Assignment II: Fifteen New Architects Christopher Miller Marissa Hayden SLIDE 1: Ingel originally wanted to become a cartoonist when he went to school. After learning that there was no cartoonist program at the Danish Academy of fine arts he enrolled to become an architect. He hoped that drafting and drawing while studying for architecture would help him with drawing cartoons after he graduated. After spending some time in the course he realized he loved architecture and then went to Spain to study it further SLIDE 2: After coming back from Spain to finish his architecture degree he got a job working for Rem Koolhaas at his architecture firm where he would work for three years. He would finish his degree while working at Koolhaas’ firm. While working for Koolhaas he felt disdain for modern architecture making note that it appeared as bland and uninspired blocks of concrete and glass and hoped to break through what he felt like was a stagnation of architecture. SLIDE 3: While at Koolhaas’ office he would have worked on Maison a Bordeaux under him. Koolhaas and this particular work were heavily inspired by Corbusier and his works. Many of Ingels’ works would also find inspiration from Corbusier and from work done while in Koolhaas’ office. The Maison a Bordeaux in particular took lots of inspiration from Corbusier’s Villa la Roche, where it featured a pure structure raised on pilotis, featured a roof garden, ribbon windows, and a free façade. SLIDE 4: While working for Koolhaas and studying architecture he realized that the modern “international” style had lost itself. Instead of becoming a stylistic expression of modern needs and progress had instead regressed into buildings without expression that merely met the bare requirements of function. After seeing Koolhaas’ works he had realized that a stylistic revival of modernism needed to occur that met necessity through creativity. SLIDE 5: The VM Houses were Ingels’ first project that brought him renown and was his first project at his own firm, PLOT. He focused on changing the shapes of the structure to best use the landscape, allowing all of the residents of the building a view as well as optimal sunlight. One of the most prominent features of this project is his use of triangle shaped balconies jutting out of the structure to provide families with fresh air and an outdoor living space. SLIDE 6: Many of the same emphasis that Ingels puts on his projects were the same that Corbusier put on his own projects such as light, views, outdoor living spaces, and open floor plans. This inspiration also came from Koolhaas which also incorporated many of Corbusier’s ideas into his works. The Unite d’habitation was a direct influence for the project, borrowing the modular apartments, lighting ideas, and multi-floored, offset units. SLIDE 7: Ingels also emphasized the necessity for an open green area outside the building, creating a park space for the inhabitants of the housing. Shaping the land into hills to allow for impromptu seating so that park benches would not be needed. He wanted each apartment to have a view but due to the surrounding buildings he had to angle his apartments to prevent the surrounding buildings from blocking the views of the residents. SLIDE 8: The housing complex has over eighty unique apartments throughout the two buildings of the complex due to the unique shaping of the buildings. The unique division of units prevented the waste of space in the unique building’s shape. SLIDE 9: All of the hallways of the building were offset to one side to allow for large apartment units that would span two floors and could be offset from one another. He also implemented common areas on each floor to help foster a more neighborly community and welcoming living experience. SLIDE 10: The Mountain dwellings were another housing project done in Copenhagen by Ingels and were done next to his VM housing project. It is a sloping apartment complex resting on top of a parking garage. Each apartment is essentially a penthouse apartment that comes with its own terrace and terrace garden. SLIDE 11: Like the VM housing Ingles put emphasis on sunlight, a green open space for residents, and views. He sloped the apartments down at an angle to allow each unit to have roof access and a garden. He thought it was important that everyone had easy access to an outdoor area and again wanted to promote a sense of community by linking each units’ outdoor space together. SLIDE 12: To allow for the slanted design of the project the parking garage in the structure was created as an atrium that also houses all of the utilities of the building. The only way to reach the apartments is through the parking garage where a series of staircases or ski lift like elevators can take residents to their apartment. SLIDE 13: Every level is offset from the one above it allowing for privacy and access to sunlight during midday, where traditional buildings residents toward the bottom of the building would have light obstructed by the rest of the building. SLIDE 14: The underground parking is also similar to Corbusier’s Villa Savoye, where cars could be driven into the structure and residents would go up into their living spaces. The interior of the parking garage is covered in murals of nature and animals as well, in order to give the space more character and blend with its more industrial features. SLIDE 15: The outside of the building is also painted with a mural of the Himalayan mountains covering large aluminum sheets, which protect the parking garage from the elements. The terraces also come with gardens and greenery, Ingels encouraged ecology and sustainability for all of his projects wanting residents to grow vegetables or fruits. He also believed that the outdoor areas would help with health and wellbeing. SLIDE 16: Structuralism was a movement during the mid 20th century that used pure geometric forms to create new patterns and shapes for buildings to break away from what felt like mundane and repetitive architecture at the time. Although Ingels began his work at the turn of the 21st century he believed that architecture again fell into a rut like it had in the mid 20th century. To break away he embraced Corbusier and structuralism and tried to give his buildings new forms. SLIDE 17: The 8 house was another housing project in Copenhagen that used the same elements and emphasis from his previous works. In this project he both created a green roof and two courtyards for outdoor access. He used a figure eight pattern to give each unit direct natural light no matter the time of day and giving them a view of the surrounding area as well. SLIDE 18: Due to the buildings shape two courtyard were formed allowing for green space for residents. Like with the V M housing Ingels contoured the ground into small hills and steps creating impromptu outdoor furniture out of the ground. He also had one of the courtyard left open, only contouring the edges allowing for a larger play space for kids and sports. SLIDE 19: Like the V M housing again each floor of the 8 house has common spaces for residents to socialize and interact. He also has the hallways pushed to the outside of the structure and having many apartments span two stories. Each apartment is modular and its interior walls can be moved around to its inhabitants need just like his previous works and like Corbusier’s works as well. SLIDE 20: One portion of the building is angled down and covered in greenery, allowing residents to interact and be on the roof. This adds more outside space to the structure than just the courtyards and allows for the apartments facing another building across the street a view as well. SLIDE 21: Like the V M building there are many different unique units to maximize the use of space. As well as having residential space the building also has commercial and office space which creates the potential for the building to become more self sufficient. To get between the floors ramps and elevators were used but Ingels put emphasis on the horizontal element of the building, wanting each floor to become a neighborhood. SLIDE 22: Ingels’ emphasis on living standards that incorporate outdoor spaces, natural light, and access to social interactions. Creating modular units for families was the primary goal of the project and Ingels tried to incorporate the needs of a family into it. He wanted residents to have outdoor space and incorporated a balcony into every unit and made them offset boxes to prevent them from stacking and blocking out the sun for the ones below. SOURCES: 1. “8 House [Copenhagen, Denmark]: BIG -Bjarke Ingels Group.” Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, Proquest, Jan. 2011, search-proquestcom.gate.lib.buffalo.edu/docview/876183379?accountid=14169. 2. “BIG / Bjarke Ingels: VM-Houses, Copenhagen, Denmark.” Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, Proquest, July 2010, search-proquestcom.gate.lib.buffalo.edu/docview/816374539?accountid=14169. 3. Deniz, Balik, and Allmer Acalya. “This Is Not a Mountain!: Simulation, Imitation, and Representation in the Mountain Dwellings Project, Copenhagen.” Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals, Proquest, Mar. 2015, search-proquestcom.gate.lib.buffalo.edu/docview/1706562729?accountid=14169. 4. Galilee, Beatrice. “The Mountain Dwellings.” ICON Magazine, Iconeye, 22 June 2009, www.iconeye.com/icon-064-october-2008/the-mountain-dwellings. 5. Woodward, Richard B. “Building a Better Future.” The Wall Street Journal, Dow Jones & Company, 28 Oct. 2011, www.wsj.com/articles/SB10001424052970204644504576653421385657578.