# Transport Processes and Separation Proce

```CHRISTIE JOHN GEANKOPLIS
University ofMinnesota
Transport Processes and
Separation Process Principles
(Includes Unit Operations)
FOURTH EDITION
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PRENTIC9
HALL
PTR
PRENTICE HALL
Professional Technical Reference
wwwphptr.com
Contents
PART I
TRANSPORT PROCESSES; MOMENTUM, HEAT, AND MASS
Introduction to Engineering Principles and Units
3
1.1 Classification of Transport Processes and Separation Processes
(Unit Operations)
1.2 SI System of Basic Units Used in This Text and Other Systems
1.3 Methods of ExpressingTemperatures and Compositions
1.4 Gas Laws and Vapor Pressure
1.5 Conservation ofMass and Material Balances
1.6 Energy and Heat Units
L7 Conservation of Energy and Heat Balances
1.8 Numerical Methods for Integration
3
5
7
9
12
16
22
26
Chapter I
Chapter2
Principles of Momentum Transfer and Overall Balances
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Fluid Statics
2.3 General Molecular Transport Equation forMomentum, Heat, and
Mass Transfer
2.4 Viscosity ofFluids
2.5 Types of Fluid Flow and Reynolds Number
2.6 Overall Mass Balance and Continuity Equation
2.7 Overall Energy Balance
2.8 Overall MomentumBalance
2.9 Shell Momentum Balance and Velocity Profile in Laminar Flow
2.10 Design Equations for Laminar and Turbulent Flow in Pipes
2.11 Compressible Flow of Gases
34
34
35
43
47
51
54
60
74
83
88
107
Chapter3 Principles of Momentum Transfer and Applications
3.1
3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5
3.6
3.7
3.8
3.9
3.10
3.11
Flow Past Immersed Objects and Packed and Fluidized Beds
Measurement of Flow of Fluids
Pumps and Gas-Moving Equipment
Agitation and Mixing of Fluids and Power Requirements
Non-Newtonian Fluids
Differential Equations of Continuity
Differential Equations of Momentum Transfer or Motion
Use of Differential Equations of Continuity and Motion
Other Methods for Solution of Differential Equations of Motion
Boundary-Layer Flow and Turbulence
Dimensional Analysis in Momentum Transfer
Chapter4 Principles of Steady-State Heat Transfer
4.1
4.2
4.3
4.4
4.5
4.6
4.7
4.8
4.9
4.10
4.11
4.12
4.13
4.14
4.15
Introduction and Mechanisms of Heat Transfer
Conduction Heat Transfer
Conduction Through Solids in Series
Forced Convection Heat Transfer Inside Pipes
Heat Transfer Outside Various Geometries in Forced Convection
Natural Convection Heat Transfer
Boiling and Condensation
Heat Exchangers
Heat Transfer of Non-Newtonian Fluids
Special Heat-Transfer Coefficients
Dimensional Analysis in Heat Transfer
Numerical Methods for Steady-State Conduction in TWo Dimensions
Chapter5 Principles of Unsteady-State Heat Transfer
5.1
5.2
5.3
5.4
5.5
5.6
5.7
Derivation of Basic Equation
Simplified Case for Systems with Negligible Internal Resistance
Unsteady-State Heat Conduction in Various Geometries
Numerical Finite-Difference Methods for Unsteady-State Conduction
Chilling and Freezing of Food and Biological Materials
Differential Equation of Energy Change
Boundary-Layer Flow and Turbulence in Heat Transfer
Chapter 6 Principles of Mass.Transfer
6.1 Introduction to Mass Transfer and Diffusion
6.2 Molecular Diffusion in Gases
6.3 Molecular Diffusion in Liquids
6.4 Molecular Diffusion in Biological Solutions and Gels
121
121
136
144
154
169
183
188
1.93
202
209
221
235
235
241
244
256
259
271
277
283
291
301
307
323
326
335
337
357
357
359
361
378
388
393
399
410
410
414
427
436
6.5
6.6
Molecular Diffusion in Solids
Numerical Methods for Steady-State Molecular Diffusion in
Two Dimensions
Chapter 7 Principles of Unsteady-State and Convective Mass Transfer
7.1
7.2
7.3
7.4
7.5
7.6
7.7
7.8
7.9
Convective Mass-Transfer Coefficients
Mass-Transfer Coefficients for Various Geometries
Mass Transfer to Suspensions of Small Particles
Molecular Diffusion Plus Convection and Chemical Reaction
Diffusion of Gases in Porous Solids and Capillaries
Numerical Methods for Unsteady-Skate Molecular Diffusion
Dimensional Analysis in Mass Transfer
Boundary-Layer Flow and Turbulence in Mass Transfer
,440
446
459
459
466
473
487
490
499
506
511.
512
PART 2
SEPARATION PROCESS PRINCIPLES
(INCLUDES UNIT OPERATIONS)
Chapter8 Evaporation
8.1
8.2
8.3
8.4
8.5
8.6
8.7
8.8
Introduction
Types of Evaporation Equipment and Operation Methods
Overall Heat-Transfer Coefficients in Evaporators
Calculation Methods for Single-Effect Evaporators
Calculation Methods for Multiple-Effect Evaporators
Condensers for Evaporators
Evaporation of Biological Materials
Evaporation Using Vapor Recompression
Chapter9 Drying of Process Materials
Introduction and Methods of Drying
Equipmentfor Drying
Vapor Pressure of Water and Humidity
Equilibrium Moisture Content of Materials
Rate-of-Drying Curves
Calculation Methods for Constant-Rate Drying Period
Calculation Methods for Falling-Rate Drying Period
Combined Convection, Radiation, and Conduction Heat Transfer
in Constant-Rate Period
9.9 Drying in Falling-Rate Period by Diffusion and Capillary Flow
9.10 Equations for Various Types of Dryers
9.11 Freeze-Drying of Biological Materials
9.12 Unsteady-State Thermal Processing and Sterilization of Biological Materials
9.1.
9.2
9.3
9.4
9.5
9.6
9.7
9.8
527
527
529
533
534
541
550
551
553
559
559
560
564
572
575
580
585
588
591.
597
607
611
Chapter l0
10 .1
10 .2
10.3
10 .4
10 .5
10.6
10 .7
10.8
10.9
Stage and Continuous Gas-Liquid Separation Processes
Types of Separation Processes and Methods
Equilibrium Relations Between Phases
Single and Multiple Equilibrium Contact Stages
Mass Transfer Between Phases
Continuous Humidification Processes
Absorption in Plate and Packed Towers
Absorption of Concentrated Mixtures in Packed Towers
Estimation of Mass-Transfer Coefficients for Packed Towers
Heat Effects and Temperature Variations in Absorption
Chapter 11 Vapor-Liquid Separation Processes
1.7..1
11.2
11,3
11A
11 .5
IL.6
11.7
Vapor--Liquid Equilibrium Relations
Single-Stage Equilibrium Contact for Vapor-Liquid System
Simple Distillation Methods
Distillation with Reflux and McCabe Thiele Method
Distillation and Absorption Efficiencies for Tray and Packed Towers
Fractional Distillation Using Enthalpy-Concentration Method
Distillation of Multicomponent Mixtures
625
627
629
636
645
653
680
684
687
696
696
699
700
706
724
731
740
Chapter 12 Liquid-Liquid and Iluid-Solid Separation Processes
760
12.1
7.2.2
12.3
12.4
12.5
12.6
12.7
12.8
12,9
12.10
12.11
12.12
760
763
764
771
776
782
791
802
809
812
817
823
Ion-Excbange Processes
Single-Stage Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes
Types of Equipment and Design for Liquid-Liquid Extraction
Continuous Multistage Countercurrent Extraction
Introduction and Equipment for Liquid-Solid Leaching
Equilibrium Relations and Single-Stage Leaching
Countercurrent Multistage Leaching
Introduction and Equipment for Crystallization
Crystallization Theory
Chapter13 Membrane Separation Processes
13.1
33.2
13.3
13A
13 .5
13.6
13.7
13 .8
viii
625
Introduction and Types of Membrane Separation Processes
Liquid Permeation Membrane Processes or Dialysis
Gas Permeation Membrane Processes
Complete-Mixing Model for Gas Separation by Membranes
Complete-Mixing Model for Multicomponent Mixtures
Crass-Flow Model for Gas Separation by Membranes
Derivation of Equations for Countercurrent and Cocurrent Flow
for Gas Separation for Membranes
Derivation of Finite-Difference NumericalMethod for Asymmetric
Membranes
840
840
841
845
851
856
858
864
872
Contents
13 .9
13.10
13.11
13.12
Reverse-Osmosis Membrane Processes
Applications, Equipment, and Models for Reverse Osmosis
Ultrafiltration Membrane Processes
Microfiltration Membrane Processes
Chapter 14 Mechanical-Physical Separation Processes
14,1
14.2
14.3
14.4
14.5
Introduction and Classification o&pound; Mechanical-Physical Separation Processes
Filtration in Solid-Liquid Separation
Settling and Sedimentation in Particle-Fluid Separation
Centrifugal Separation Processes
Mechanical Size Reduction
883
888
892
896
903
903
904
919
932
944
Appendix
Appendix A.1
Appendix A.2
Appendix A.3
Appendix A.4
Appendix A.5
Notation
Contents
Fundamental Constants and Conversion Factors
Physical Properties of Water
Physical Properties of Inorganic and Organic Compounds
Physical Properties of Foods and Biological Materials
Properties of Pipes, Tubes, and Screens
955
959
969
992
996
999
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