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Chapter 2 additional worksheet

1. Latham and Kinne (1974) conducted a classic study in which they examined how a one-day
training program on goal setting affected the job performance of pulpwood workers. The subjects
in the study were 20 pulpwood logging crews. Their behavior was observed as they performed
their normal job duties harvesting lumber in a forest. The experimenters split the subjects into
two groups of ten crews each. They matched the two groups on a number of factors so that they
were equal in terms of ability and experience. One group was given a one-day course on how to
set production goals—that is, how many cords of wood to harvest per hour. The other group was
not given any special instructions and worked in the usual way. The experimenters then
monitored the job performance of the wood crews over the next three months. Results showed
that the crews who were trained to set production goals for themselves harvested significantly
more wood than the other crews. The study supported the use of goal setting in an industrial
context. What type of research method was used, and how do you know?
2. Streufert et al. (1992) conducted a laboratory experiment on the effects of alcohol intoxication
on visual-motor performance. A sample of adult men participated for two days; one day they
consumed alcohol and the other day they consumed mineral water (disguised with a mild ethanol
spray to provide the odor of alcohol). The mineral water served as a control condition against
which to compare alcohol intoxication. The alcohol dosage was designed to produce breath
alcohol levels of either .05 or .10. Visual-motor performance was measured on a task similar to a
video game. The researchers studied several aspects of performance, including risk taking and
errors. They compared performance under alcohol intoxication with performance under the
control condition for each person. The results showed that error rates were dramatically higher
under conditions of alcohol consumption. Serious performance deterioration was found even at
the lower (.05) intoxication level. Under the effects of alcohol, some individuals exhibited
greater cautiousness (i.e., slower reaction time) to the visual-motor task, trading off speed of
response for fewer errors. The researchers regarded errors in the task to be equivalent to an air
traffic controller’s failure to ward off aircraft that have come too close to each other.
Additionally, although reduced speed of response may decrease errors, it also may prevent
engaging in needed defense maneuvers. What are the independent and dependent variables in
this study, and how does this study illustrate the defining characteristics of a laboratory
3. Murphy et al. (1991) used the questionnaire method to ascertain the acceptability of employee
drug testing. The authors asked two samples of individuals (college-aged students and older,
nontraditional students) to indicate the degree to which they view testing for illicit drug use as
justified in each of 35 jobs (such as salesperson, surgeon, mechanic, and airline pilot). The
students rated each job on a 7-point scale from low to high acceptance of drug testing. The jobs
were carefully selected to represent different types of skills and temperaments needed for their
successful conduct as well as physical conditions under which the jobs are performed. What was
the research method that Murphy et al. used for this study?