Uploaded by Faris Kwee

EPSK Job Factor

: Faris Fadhlullah
: Sunday Alexander Theophilus Noya, ST., MProcMgnt.
Study Program
: Industrial Engineering
: 412010019
: Ergonomics and Work System Design
Job Factors
Why is there a night shift? What are the implications of the night shift ?
How to resolve this issue, if the night shift is unavoidable ?
What causes fatigue at work and how to deal with it ?
What causes stress at work and how to deal with it ?
5. What is job/task analysis and how to do it ?
1. In many Industries, the night shift is a necessary part of the regular workday. Businesses
operate through the night to produce as much volume as possible and meet the demands
of the market. Shift work is an employment practice designed to make use of or provide
service across, all 24h of the clock each day of the week (often abbreviated as 24/7).
The practice typically sees the day divided into shifts, set periods of time during which
different groups of workers perform their duties. The term "shift work" includes both longterm night shifts and work schedules in which employees change or rotate shifts.
The implications of night shift are as follows :
Actually, Night work/shift is dangerous because this has a direct impact on health and
wellbeing. For example in Germany, as early as 1992, the Federal Constitutional
Court ruled that shift work with regular night shifts is harmful to everyone. This is due
to the release of various hormones, which are influenced by natural light conditions.
Melatonin is mainly released at night. It is responsible for reducing our physical
activity and making us tired. Light inhibits the formation of melatonin. The result: We
are less productive at night and tend not to concentrate, while it is difficult for us to
sleep during the day. In addition to the day-night rhythm, factors such as food intake,
social contacts and the outside temperature have an enormous influence on our
physical activity.
Health consequences of shift work. This can initially manifest itself in the form of poor
concentration, headaches and tiredness. Many night workers also complain of
insomnia, loss of appetite and gastrointestinal complaints. Men are more likely to be
irritable, while women are more likely to be nervous and anxious. Since the shortterm memory works less well and the ability to react and perform well is reduced, the
risk of accidents increases considerably during the night shift. The long-term
consequences include cardiovascular problems, chronic back problems, diabetes
and high blood pressure. The psychological stress that primarily results from a lack
of social contact should also not be underestimated. Night workers find it difficult to
coordinate their free time with their children, partners and friends, which can lead to
the development of depression.
Source :
Macht Schichtarbeit krank? Nachtarbeit und ihre gesundheitlichen Folgen (bau-rs.de)
10 Effects Of Working Night Shifts (And How To Combat Them) | Sling (getsling.com)
2. Therefore, employers should try to make the shift as comfortable as possible for their
employees to have a positive influence on their health and wellbeing. When planning the
shift, it is advisable to consider the wishes of individuals and protect older employees,
because the shift tolerance decreases with age. At the same time, employee satisfaction
increases when they have a say and can attend private appointments. It is also
recommended that the shifts rotate forwards: the morning shift is followed by the late
shift and then the night shift. Shift workers usually tolerate this better than backward
rotation. Since a night shift always means stress, a maximum of three night shifts should
be worked in a row. This should then be followed by at least 48 hours of free time.
Employees also feel better when they have the opportunity to withdraw to a break room
and have access to healthy snacks such as fruit, vegetables and salads. Healthy Food
with lots of fruit and vegetables and the extensive avoidance of fast food and sweets
contribute even more to the general wellbeing of night workers. Those who do sport
regularly suffer less from the shift in rhythm. Yoga and autogenic training promote
concentration and relaxation. The employees themselves can do a lot to improve their
shift tolerance. This includes a healthy and balanced diet, fixed meals at certain times
and sufficient exercise.
Source :
Nachtarbeit und die Folgen für die Gesundheit - dhz.net (deutsche-handwerks-zeitung.de)
Macht Schichtarbeit krank? Nachtarbeit und ihre gesundheitlichen Folgen (bau-rs.de)
3. According to Ream and Richardson (1996) the definition of Fatigue is a subjective,
unpleasant symptom which incorporates total body feelings ranging from tiredness to
exhaustion, creating an unrelenting overall condition which interferes with individual’s
ability to function in their normal capacity. Fatigue at work can stem from several causes:
Sleep disorders, long demanding work with no breaks, tedious assignments, bad shift
scheduling. Whatever the cause, fatigue often results in workplace errors and accidents
if the root cause isn't dealt with. Tiredness at work can happen easily. Usually, if we
get a good night's sleep after the long day is over, we can recover fast. Fatigue at work
and the related symptoms may be a one-time deal, such as the result of unusually
intense mental or physical activity, but it can also result from persistent, recurring
problems such as: If rather than one sleepless night, we have a consistent sleep deficit,
we're heading for fatigue. Millions of Americans have trouble sleeping for one reason
or another: stress, worry, the demands of work or family, or sleep apnea and related
conditions. If it's mentally or physically demanding, that can wipe you out, but a long,
tediously dull workday can put your mind to sleep, too. If we're already tired for other
reasons, monotony can make it worse. Your workplace environment makes it easy to
become tired. Loud noise, air quality and dim lighting all contribute to fatigue. Some
workers are particularly at risk for fatigue at work. These include shift workers, night
workers, on-call workers and emergency service workers. Jobs that don't provide the
crews with breaks can also bring on fatigue by the end of the shift.
Strategies for dealing with fatigue at work :
The researchers further found that a number of strategies can help lower the effects of
the negative affect effect :
a. Co-worker support
b. Learning conscious emotion regulation techniques
c. Relaxation techniques
Source :
What Are the Causes of Fatigue in the Workplace? (chron.com)
Causes of fatigue at work and how to deal with it – new study (oxford-review.com)
What Are the Causes of Fatigue in the Workplace? (chron.com)
4. The most common causes of work related stress are work pressure, poor organisation
and lack of support from managers. While some people thrive under pressure and do
their best work with a looming deadline, others find these kinds of challenges very
stressful. Identifying what causes workers to feel stressed in the workplace is the first
step in learning to manage stress.
Learning to manage stress is one of the best ways to combat it. While it is impossible to
eliminate stress completely, being better equipped to deal with stressful situations can
help people to cope better. The Help Guide recommends improving your stress levels
and overall wellbeing by:
Taking responsibility for your physical and emotional well-being.
Avoiding pitfalls by identifying negative behaviours that cause stress in the
Learning better communication skills to improve your relationships with
colleagues and management.
There are also a number of strategies employers can adopt in order to better manage
and deal with situations that may cause stress in employees. The HSE has developed
the Management Standards for work related stress which covers the six key areas it
considers to be the primary sources of stress at work. These include:
If these areas are well maintained, employee stress will be reduced. This will have a
positive impact on productivity and also reduce absenteeism, saving the company money
and boosting staff morale.
Source : The six main causes of stress at work (and how to avoid them) | Ieso (iesohealth.com)
5. Task analysis produces detailed information relevant to the interface of humans and
machines or systems. It also can be applied to the development of a new system or the
redesign of existing systems.
How to do it ?
 Identify hazards to the operator in the workplace
 Achieve a general level of safety through the achievement of good design for
human operation
 Form the basis for the analysis of human error in the system
 Define what went wrong and help identify remedial measures during an incident
or accident investigation
Task specification:
 Define the characteristics and capability requirements of personnel to allow them
to carry out the task effectively and safely
Task design
Skills and knowledge of operators
 Identify personnel requirements in terms of skills and knowledge of
 Design training programs
 Design proper procedures
Job organization :
 Define the number and variety of personnel
 Define the organization of team members
 Define the communications requirements and allocation of responsibilities
Efficiency and productivity
 Identify staffing requirements
 Identify specific training program to ensure efficiency and productivity
Maintenance demands:
 Identify maintenance demands
 Define the need for personnel and support tools and systems of work
 Identify the coordination needed among different areas of the plant
When to use text Analysis ?
1. In an existing system.
2. During the design process, task analysis is used to evaluate the demands the
task places on the operator in the new system.
3. At points during the operational life of the system (the system life cycle), task
analysis is used to update an existing system by focusing on specific issues
rather than examining the system as a whole.
The process of Text Analysis :
1. Plan for a task analysis
2. General data collection
3. Task description
4. Specific data collection
Source : PPT EPSK 06 Job Factors