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 Definition
o is defined as, means, refers to, to define, to illustrate
 Exemplification
o after all, as an example, for instance, namely, stated differently
 Description(Sensory and Spatial)
o above, across, between, beyond
 Chronological/Procedural
o about, afterwards, first
 Listing
o additionally, and then, as well, besides
 Comparison-Contrast
o Also, as, both, and yet, conversely
 Classification and Division
o another, classified as, the last group
 Cause and Effect
o as, because, for that reason
 Problem-Solution
o but, first, second, one solution is
 Persuasion
o in that case, again, for this reason
INTERTEXT – refers to a work whose meaning is shaped by referencing or calling to mind other texts
HYPERTEXT – external links embedded in a text by the writer
Claim of Fact – an argument about a quantifiable topic
only asserts a stand regarding a debatable topic
Claim of Value – argues whether something is good or bad
based on judgment and evaluation on a philosophical, aesthetic, or moral standpoint
Claim of Policy – argument which asserts the implementation of a certain policy
generally states solution and plans that are procedural and organized
are errors in reasoning that invalidate an argument
False Dilemma
arguer presents his argument as one of only two options despite the
presence of multiple possibilities
Appeal to Ignorance
Slippery Slope
Complex Question
Appeal to Force
Appeal to Pity
Appeal to Consequences
Attacking the Person
Appeal to Authority
Anonymous Authority
Hasty Generalization
False Analogy
Post Hoc
Wrong Direction
Complex Cause
Irrelevant Conclusion
Straw Man
Affirming the Consequent
Denying the Antecedent
something is instantly concluded to be true just because it is not
proven false, vice versa
series of increasingly superficial and consequences are drawn
two or more points are rolled into one | one point may be satisfactory
while the other is not
a threat, instead of reasoning is used to argue
element of pity is used instead of logical reasoning
unpleasant consequences believing something are pointed out to
show that the belief is false
argument is considered to be valid because it is what the majority
someone tries to refute an argument by attacking the person
argument quotes an expert who is not qualified in the subject
authority is not mentioned or named
a sample is not significant or enough to support a generalization
writer assumes that two concepts that are similar in other ways
general rule is applied to a situation, even when it should be an
arguer claims that since event A happened before B, A is the cause
of B
direction between cause and effect is reversed
explanation for an event is reduced to one thing when there are other
factors which also contributed to the event
argument which is supposed to prove something concludes
something else instead
position of the opposition is twisted so that it is easier to refute
if A is true then B is true; if B is true therefore A is true
if A is true then B is true; if A is not true then B is not true
Arguments contradict one another