Intelligent and autonomous military weapons By: Trevante’ Brown , Anthony Noetzel, Logan Pascucci, Konstantin Tekin Intelligent Machines ● To be considered as an intelligent machine, the machine has to be able to interact with and adapt to its environment autonomously, while still programed for a task ● Examples: ○ ○ ○ Drones Humanoid Robots Plagiarism Readers Autonomous Machines ● Acting autonomously means the machines have the freedom to act independently ● Can do tasks by itself without the need for any human control ● Examples: ○ ○ ○ Roomba vacuums Self driving cars Autonomous helicopters Intelligent machines VS Autonomous machines ● Autonomous machines as weapons could be more deadly than intelligent machines since they can act on their own accord ● A human has to order an intelligent machine to attack but not an autonomous machine ● An autonomous machine would be able to identify targets on it’s own What can we expect from intelligent and autonomous weapons? ● With Artificial Intelligence becoming more advanced intelligent/autonomous weapons are becoming more available and more research is being done into their development ● A common use for intelligent/autonomous machines would be for use in the military ● The United States Department of Defense defines autonomous weapons as those that once activated, can select and engage targets without further intervention by a human operator The benefits of using intelligent and autonomous weapons ● Decreases the amount of human soldiers needed which could result in fewer human casualties ● Decreases possibility of human error ● A.I will notice and comprehend much larger datasets than humans are capable of ● Aid decision makers ● Classify and prioritize threats The negatives of using intelligent and autonomous weapons ● Ethical concerns ● Would be extremely difficult to determine liability for collateral damage caused by machines ● The possibility of hackers taking control What is the status of their development now? Machines that are being developed: ● Robart III : ○ ○ ○ ○ Carries a gun and rocket launcher People can use the “follow” command on it When a person pointed their weapons at the sea, Robart did the same. It has 5 different sensors to keep track of friendly forces Machines in development ● MDARS (mobile detection and assessment response system): ○ ○ ○ ○ 360 degree sensors to detect motion Once it spots human like motions it “shouts” a warning If no response pepper balls at the intruders Can track up to 6 targets Machines in development ● SKYLARK C ○ ○ ○ Patrols boats and small vessel operations Fully autonomous from launch to recovery Provides persistent surveillance with an EO/IR (Electro-Optical/Infra-Red) payload Machines in development ● ROBATTLE ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Advanced attack capabilities Combat Intelligence, Surveillance, Target Acquisition & Reconnaissance (ISTAR) Area excitation and decoy actions Ambushes and attack Forces and convoys protection in the combat areas Machines in development ● Robot Combat Vehicle Light (RCV-L) ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Experimental ground combat vehicles Unmanned ground combat vehicle (UGCV) Developed by QinetiQ Can travel at 72km/hr can carry up to 3.3 tons Remote controlled combat module includes 12.7 mm M2 Browning MG & 148 Javelin anti tank missile system Can identify targets by itself can cannot fire without an operator What is the status of their development now? ● SEAGULL (USV): ○ Facilitates end-to-end mine hunting operations including: ■ Detection ■ Classification ■ Location ■ Identification and neutralization of sea mines What is the status of their development now? ● Researchers from MIT and DARPA working on a chip called EYERISS: ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Based on neural systems Will contain knowledge of air combat, ability to learn from a dog fight in real time, adjust for threat situations 10x more efficient as a processing unit Eliminates the need to load data from external memory units Increases speed of object recognition which will help for target selection What is the status of their development now? ● MIT has developed a system that uses wireless radio frequency signals to measure a person’s heart rate ○ Applies machine learning and an “emotion classifier” to identify a person’s mood without physical contact. ● NEURODYNAMIC learned how to manoeuvre and determine appropriate shooting opportunities in a dog fight. ○ Neural networks are trying to reproduce the typical activities of the human brain in image perception, language processing, and coordination. How can intelligent and autonomous machines be in the future? ● UCLASS: ○ ○ ○ Deep reconnaissance missions Ability to hit non moving and moving targets Mission execution and landing completely independent ● Machines that are potentially capable of changing their shape to fit into small spaces then reverting back to fulfill their task ● Aircraft the size of bugs used to secretly eavesdrop on enemies How can intelligent and autonomous machines be in the future? ● U.S goal: have fleets of manned and unmanned aircrafts by 2030 ○ ○ Unmanned fleets would be cheaper in costs and in training Simulations have shown manoeuvres over 20g ■ Airframe redesigned What are the potential dangers? ● Once concern is about the machines algorithm and the lack of human judgement ○ ○ ○ Distinguish between an enemy, an ally, or civilians? Make ethical choices in a dynamic battlefield? Tell the difference between a real act of surrender and a false one ● Find out who is responsible for collateral damage What are the potential dangers? ● The understanding the quality of machine learning ● The disconnection between engineers and human soldiers ● Researchers believe that regular use of LAWS (Lethal Autonomous Weapons System) will have countries resort to more frequent use of military power in any dispute. What’s being done to regulate development of these kinds of robots? ● Major legal block is that the robots don't meet the laws of armed conflict (LOAC): ○ ○ ○ ○ Military necessity: ■ Injuring an enemy should not be excessive Distinction: ■ The ability to tell the difference between a civilian and a hostile Proportionality: ■ Take into consideration civilian property when targeting a military objective ■ Damage should be minimal Humanity: ■ Can’t use lethal force to cause unnecessary suffereing What’s being done to regulate development of these kinds of robots? ● Regulations through software: ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Setting time checks for launching lethal weapons A lethal weapon system operates in a zone limited by its sensors. Before firing the autonomous machine can use this process: ■ Detecting a target ■ Locating and identifying it using the approved List of Targets ■ Analysing (combatant or not following IHL laws) ■ Characterizing it (hostile or non-hostile) Decide if the target is a priority Record all decisions for opening fire What’s being done to regulate development of these kinds of robots? ● Set up security measures such as: ○ ○ ○ Operator can deactivate the machine Back up communication with the machine Any technical failure with the targeting will shutdown the machine What’s being done to regulate development of these kinds of robots? ● Researchers and major industrials that signed an Open Letter to ban LAWS ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ Stuart Russell Stephen Hawking Yan LeCun Steve Wozniak Elon Musk What’s being done to regulate development of these kinds of robots? ● Use not lethal weapons: ○ ○ ○ Optical or laser dazzlers Weapons that use the electromagnetic spectrum to disable enemy equipment Coast guard cadet tested the concept of arming drones with pepper spray and propeller nets Sources Armin Krishnan. 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