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1.5 Cornell Notes

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Name: Wesley Kimbrell
Topic: 1.5 Chapter 1
Date: 9/7/21
Class: APUSH Period: 1st
Essential Question: Explain how the growth of the Spanish Empire in North America shaped the
development of social and economic structures over time.
Questions/Main Ideas:
Spanish Exploration and
The conquests of native tribes in Central America, such as the Aztecs in
Mexico by Herman Cortes, and the Incas in Peru by Francisco Pizarro.
The conquistadores were able to bring gold and silver back. Spain became
super rich.
Hernan Cortes
Francisco Pizarro
Slave Trade
Middle Passage
Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of
the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now
mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early
16th century.
Spanish conquistador, best known for his expeditions that led to
the Spanish conquest of Peru.
a grant by the Spanish Crown to a colonist in America conferring
the right to demand tribute and forced labor from the Indian
inhabitants of an area.
contract granted by the Spanish crown to an individual or
company allowing the holder exclusive rights in the slave trade
with Spain's American colonies; it constituted the principal legal
means of supplying slaves to Spanish America.
the procuring, transporting, and selling of human beings as slaves,
in particular the former trade in black Africans as slaves by
European countries and North America.
the sea journey undertaken by slave ships from West Africa to the
West Indies.
Indian Labor
The encomienda system made slaves out of the Natives, who were sold to
Enslaved African Labor
On sugar plantations, the Portuguese had enslaved Africans to grow crops.
This inspired the rest of Europe such as Spain to add Africans to their
forced labor system. The asiento forced colonists to pay taxes on each
enslaved person they had. They imported slaves from Africa in huge
numbers. The slave trade had about 10-15 million enslaved people travel
across the Middle Passage.
Spanish Caste System
The Spanish created a caste system that defined the status of people based
on their heritage. At the top were pure-blooded Spaniards, then people
ordered from the mixture of heritages, then at the very bottom were
people of pure Indian or Black heritage.
How was the society and economy of North America affected by the expansion of the Spanish Empire?
North America was affected greatly. The population of Native Americans dropped 90%, and enslaved people
from Africa started coming in. The economy was thriving under the forced labor and cruelty they put the
slaves through.