1. Latham and Kinne (1974) conducted a classic study in which they examined how a one-day training program on goal setting affected the job performance of pulpwood workers. The subjects in the study were 20 pulpwood logging crews. Their behavior was observed as they performed their normal job duties harvesting lumber in a forest. The experimenters split the subjects into two groups of ten crews each. They matched the two groups on a number of factors so that they were equal in terms of ability and experience. One group was given a one-day course on how to set production goals—that is, how many cords of wood to harvest per hour. The other group was not given any special instructions and worked in the usual way. The experimenters then monitored the job performance of the wood crews over the next three months. Results showed that the crews who were trained to set production goals for themselves harvested significantly more wood than the other crews. The study supported the use of goal setting in an industrial context. What type of research method was used, and how do you know? 2. Streufert et al. (1992) conducted a laboratory experiment on the effects of alcohol intoxication on visual-motor performance. A sample of adult men participated for two days; one day they consumed alcohol and the other day they consumed mineral water (disguised with a mild ethanol spray to provide the odor of alcohol). The mineral water served as a control condition against which to compare alcohol intoxication. The alcohol dosage was designed to produce breath alcohol levels of either .05 or .10. Visual-motor performance was measured on a task similar to a video game. The researchers studied several aspects of performance, including risk taking and errors. They compared performance under alcohol intoxication with performance under the control condition for each person. The results showed that error rates were dramatically higher under conditions of alcohol consumption. Serious performance deterioration was found even at the lower (.05) intoxication level. Under the effects of alcohol, some individuals exhibited greater cautiousness (i.e., slower reaction time) to the visual-motor task, trading off speed of response for fewer errors. The researchers regarded errors in the task to be equivalent to an air traffic controller’s failure to ward off aircraft that have come too close to each other. Additionally, although reduced speed of response may decrease errors, it also may prevent engaging in needed defense maneuvers. What are the independent and dependent variables in this study, and how does this study illustrate the defining characteristics of a laboratory experiment? 3. Murphy et al. (1991) used the questionnaire method to ascertain the acceptability of employee drug testing. The authors asked two samples of individuals (college-aged students and older, nontraditional students) to indicate the degree to which they view testing for illicit drug use as justified in each of 35 jobs (such as salesperson, surgeon, mechanic, and airline pilot). The students rated each job on a 7-point scale from low to high acceptance of drug testing. The jobs were carefully selected to represent different types of skills and temperaments needed for their successful conduct as well as physical conditions under which the jobs are performed. What was the research method that Murphy et al. used for this study?