ Task Significance –extent to which a job influences lives or work of others, whether inside or
outside the organization.
+ Task Identity- extent to which a job involves a whole piece of work that can readily be identified.
+ Feedback from Job – refers to extent which job provides direct and clear information
Knowledge Characteristics – demand for knowledge, skill, ability from job holder.
+ Job complexity – degree to which job tasks are complex and difficult to perform.
+ Information processing – degree to which a job requires attending to and processing data and
+ Problem-solving – degree to which a job requires unique ideas or solutions.
+ Skill Variety – extent to which a job requires incumbent to use variety skills to
perform work.
+ Specialization – extent to which a job involve performing specialized tasks or
possessing specialized knowledge and skills.
 Social Characteristics – interpersonal aspects of a job or extent to which the job requires
interaction with others.
>>Social support – degree to which a job involves opportunity for advice and assistance from others
in the workplace, contributes to jobholder’s well-being, as being able to turn to co-workers for
technical assistance.
+ Interdepence – degree to which job depends on others- and others depend on
job- to accomplish a task.
+ Interaction outside organization – how much job requires employee to interact
and communicate with people outside organization.
+ Feedback from others – extent to which other workers in organization provide
information about performance.
 Contextual Characteristics – setting or environment of job such as working in
extreme temperatures.
+ Ergonomics – degree to which job allows correct posture or movement.
+ Physical demands – level of physical activity or effort for job particularly with
respect to physical strength, endurance, effort, and activity.
+ Work conditions – environment to which work is performed, including presence of
health hazards, noise, temperature, cleanliness.
+ Equipment use – variety and complexity of technology and equipment
incorporated into the job.
• Job Dimension Differences: Professional and Non-professional Jobs:
• Non-professional Jobs- requires more physical demands. (Food preparation
specialists and personal service providers).
• Professional Jobs- requires significantly higher on work characteristics like:
(Managers, Accountants, Engineers)
Job complexity Work scheduling autonomy
Information processing Decision-making autonomy
Problem solving Work-methods autonomy
Skill variety Work conditions ( more favorable )
• Human-life focused (supervisors) vs. Nonhuman-life focused (job technician)
Job specialization – degree to which a job holder performs only a limited number of tasks.
Advantages and Disadvantages: Job Specialization
1. Development of expertise
2. Status and self-esteem for being experts at some task
3. Specialized jobs at lower occupational levels require less training time and less
learning ability- key advantage when available labor force lacks special skills
1. Coordinating workforce when several employees do small parts of one job
2. No control over work
3. Boredom
Automation and Specialization
1. Automation used to replace some aspects of human endeavor in office & factory since
Industrial revolution
2. Purpose of automation is to increase productivity by reducing labor content
3. Automation devices in retail store – optical scanners and automatic recording of
remaining inventory when a customer checks out
4. Use of PCs decreasing need for clerical support
5. E-mail, text messaging, automated delivery of messages including sending photos,
graphics, once sent by postal mail or messenger service
6. Enhance job satisfaction when annoying or dangerous tasks are removed, does not
result in job elimination
B. Job Description and Job Design
Job description –written statement of the key features of a job and activities required to perform it
C. Job Enrichment and the Job Characteristics Model
Job enrichment –approach to including more challenge and responsibility in jobs to make
them more appealing to most employees.
- gives workers a sense of ownership, responsibility, and accountability for work.
- leads to more exciting job; therefore, increases job satisfaction and motivation.
- built into it more planning and decision making, controlling and responsibility.
Characteristics and Consequences of an Enriched Job (Frederick Herzberg):
1. Client relationships
2. Control over resources
3. Control over methods
4. Control over scheduling
5. Unique Experience
6. Personal accountability
7. Direct feedback
8. Direct communication authority
9. New learning
C. Job Enrichment ,Enlargement and Rotation
Job enrichment is a management concept that involves redesigning jobs so that they are more
challenging to the employee and have less repetitive work.
 The characteristic or features of job enrichment are:
-  Nature of job : Job enrichment is a vertical expansion of the job.
 Objective : The objective of job enrichment is to make the job more lively and challenging.
 Positive Results : Job enrichment gives positive results if the workers are highly skilled.
 Direction and Control : Job enrichment encourages self-discipline.
The importance or merits or advantages of job enrichment are:
-  Job enrichment is useful to both the workers and the organization.
 The worker gets achievement recognition and self-actualization.
 The worker gets a sense of belonging to the organization.
 The worker finds the job meaningful.
 Job enrichment reduces absenteeism labor - turnover and grievances.
 It motivates the workers to give best performance.
The shortcoming or demerits or limitations of job enrichment are:
-  In many cases job enrichment does not give the expected result.
 It makes many changes in the job. So many workers oppose it.
 It has limited use for highly skilled managers and professionals.
 The consent of workers is not taken before implementing job enrichment.
 Managers force the workers to accept job enrichment which is not good.
Job Enlargement is the horizontal expansion of a job. It involves the addition of tasks at the same
level of skill and responsibility. It is done to keep workers from getting bored. It is different than job
enrichment. Example: small companies may not have as many opportunities for promotions, so
they try to motivate employees through job enlargement.
LIMITATION OF JOB ENLARGEMENT The demerits or limitations of job enlargement are:Increase work burden :- Job enlargement increases the work of the employee and not every
company provides incentives and extra salary for extra work. Increasing frustration of the
employee :- In many cases employees end up being frustrated because increased activities do not
result in increased salaries. Problem with union members :- Many union members may
misunderstand job enlargement as exploitation of worker and may take objection to it.
CONCLUSION  Job enrichment is dependent on job enlargement, whereas job enlargement is not
dependent on enrichment.  Job enlargement means taking charge of more duties and
responsibilities which are not mentioned in the job description .  Job enrichment gives more
control and managerial access to perform tasks and responsibilities.  Job enlargement is
horizontal, whereas job enrichment is vertical expansion.  Job enlargement and job enrichment are
tools for motivation and growth.
A job design technique in which employees are moved between two or more jobs in a planned
manner.  Job rotation is a management technique that assigns trainees to various jobs and
departments over a period of few years.
It takes place in jobs that involve a high degree of physical demands on the body or extremely
tedious job.  Employees are periodically removed from these mentally stressful or physically
demanding tasks to a less.
Example : A spot welder on a production line working 10 hrs. shift for 4days a week is shifted to the
maintenance or tool shop.
PROCESS ROTATION  It is the process of laterally moving an employee to different geographical
location.  The purpose behind this type of rotation is to personally professionally developing the
employee by exposing her to new knowledge, skills and perspectives.
Example : A junior executive at a multinational consulting firm sent as the company’s advance
executive training program to different geographical location.
OBJECTIVES  Reducing Monotony of the job.  Succession Planning.  Creating right-Employee job
Fit.  Exposing Workers to All Verticals of the Company.  Testing Employee Skills and
Competencies.  Developing a Wider Range of Work Experience.
ADVANTAGES  Provides an opportunity to broaden one’s knowledge.  Avoiding fraudulent
practice.  Increases Satisfaction and Decreases Attribution Rate.  Helps Individuals Explore Their
Interests.  Helps Managers Explore the Hidden Talent.
DISADVANTAGE  Reduces uniformity in quality.  Frequent interruption.  Misunderstanding with
the union member.  Staff members have fear of performing different tasks effectively.
Conclusion  Job rotation is not just another transfer in the industry today.  Job rotation strategy
required focus on the outcome.  It can be used to settle scores which arises from organizational
politics.  It can also be used as a good tool to bring fresh ideas and infuse new energy into the
existing roles and function.
Organizational Structure ,Culture and Change
A. Bureaucracy as an Organizational Structure
-A rational, systematic, and precise form of organization in which rules,
regulations, and techniques of control are specifically defined
Principles of organization in a Bureaucracy
 Hierarchy of authority- each lower organizational unit is controlled and supervised by a
higher one
 Unity of command- each subordinate receives assigned duties from one superior only and is
accountable to that superior
 Task specialization- division of labor is based on task specialization
 Responsibilities and job description
 Line and staff functions
The Bureaucratic Form of Organization
Advantages and disadvantages of Bureaucracy
 Know who is responsible for what
 Helps vertical integration
 Knows who has the authority to make decisions
Rigid in handling people and problems
Create inconvenience and inefficiency
Competition between departments
Frustration caused by red-tape
Slow decision making
B. Departmentalization
-The process of subdividing total work into departments
Functional Departmentalization
 An arrangement that defines departments by the function each one performs, such as
accounting or purchasing
The advantage is to increase functional efficiencies
Geographic Departmentalization
 An arrangement of departments according to the geographic area or territory served
Advantage is that it allows for decision making at a local level, where the personnel
are most familiar with the problems and the local culture, including taste, fashion,
and food
Product- service Departmentalization
 The arrangement of departments according to the products or services they provide
Advantage is to increase the product management efficiencies
C. Modification of Bureaucratic Organization
Project and matrix organization
 Project organization- A temporary group of specialists working under one manager to
accomplish a fixed objective
 Matrix organization- a project structure superimposed on a functional structure
These organizations are capable of managing the complexity
D. Delegation, empowerment, and decentralization
Delegation and Empowerment
Delegation- Assigning formal authority and responsibility for accomplishing a specific task to
another person
Empowerment- The process by which managers share power with group members, thereby
enhancing employees’ feeling of personal effectiveness
Decentralization and centralization
Decentralization- The extent to which authority is passed down to lower levels in an
Centralization- The extent to which authority is retained at the top of the organization
E. Organizational culture
Dimensions of organizational culture
 Values – the organization’s philosophy expressed through values guides behavior on a dayto-day basis
 Relative diversity – the degree of homogeneity
 Resources allocations and rewards – resources allocation send messages to employee
what is valued in the firm
 Degree of change – influences the organizational culture
 A sense of ownership – ownership of stocks will create a culture of commitment and
 Strength of the culture – strong cultures influence day-to-day behavior of the people
How workers learn the culture?
Socialization- The process of coming to understand the values, norms, and customs, essential for
adapting to the organization
Consequences and implications of organizational culture
Human Resource and Talent Management
A. HRM and Business Strategy
Human Resource Management and Business Strategy
HR professional is now partner in helping company attain its business strategy.
HRM needed to help company attain high-level goals such as competing globally.
HRM helps build high-performance work practices.
High-performance work practices can boost organizational performance by 20%.
B. The Talent Management Model and Strategic Resource Planning
1. Awareness of legal aspects
2. Human resources planning
3. Recruitment
4. Selection
5. Orientation, training, and development
6. Compensation
7. Performance evaluation
Employee retention is major strategy of talent management.
Main reasons for turnover are individual, environmental, and workplace factors.
Job embeddedness theory suggests that many factors influence turnover.
Turnover created by job itself and off-the-job factors such as family commitments.
C. Recruitment
 Preferred method is to narrow down large number of candidates to a few.
 Searches for a good person-organization fit, and sells firm to high-quality prospects.
 Job description explains what jobholder is supposed to do.
 Job specification states personal characteristics needed to perform the job.
D. Selection
 Job interviewers need to know key facts about other cultures such as differences
among various schools.
 Some principles of selection apply across cultures, some do not apply.
 A key challenge is to select workers who will fit well as expatriates. Two key factors
are desire for assignment, and matching candidate’s style to the new culture.
E. Orientation
 Formally acquaints new employee with the company, explains corporate culture.
 Conveys specific nature of job and expectations in terms of performance.
 Buddy or mentor might help with orientation.
 Informal socialization also helps introduce new employee to corporate culture.
F. Performance Evaluation
 Major components of performance are task, citizenship, and counterproductive.
 Forced ranking measures employees against each other, such as Top 20%, Vital 70%,
and Bottom 10%.
 In 360-degree feedback person is evaluated by work associates. Results more often
used for development than appraisal.
 Purposes of Performance Evaluation
Serve a number of important administrative and leadership purposes.
a. Salary administration
b. Documenting poor performance for purposes of dismissal
c. Increasing productivity
d. Helping employees grow and develop
G. Compensation
Wages and salary most common types.
Bonus is reward for good performance.
Job evaluation determines how much a job should receive in wages or pay.
Variable pay bases part of compensation on performance.
With stack ranking, employees in unit are ranked and compensated accordingly.