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Chapter 1: Introduction to Computers
1. Computer ____ entails having the knowledge and understanding of computers and their uses.
a. literacy
c. legitimacy
b. intimacy
d. infancy
2. A(n) ____ is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own
memory, that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules, produce results, and store
the results for future use.
a. input device
c. output device
b. computer
d. both a and c
3. ____ is a collection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video.
a. Data
c. Information
b. Output
d. Input
4. ____ conveys meaning and is useful to people.
a. Data
c. Input
b. Information
d. Output
5. A(n) ____ device is any hardware component that allows you to enter data and instructions into a
a. output
c. input
b. communications
d. terminal
6. Some people refer to the series of input, process, output, and storage activities of a computer as the
____ processing cycle.
a. data
c. output
b. input
d. information
7. A computer contains many electric, electronic, and mechanical components known as ____.
a. software
c. output
b. input devices
d. hardware
8. The ____ unit is a case that contains electronic components of the computer that are used to process
a. control
c. arithmetic
b. system
d. base
9. The ____ is the electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate
the computer.
a. motherboard
c. processor
b. control unit
d. arithmetic unit
10. ____ consists of electronic components that store instructions waiting to be executed and data needed
by those instructions.
a. The processor
c. The control unit
b. The CPU
d. Memory
11. A(n) ____ device is any hardware component that conveys information to one or more people.
a. input
c. terminal
b. communications
d. output
12. A computer keeps data, instructions, and information on ____ media such as hard disks, like the one
shown in the accompanying figure, and on USB flash drives, optical discs, and memory cards.
a. storage
c. communications
b. input
d. output
13. A(n) ____ device records (writes) and/or retrieves (reads) items to and from a USB flash drive, for
a. USB
c. indexing
b. storage
d. dynamic
14. A hard disk provides much ____.
a. less storage capacity than a CD
b. less storage capacity than a USB flash drive
c. greater storage capacity than a CD but less than a USB flash drive
d. greater storage capacity than a USB flash drive
15. A widely used communications device is a ____.
a. modem
c. USB flash drive
b. CD drive
d. DVD drive
16. A(n) ____ device is a hardware component that enables a computer to send (transmit) and receive data,
instructions, and information to and from one or more computers.
a. reading
c. communications
b. transmitting
d. reception
17. A computing phrase — known as ____ — points out that the accuracy of a computer’s output depends
on the accuracy of the input.
a. what you see is what you get
c. nothing ventured, nothing gained
b. garbage in, garbage out
d. better safe than sorry
18. All of the following are advantages of using computers EXCEPT ____.
a. speed
c. communications
b. impact on labor force
d. consistency
19. A(n) ____ is anyone who communicates with a computer or utilizes the information it generates.
a. user
c. manager
b. editor
d. programmer
20. ____ computing involves reducing the electricity consumed and environmental waste generated when
using a computer.
a. Green
c. Streamlined
b. Universal
d. Comprehensive
21. A(n) ____ is a collection of computers and devices connected together, as shown in the accompanying
figure, via communications devices and transmission media.
a. client base
c. network
b. baseline
d. server farm
22. Networks, such as that pictured in the accompanying figure, allow computers to share ____, such as
hardware, software, data, and information.
a. resources
c. links
b. systems
d. media
23. When a computer connects to a network, such as that pictured in the accompanying figure, the
computer is ____.
a. linked
c. resourced
b. inline
d. online
24. On a network, the major differences between the server (like the one in the accompanying figure) and
the client computers are that the server ordinarily has ____.
a. less power, less storage space, and decreased communication capabilities
b. less power, less storage space, but expanded communication capabilities
c. more power, more storage space, but decreased communication capabilities
d. more power, more storage space, and expanded communication capabilities
25. A(n) ____ like the one in the accompanying figure controls access to the hardware, software, and other
resources on a network and also provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and
a. server
c. client
b. mainframe
d. terminal
26. The ____ is a worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government
agencies, educational institutions, and individuals.
a. Web
c. Newsnet
b. Net
d. Internet
27. People around the world use the Internet to ____.
a. communicate with and meet other people
b. shop for goods and services
c. access sources of information and leisure
d. all of the above
28. By subscribing to a(n) ____, you can use your computer and a communications device, such as a
modem, to connect to the many services of the Internet.
a. mainframe
c. access provider
b. instant messaging service
d. ASP
29. A Web site is ____.
a. a collection of related Web pages
b. the location from which a Web page originates
c. the source of a Web page
d. an author of a Web page
30. The Web contains ____ of documents called Web pages.
a. thousands
c. billions
b. millions
d. trillions
31. In a photo sharing ____, users can create an online photo album and store their digital photographs.
a. exchange
c. community
b. market
d. application
32. ____ consist(s) of a series of instructions that tells the computer what to do and how to do it.
a. GUIs
c. Sharing communities
b. Storage utilities
d. Software
33. With a(n) ____, users interact with the software using text, graphics, and visual images such as icons.
a. GUI
c. HUI
b. DUI
d. BUI
34. You interact with a program through its ____, which controls how you enter data and instructions and
how information is displayed on the screen.
a. operating system
c. user interface
b. storage
d. icon
35. Two categories of software are ____.
a. operating system and system software
b. system software and utility programs
c. utility programs and operating systems
d. system software and application software
36. ____ is the process of setting up the software to work with the computer, printer, and other hardware
a. Running
c. Loading
b. Installing
d. Leading
37. The trend of computers and devices with technologies that overlap is known as ____.
a. indexing
c. concatenation
b. coalescence
d. convergence
38. Popular programming languages include ____.
a. C++
c. JavaScript
b. Visual C#
d. All of the above
39. A(n) ____ computer is a computer that can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage
activities by itself.
a. mainline
c. personal
b. mainframe
d. terminal
40. The term, ____, refers to any personal computer based on the original IBM personal computer design.
a. Macintosh
c. clone
b. PC-friendly
d. PC-compatible
41. A(n) ____ computer is a type of personal computer designed so the system unit, input devices, and any
other devices fit entirely on or under a desk or table.
a. desktop
c. encapsulated
b. mobile
d. handheld
42. A ____ computer targets a specific audience and offers high-quality audio, video, and graphics with
optimal performance for sophisticated single-user and networked or Internet multiplayer games.
a. multiplayer
c. handheld
b. gaming desktop
d. All of the above
43. A(n) ____ computer is a personal computer that users can carry from place to place.
a. integrated
c. mobile
b. desktop
d. encapsulated
44. A(n) ____ computer is a portable, personal computer designed to fit on your lap.
a. handtop
c. PDA
b. desktop
d. notebook
45. Some mobile devices are ____, meaning they can connect to the Internet wirelessly.
a. Internet-enabled
c. active
b. hotspots
d. mobile
46. Examples of mobile technology include all of the following EXCEPT ____.
a. digital cameras
c. smart phones
b. portable media players
d. servers
47. Which of the following is NOT true of mobile devices?
a. You often can connect a mobile device to a personal computer to exchange information
between the computer and the mobile device.
b. Some mobile devices are Internet-enabled, meaning they can connect to the Internet
c. Mobile devices usually have disk drives.
d. Because of their reduced size, the screens on mobile devices are small, but usually are in
48. Offering the convenience of one-handed operation, a(n) ____ phone is an Internet-enabled telephone
that usually also provides PDA capabilities.
a. text
b. smart
c. instant
d. messaging
49. Each of the following is a popular type of mobile device EXCEPT ____.
a. handheld computers
c. smart phones
b. PDAs
d. mainframes
50. Resembling a letter-sized slate, the ____ PC is a special type of notebook computer that allows users
to write or draw on the screen.
a. Tablet
c. Slate
b. Letter
d. Matrix
51. With a(n) ____, users write on the screen or issue instructions to a Tablet PC, for example, by tapping
on the screen.
a. graphic tool
c. digital pen
b. stylus
d. keypad
52. A(n) ____ is a computer small enough to fit in one hand.
a. PDM
c. LPM
b. uPX
53. A ____ provides personal organizer functions such as a calendar, appointment book, address book,
calculator, and notepad.
a. PPA
c. PSA
b. PDA
d. mainframe
54. A(n) ____ message is a real-time Internet communication, where you exchange messages with other
connected users.
a. video
c. instant
b. camera
d. photo
55. Standard ____ use a handheld controller(s) as an input device; a television screen as an output device;
and hard disks, optical discs, and/or memory cards for storage.
a. game consoles
c. smart phones
b. ultra personal computers
d. servers
56. A(n) ____ console is a mobile computing device designed for single-player or multiplayer video
a. video
c. entertainment
b. multimedia
d. game
57. ____ are large, expensive, powerful computers that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected
users simultaneously and store tremendous amounts of data, instructions, and information.
a. Embedded computers
c. Mainframes
b. Supercomputers
d. Mobile devices
58. ____ are the fastest, most powerful computers — and the most expensive.
a. Desktop computers
c. Midrange servers
b. Notebook computers
d. Supercomputers
59. Most major corporations use ____ for business activities.
a. embedded computers
c. mainframes
b. supercomputers
d. mobiles devices
60. ____ are capable of processing more than 1 quadrillion instructions in a single second.
a. Desktop computers
b. Notebook computers
c. Midrange servers
d. Supercomputers
61. Because ____ are components in larger products, they usually are small and have limited hardware.
a. telematics
c. handhelds
b. embedded computers
d. smart watches
62. A(n) ____ computer is a special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product.
a. hard-coded
c. soft
b. embedded
d. indexed
63. Together, hardware, software, data, people, and procedures comprise a(n) ____ system.
a. telematics
c. smart
b. comprehensive
d. information
64. All of the following are categories of users EXCEPT ____.
a. home users
c. mobile users
b. enterprise users
d. communications users
65. At home, every family member, or home ____, spends time on the computer for different reasons.
a. player
c. manager
b. user
d. surfer
66. With ____ software, a home user can play games, compose music, research genealogy, or create
greeting cards.
a. reference
c. entertainment
b. educational
d. systems
67. ____ include local law practices, accounting firms, travel agencies, and florists.
a. Mobile users
c. Large business users
b. Small offices
d. Power users
68. A(n) ____ includes any company with fewer than 50 employees, as well as the self-employed who
work from home.
a. large business user
b. enterprise user
d. Any of the above
69. Many small office/home office users have entered the ____ arena and conduct business on the Web.
a. Web cam
c. enterprise
b. e-commerce
d. reselling
70. Small business Web sites sometimes use a(n) ____ to show the world a live view of some aspect of
their business.
a. camera pill
c. Web cam
b. dynamic vid
d. IT camera
71. Increasingly more employees and students are ____ users, who work on a computer while away from a
main office, home office, or school.
c. mobile
b. power
d. key
72. A(n) ____ user is a category of user that requires the capabilities of a workstation or other powerful
c. mobile
b. power
d. key
73. Many large companies use the term, ____ computing, to refer to the huge network of computers that
meets their diverse computing needs.
a. diversity
c. corporate
b. enterprise
d. leadership
74. ____ is a work arrangement in which employees work away from a company’s standard workplace
and often communicate with the office through the computer.
a. CAM
c. Telemetrics
b. Mobile labor
d. Telecommuting
75. Each employee or customer who uses a computer in a large business is a(n) ____ user.
a. multinational
c. global
b. telematic
d. enterprise
76. In a large business, the employees in the ____ department keep the computers and the network
a. IT
c. accounting
b. Web
d. system
77. With ____, users access account balances, pay bills, and copy monthly transactions from a bank’s
computer right into their personal computers.
a. online investing
c. neural networks
b. online banking
d. All of the above
78. Investors often use ____ to buy and sell stocks and bonds — without using a broker.
a. online investing
c. neural networks
b. online banking
d. All of the above
79. A(n) ____ is a system that attempts to imitate the behavior of the human brain.
a. human webnet
c. neural network
b. online matrix
d. cerebral terminal
80. ____ refers to the use of computers to assist with manufacturing processes such as fabrication and
a. CAM
c. POS
b. CAP
d. TAC
Modified Multiple Choice
1. ____ is a main component on the motherboard.
a. The input system
c. The output device
b. The processor
d. Memory
2. Some transmission media like ____ are wireless, which means they have no physical lines or wires.
a. satellites
c. cellular radio networks
b. WANs
d. LANs
3. Most operating systems include several utility programs for managing ____.
a. RAM
c. the microprocessor
b. disk drives
d. printers
4. Popular application software includes ____ software.
a. word processing
c. database
b. spreadsheet
d. presentation graphics
5. Programmers use a ____ to create computer programs.
a. programming language
c. binary interface
b. program development tool
d. user management device
6. A category into which industry experts typically classify computers is ____.
a. microframes
c. personal computers
b. enhanced computers
d. supercomputers
7. A personal computer contains ____.
a. a processor
b. a storage device
c. memory
d. an input device
8. Most notebook computers can operate on ____.
a. recycled energy
c. convergence
b. batteries
d. power supply
9. Most PDAs offer a variety of application software, including ____ software.
a. word processing
c. spreadsheet
b. personal finance
d. supercomputing application
10. A terminal is a device with ____.
a. a monitor
b. a keyboard
c. a server
d. memory
1. The average USB flash drive can hold more than 320 billion characters.
2. Hundreds of thousands of people today use podcasts to publish their thoughts on the Web.
3. Blogs are a popular way people verbally share information on the Web.
4. Terminal software serves as the interface between the user, the application, and the computer
hardware. _________________________
5. Microsoft Windows is an example of a(n) utility program. _________________________
6. HTPCs cost more than a basic desktop computer. _________________________
7. A text message usually is between 300 to 600 characters. _________________________
8. Cameras small enough to swallow — sometimes called a cochlear implant — take pictures inside your
body. _________________________
9. Industries use computer-aided manufacturing (CAM) to reduce product development costs, shorten a
product’s time to market, and stay ahead of the competition. _________________________
10. Often, robots carry out processes in a CAM environment. _________________________
1. Computers are a primary means of communications for billions of people.
2. Computers process information (output) into data (input).
3. Communications has become an essential element of the information processing cycle.
4. A printer displays text, graphics, and videos on a screen.
5. Some portable devices, such as digital cameras, use memory cards as the storage media.
6. Storage devices like the hard drive shown in the accompanying figure often function as a source of
input because they transfer items from storage to memory.
7. To discard an old computer safely, put it in a landfill.
8. A client controls access to the resources on a network.
9. In many networks, one or more computers act as a server.
10. The world’s largest computer network is the Web.
11. A computer’s user interface controls how data and instructions are entered and how information
displays on the screen.
12. The two categories of software are system software and utility software.
13. A pod is a miniature image such as that shown in the accompanying figure that represents a program,
an instruction, or some other object.
14. The application system provides a means for users to communicate with the computer and other
15. When a user starts a computer, portions of the operating system load into the computer’s hard disk
from memory.
16. A utility program allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks related to managing a computer, its
devices, or its programs.
17. When a computer is purchased, it seldom has any software preinstalled on its hard disk.
18. Once in memory, the computer can carry out, or load, the instructions in the program.
19. Programmers develop programs or write the instructions that direct the computer to process data into
20. The distinction among categories of computers is always clear-cut.
21. PC and PC-compatible computers usually use the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS).
22. Some desktop computers function as a server on a network.
23. Notebook computers generally are less expensive than desktop computers with equal capabilities.
24. On a typical notebook computer, the monitor is on top of the system unit, and the keyboard attaches to
the system unit with hinges.
25. Some mobile devices are Internet-enabled so users can check e-mail and access the Internet.
26. In addition to basic telephone capabilities, a smart phone allows users to send and receive e-mail and
access the Web.
27. A standard game console is small enough to fit in one hand, making it more portable than a handheld
game console.
28. Servers like the one in the accompanying figure typically support only one computer at a time.
29. Mainframes store only small amounts of data, instructions, and information.
30. Mainframes can act as a server on a network environment.
31. With weights that exceed 100 tons, desktop computers can store more than 20,000 times the data and
information of an average supercomputer.
32. Applications requiring complex, sophisticated mathematical calculations use supercomputers.
33. All IT applications should have readily available documented procedures.
34. Today’s homes seldom have any desktop computers.
35. Examples of mobile users include engineers, scientists, architects, desktop publishers, and graphic
36. Software used by power users usually is inexpensive because of its generic design.
37. Enterprises rarely have e-commerce Web sites.
38. Some enterprises use blogs to open communications among employees, customers, and/or vendors.
39. Employees that telecommute have rigid work schedules that prevent them from combining work and
personal responsibilities.
40. Hardware requirements for a small office/home office (SOHO) user include game consoles.
41. More than 95 percent of colleges offer some type of distance learning classes.
42. Finance software usually includes a variety of online services.
43. With online investing, the transaction fee for each trade usually is much more than when trading
through a broker.
44. Nearly every area of health care uses computers.
45. An exciting development in health care is telemedicine, which is a form of long-distance health care.
46. Breakthroughs in surgery, medicine, and treatments seldom result from scientists’ use of computers.
47. The capability of the computer to recognize spoken words is a direct result of scientific
experimentation with cochlear implants.
48. Many publishers make the content of magazines and newspapers available online.
49. Vehicles manufactured today often include some type of onboard navigation system.
50. Airlines do not provide online services.
1. As computers have become a part of everyday life, many people believe that ____________________
is vital to success.
2. Computers process data into ____________________.
3. ____________________ tell the computer how to perform particular tasks.
4. Of keyboards, mice, scanners, microphones, digital camera, and printer, the only one that is not a
widely used input device is the ____________________.
5. The ____________________ is a small handheld input device that controls the movement of a small
symbol on the screen called the pointer.
6. A(n) ____________________ is an input device that converts printed material to a form the computer
can use.
7. Of printers, scanners, monitors, and speakers, all are commonly used output devices EXCEPT
8. The circuitry of the system unit usually is part of or is connected to a circuit board called the
9. Storage devices like the ____________________ in the accompanying figure hold data, instructions,
and information for future use.
10. A(n) ____________________ is a portable storage device that is small and lightweight enough to be
transported on a keychain or in a pocket.
11. Anyone can create a Web page and then make it available, or ____________________ it, on the
Internet for others to see.
12. A(n) ____________________ is an informal Web site consisting of time-stamped articles in a diary or
journal format, usually listed in reverse chronological order.
13. A(n) ____________________ is recorded audio stored on a Web site that can be downloaded to a
computer or a portable digital audio player such as an iPod.
14. Software today has a(n) ____________________, like that shown in the accompanying figure.
15. A(n) ____________________, such as those shown in the accompanying figure, is a miniature image
that represents a program, an instruction, or some other object.
16. ____________________ software consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of
the computer and its devices.
17. One type of system software is a(n) ____________________ system, which is a set of programs that
coordinates all the activities among computer hardware devices.
18. One type of system software is a(n) ____________________ program, which allows a user to perform
maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer.
19. ____________________ software consists of programs designed to make users more productive
and/or assist them with personal tasks, and include Web browser, word processing software, and
spreadsheet software.
20. A widely used type of application software related to communications is a Web
____________________, which allows users with an Internet connection to access Web pages.
21. Once users have installed software, they can use (or ____________________) it.
22. Once in memory, the computer can carry out, or ____________________, the instructions in a
23. A(n) ____________________ is someone who develops software or writes the instructions that direct
the computer to process data into information.
24. A computer’s processing ____________________ is among the attributes that determine the category
it best fits.
25. Two types of ____________________ are desktop computers and notebook computers.
26. In many models of personal computers, the system unit is the tall and narrow
____________________, which can sit on the floor vertically — if desktop space is limited.
27. A(n) ____________________ combines the features of a high-definition video/audio entertainment
system with a desktop computer that is designed to be connected to a television and includes a Blu-ray
Disc, digital video recorder, and digital cable television connectivity.
28. An expensive, powerful desktop computer is the ____________________, which is geared for work
that requires intense calculations and graphics capabilities.
29. The most popular type of mobile computer is the ____________________ computer like the one
shown in the accompanying figure.
30. A(n) ____________________ computer like the one in the accompanying figure weighs on average
from 2.5 to more than 10 pounds (depending on the configuration).
31. Many small office/home office users (SOHO) have entered the ____________________ arena and
conduct business on the Web.
32. Examples of ____________________ users are sales reps, real estate agents, insurance agents, meter
readers, package delivery people, journalists, consultants, and students.
33. With ____________________ software, a mobile user can create and deliver a presentation to a large
audience by connecting a mobile computer or device to a video projector that displays the presentation
on a full screen.
34. Examples of ____________________ users include engineers, scientists, architects, desktop
publishers, and graphic artists.
35. Power users often work with ____________________, combining text, graphics, audio, and video into
one application.
36. ____________________ users use the computer network to process high volumes of transactions in a
single day.
37. The hardware requirements for a(n) ____________________ user include a workstation or other
powerful computer with multimedia capabilities and a smart phone or other mobile device.
38. Through ____________________, health-care professionals in separate locations conduct live
conferences on the computer.
39. A(n) ____________________ is a system that attempts to imitate the behavior of the human brain.
40. Industries use ____________________ to shorten a product’s time to market, reduce product
development costs, and stay ahead of the competition.
Identify the letter of the choice that best matches the phrase or definition.
a. text message
k. instant message
b. Web page
l. picture message
c. video message
m. embedded computers
d. microblog
n. PDA
o. tower
f. keyboard
p. utility
g. IT
q. Web site
h. application
r. access provider
i. mobile
s. storage devices
j. operating system
t. netbook
Some handheld computers have a specialized one
The kind of system unit that can sit on the floor vertically
Provides personal information management functions
Found in larger products
Department found in most companies with mid-sized and large computers
A real-time Internet communication, where you exchange messages with other connected users
Sent via a camera phone
Kind of software that consists of programs designed to make users more productive
Windows Vista and Mac OS X are examples
Type of user that often has a notebook computer, Internet-enabled PDA, or smart phone
A short note sent to or from a smart phone, for example
Drives and readers/writers are examples of these
A type of smaller, lighter notebook computer
Businesses that offer users and companies access to the Internet free or for a fee
The Web contains billions of these
Twitter is an example
A collection of related Web pages
A short video clip, usually about 30 seconds, sent to or from a smart phone, for example
Type of program that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a
computer, its devices, or its programs
20. Combines the features of a high-definition audio/video entertainment system with a desktop computer
Critical Thinking Questions
Case 1-1
You want to learn more about computers and your professor suggests that one way to learn is to
become familiar with the categories into which they fall.
1. Which of the following types of computers typically has the lowest number of simultaneously
connected users?
a. game console
c. supercomputer
b. embedded computer
d. server
2. Which of the following types of computers typically has the most expensive price range?
a. mainframe
c. personal computer
b. server
d. mobile computer
Critical Thinking Questions
Case 1-2
Another approach to learning about computers is to study how they are used today, which means
learning about the categories of users.
3. Which of the following types of users is the most likely to use computer-aided design software?
c. home
b. mobile
d. power
4. All of the following applications are common across user categories EXCEPT ____.
a. e-mail
c. multimedia authoring
b. Web browser
d. personal information manager