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Day School Presentation 1

TAI4243 Foundation garments
DAY SCHOOL 01 - 13.03.2021
M A H S Hansadhi (B. Des)
What is foundation garment ?
Foundation garments can mainly be classified in to men‟s, women‟s
and children‟s garments
Foundation garments are the garments, which are more closely contact
to the skin of a human body than other garments. people wear other
clothes outer to foundation garments.
This class of garments includes devices, which are specifically designed
fit the human body to protect
compress, support,
restrain (වළක්වන්න) or alter the configuration (විනයාසය)of the
body torso or a portion
Another term for foundation garments as intimate apparels . Intimate
means more close, therefore, the term intimate apparels
Men‟s intimate apparels
Upper part
Lower part
Socks for feet
vests cover our chest, back and abdomen portion of a male body
protect our body well against heat and can protect us from cold and
wind by providing the required insulation to the human body
In addition to protective function, a vest can fulfill aesthetic aspects.
A vest can affect the appearance of the garments worn over it
skin contact garment
Therefore, wearing comfort of a vest is very much important than in
the case of a outer wear
In a warm climate, vest absorbs sweat and evaporates it away. It
prevents wetting outerwear in a cold climates , it prevents loosing of
our body heat and keeping our body warm
Briefs are close fitting, knitted undergarments with an elastic
waistband, with or without an overlapping fly front
This product is introduced by the famous Jockey brand Y-front
brief and produced in the mid to late 20th century by many
manufacturers in many designs
These Briefs are originally inspired by the brief swimsuits worn in
the South of France in the 1930s
Briefs are used to cover growing area of a male body. It
provides support and protection and compresses the
components in that area.
Boxers or under drawers are made with an elastic waistband,
introduced into wide usage in the mid-20th century.
The elastic waistband alleviates the need for button, snap or tie
These boxers are normally loose fitted garment. But, it is close to the
Thermal wear
In cold climates ( in winter), males wear long under trousers, which
are completely skin touching garments.
It insulates the skin and prevents our lower body part
from cold. usually thicker than those products for hot climates. They
can also be made out of heat insulating fibers.
Women‟s intimate apparels
more and more fashionable than those for men
The different body parts covered by female foundation
garments are breast, abdomen, growing / hip
area, legs and feet
Women use bra / brassieres to cover breast, corsets and
girdles for abdomen, bikini and panties to cover grown
/ hip area, stockings / thermal wear for legs and socks
to cover feet
Bra / Brassieres
It serves for protection
To compress
To support and firm the configuration of breast
Some bras have a function of protection against
impacts, ex: sport bras
There are numerous styles with different features
available in the market.
Corsets and girdles
Corset is a rigid garment designed to
compress the waist
usually laced at the back, and extending from a
bit below the waist to the bust
It is used to compress
Corsets help to retain
Girdle is an elastic garment designed
restrain and alter
the configuration of the body section
below the breast to waist
the better
configuration in the abdomen area of
a female body
shape and smooth a women‟s figure
from the waist to thighs
Panties are a one kind of foundation garment, which is
used to cover and protect growing area or some
times also hip area of a female body
It has an elastic waist band and reinforced, but very
smooth edges
Panties are made with different trims such as laces,
braids, cords, buttons or other fastenings attached to
When panties are cut low in the front, but likely to have a full
back, it is called a Bikini
Bikini is designed as a leisure wear or beachwear
It normally consists of two parts. They are top part and bottom
Top bikini covers the breast and lower bikini covers growing area
of a woman
Socks and
Socks are used to cover our feet and protect from heat and cold climates
Stockings are a foundation garment, which covers our foot and also
legs up to thigh
This is specially useful in cold climates
It is normally made in skin colours or with a transparent material not to
make any difference with human skin
Children ‟s intimate apparels
For toddlers, people use very soft, smooth and
extremely comfortable foundation garments
Those foundation garments are generally not
having any significant differences for
different sex
Mostly, girl infants use pink or red colours and
blue or some times yellow colours are used for
boy infants
Children's wear can be further classified as
boy's wear and girls wear. Those are
separately based on children's sexuality
Session 2 Purpose of Intimate Apparel
Functions of Intimate Apparel
• people want to modify
their appearance by using different body
• In the stone age (even today among the primitive South America or
Africa people) people did not wearing clothes except for special
• The aim of such modification of appearance also can have a hidden
objective such as getting the attraction of others
• People believed they need some sort of minimum
attire to cover
some parts of their bodies, which they think as shameful
• Protection is a reality. We are clothing to protect our body from
unfriendly and harsh atmospheric conditions
• Clothing can tell, most of the time, what or who you are? It can give an
indication about your social status, occupation, nationality or religion
Specific functions of intimate clothing
Intimate apparel are worn in intimate contact with the wearer‟s body
They are body-fitting garments
Sleep wear, swimwear, which also come in intimate contact with the body, are
usually visible to outside as we do not wear anything over them. That means, we
can find different sub categories of intimate apparel , such as sleepwear and
Some under garments are used to shape our body by compressing some
parts of the body. “Corsets” worn by women is one good example for this.
Some under garments are used to retain some body parts in a particular
position and shape them. The best example for this type of garment is
Some undergarments (intimate wear) are used for protection and hygiene,
while others are supportive in improving comfort. There are also under
garments or intimate wear designed for medical / therapy requirements.
Body shaping and Retaining
Some intimate apparel are used to shape our body and / or to retain some
body parts at particular position
Usually, this is done to have an attractive shape. Attractiveness is relative and
varies from one individual to the other.
Body shaping or retaining garments are mainly used by females
Functions of a bra keep female breasts in a certain position. It may also be used to compress
the breasts and give them a small appearance
Brassieres can also be designed to give a fullness to the breasts
All these functions depend on the person, her body shape, the society or the
time in which she lives
“Braless” look is also a fashion
body shaping garment is the corset
Corset is used to compress the female body section
below the breast up to waist
Victorian ladies used this garment to show off tiny waists.
It had been a fashion at that time
“Girdle” is another example for a garment having the
function of compressing and shaping the body area
around hips.
Ladies who have (or think they have) too wide hips use them
to have a smooth or flat shape.
Girdle can also be used to retain the position of
stockings worn by them.
Stockings are then attached to the girdles by straps and
Protection and Comfort
Intimate-wear provides us protection from hazardous conditions
The most evident form of protection is the protection from cold. In
winter season, people wear few layers of clothing to protect our body
from cold and wind
The underwear designed for such climates are usually made out of
good insulating materials
Heat insulating materials such as Nylon is used for winter underwear
instead of cotton, which is used in warmer climates
Underwear designed for sports are also designed to protect from
hazardous activities
Weightlifter must wear strongly supportive underwear in abdominal
area to protect from possible damages to body (e.g. hernia)
Underwear can also protect our organs from germs.
Undergarments, which protect us from cold also provide us some sort of
Under garments worn in warmer weather conditions must be able to
provide some sort of cooling
This is achieved by products, which are supportive on our perspiration
process. That's why we use cotton or microfiber products as under-wear
in warmer climates. They can readily absorb our perspiration (sweat).
This will help us to keep our outer-clothes dry and we do not feel
uncomfortable due to wet-cling
New trend in the design of underwear is the seamless interpreted
garments. These garments provide extreme comfort, because, they do not
have any seams. They also enable us to wear tight body fitting outerwear
such as Jeans
Aesthetic Aspects and Attraction
Nowadays, even under garments are made in
attractive colours and with different trims
They are not visible to other, the wearer has a
feeling of satisfaction
Contributes to our self-satisfaction
Some types of intimate-wear are not
undergarments. The examples are swimwear,
sleep-wear stockings, panty hoses etc.
Aesthetic aspects of these garments are very
Hygiene and Medical Aspects
Intimate-wear is supportive in protecting us from hazardous germs
Especially in the case of children, who play a lot in dusty and dirty
conditions, a good underwear gives a very good protection
Our swimwear or beachwear must be able to protect us from hazardous or
undesirable particles found in sea / swimming pools
Some types of intimate-wear are specifically designed for medical
They are highly engineered garments which exert a defined pressure on a
defined part of the body providing therapeutic treatment to different
Requirements of Intimate Apparels
Physiological Requirements
Heat transfer by convection (සංවහනය), by covering body surface with a lager
of insulation (පරිවාරක)
Control of absorption of moisture (perspiration) by the material of clothing
Affecting moisture transport from body surface to the outer surface
clothing and then allowing it to evaporate (වාෂ්පීකරණය)
Body fitted intimate apparel
knitted fabrics are employed to make such undergarments. Knitted fabrics can be
produced to have an open structure making them suitable for hot condition or with
a close structure with hot of air entrapped in them (high porosity) making
them suitable for cold weather conditions.
Undergarments produced out of cotton yarn and with a relative open knitstructure are therefore used in warmer climates. Cotton fibres have very good
moisture absorption properties.
Sleep-wear designed for winter season are usually body fitted thick knitted
cotton materials.
They reduce heat loss, but, readily absorb the sweat when the wearer is
sleeping under a thick blanket
They allow good moisture absorption, heat transfer and very good
ventilation, providing best suitable conditions for such climates
Swim and Beach wear
made out of fine filaments fabrics, but, with closely woven or warp knitted
They allow fast drying, when the wearer comes out of water. In the water, they
absorb less water and become saturated (සංතෘප්ත)
Such garments are usually made out of dark coloured or printed fabrics to
reduce the danger of sun-burns. Present trend is to use finishing agents to
reduce absorption of UV-radiation that causes skin cancer.
Psychological Requirements of Intimate Apparel
different colours or designs or styles is also a psychological requirement
Self-satisfaction about what you wear is an important aspect as that of
attraction or acceptance by others. This is clearly evident in the selection of
we tend to use undergarment of attractive colours, with different trims etc.
This is mainly to satisfy our ego.
men‟s lower body undergarments
- Long underwear trousers
- Men's briefs
- Men's boxers
Upper Body Underwear
Measurements for Underwear
Boxer - Waist measurement, body rise measurement, hip measurement and thigh
measurement are the necessary measurements to construct briefs and
Brief - the front and back pattern pieces are marked out separately. If the briefs
have a front opening, then several separate pattern pieces must be made for the
front pattern piece.
vests - measured similar to the measurements taken for shirts. However, the
allowances added during the pattern construction are different, because under
garments are body
fitting garments.
Required body measurements for underwear
M - high chest circumference, just under the
N - circumference at fullest part of chest
O -"Empire" circumference, 3-4" below fullest
P - crotch length, from the front waist through
the legs to the back waist
Q - arm length, from the shoulder tip down over
the elbow to the wrist, arm slightly bent
R - cervical length of garment, from the cervical
down the back to the desired hem length. The
man should wear the high heels he will be
wearing with the garment.
Session 2 - Petticoats
Two types of petticoats worn underneath the outer
garment. They are full-slips and half-slips
Half-slips are commonly known as underskirts
Full slips are petticoats worn from top to bottom and they
can be as decorative or plain as to the wearer’s desire.
A slip is a very helpful .For example, if an unlined wool
dress is itching, a slip between the body and the dress can
make wearing it bearable. Or, if a sheer skirt is worn, in
order the silhouette is not shown through, a slip can be
worn. A slip can also smooth the lines of a clingy knit.
Full Slips
full slips are petticoats that are worn from top to bottom
Full slips come in variety of styles. Basically they can be
either strapped or strapless. Strapped slips are petticoats
that have straps over the shoulders to keep them in place
Slimming Slips
petticoats that are specialty shapers designed to
smooth and control a specific area.
Bottom boosters are unique in helping to actually
'lift' the buttocks.
available in half-slip styles to trim the body, and in
full-slip silhouettes to address the bust-line and
midriff areas well
Bra Cut Slips
Bra cut slips are petticoats that have a bra
shape near the breast and have straps over
the shoulder to hold them in place
Full Slips Separated at Waistline
Slips that have definite top and bottom and
attached at the waistline fall into
this category
Pleated Full Slips
Pleated full slips have pleats
from the hemline or just
above it
Mini Slips
Mini slips are slips that reach just above
the knees
Princess Line Full Slips
Princess line full slips take the shape of the
famous princess
line shape.
They are made of three body panels each
in the front and the back
Appliquéd Slips
Appliquéd slips are slips that have
appliqué work incorporated in them
Half Slips
half-slips are underskirts, which start from the waist up
to the required length. Half-slips come in variety of
Side Slit Half Slips
These half-slips have a side slit. Some full-slips too have
side slits
Tight Fitted Half Slips
Tight fitted half slips are styled to fit on to
the body very closely. They are suitable to
be worn under slim skirts
Tapered Half Slip
Tapered half-slips are narrower between the waist
and hip area and taper out
as they go down the hip area
Wraparound Half Slip
Wraparound half-slips do not have elastic at the waist. The
waist size is adjusted with a velcro at waistband. This slip is
like an open-ended sarong
What is Corset?
Session 4 - Corsets
Corset is a woman's support under garment, it is
boned and close fitting.
Corsets are worn mostly by women, to shape and
support the body
It provides wonderful support to their back and
stomachs and gives an excellent posture
For the main body of the corset, a stiff fabric like linen
or cotton is used to fit and mold the body
To provide support for the bust and create a smooth
„hourglass‟ shape, boning (thin pieces of whalebone
or steel) is sewn into fitted pockets placed lengthwise
along the corset, with a single thick bone or busks
(small plastic buttons) at the front closure
Style Variations in Corsets
under-bust corsets
over bust corset
tennis corsets, swimming corsets, hip corsets, inflatable bust
corsets, electrical corsets, abdominal strengthening corsets,
men's corsets, children's corsets
Over Bust Corsets
Corsets that cover the bust are called over bust corsets
Strapped Over Bust Corsets
Strapped over bust corsets are corsets that have added straps
Under Bust Corsets
● Corsets that are just below the bust are called under
bust corsets
Back Lacing Under bust Corsets
● Under bust corset with front
Buckled under bust corsets
These corset styles have buckles
added to the center front
Waist Clinchers
type of under bust corsets
below the bust and just over the waist
Waist clinchers are a versatile corset that is
comfortable for everyday wear
Patterns for Corsets - DO SELF STUDY
Session 5 Girdles
What is a Girdle?
A girdle is an elastic garment designed to shape and
smooth a woman’s figure from the waist to the thighs
Girdle is similar to a corset because both garments are,
Designed to control
The shape of the figure
Differences between corsets and girdles. They are,
(1) Girdle is generally lighter than a corset
(2) Modern girdles are often made of elastic material,
whereas a corset is
always made of non stretching fabrics
(3) A girdle shapes waist, hips, derriere, and thighs,
whereas the corset
shapes only the waist and sometimes the hips
(4) The corset extends to and sometimes over the bust,
whereas a girdle
extends from waist downwards
Style Variations in Girdles
Normally classified as light control, medium control or firm
The difference in these levels of control is usually a reflection of the
thickness of the girdle material or the degree to which a girdle is panelled
Another way of classifying the girdles are as open bottom girdles, brief
style panty girdles and long leg panty girdles
Open Bottom Girdles
For classic figure control we can use open bottom girdles
Normally they have formal affairs with stockings.
Therefore, there are 4 or 6 garters at the bottom of the
girdle to attach to the stockings
This style was very popular in the 1950's
High Rise Open Bottom Girdles
high rise open bottom girdle with pull-on style/
two high rise open bottom girdles with side zippers
Normal Rise Open Bottom Girdles
Normal rise open bottom girdles sit on the waistline
Normal Rise Open Bottom Skirt Girdles
● The style is similar to a skirt
● This style has a in-built panty
● The panties are usually cotton lined, and secured with
a convenient hook 'n' eye closure
● Tummy and rear panels are reinforced for
maximum control
● Silicone elastic bottom helps to prevent
ride-up during wear
Brief Style Panty Girdles
Panty girdles provide shaping for the waist, hips, back,
and derriere
Long Leg Panty Girdles
The long leg panty girdle is probably the most effective
choice for all around shaping
This type of girdles can provide excellent waist and
tummy control, while giving a smooth
line to hips, derriere and upper thighs as well.
Zipper High Rise Long Leg Panty Girdles
Long leg panty girdles come in different styles,
high rise and normal rise with reference
to the waist and mid calf length or
mid thigh length, based on the length
Pull-on High Rise Long Leg Panty Girdle
three styles of pull-on high rise long leg girdles
Normal Rise Long Leg Panty Girdles
● Normal rise long leg panty girdles sit on the waistline
● This is also known as a pant liner
● A pant liner is an undergarment that begins at the
waist and extends down past the mid-calf
● A pant liner can be pantaloon-like and worn as a slip
for unlined pants, or it can be form-fitting to slim and
smooth the legs
● It can also be called an under liner
Corselet is also spelled corselette. It is a woman's support
undergarment that combines a girdle with a bra
Corsolettes can be of brief style or open bottom style
Session 6 - Thermal Wear and Stockings
Thermal Wear
Dressing thermal underwear means dressing in layers that will work to
keep the body dry, warm and protected under a variety of conditions
The best layering system consists of three layers. Layer one is the long
underwear or base layer, layer two is the insulating tops and pants and layer
three is the outerwear
The base layer or thermal under garments should fit close to the body to
absorb moisture most effectively
Thermal Underwear for Top
According to the neck and sleeve tops are classified into several categories
Long sleeved
Short sleeved
Thermal Underwear for Bottom
These type of thermal underwear is worn under the trousers to retain the
warm of the body
Normally, these garments are knitted to produce stretchable
two types of underwear for bottom, such as long
pants and short pants
Miscellaneous Types of Thermal Wear
different types of thermal underwear that are used for specific body parts
Thermal Bodysuits
Knee and Arm Warmers
Women's Stockings
Stockings, which are also known as hosiery or hose, are coverings for legs
and feet
socks are evolved into stockings. There were many different ways
to wear stockings
Stockings can be categorized into several types. This classification is based
on the length of the stockings. Thus we have ankle/mid calf length
stockings (also known as socks), knee length stockings, thigh length
stockings, waist length stockings (also known as pantyhose), and body
Socks can be categorized into several sub classes such as anklets, trouser
socks, sport socks, boot socks
Session 7 Panties and Bikinis
fitting, knitted undergarments with an elastic waistband, with or without an
overlapping fly front
Briefs can be classified according to their length and the shape of the cut as
normal length brief, high cut brief and full cut briefs
Normal Briefs
High-Cut Briefs
Full Cut Briefs
Bikini is a panty wear style whose waistband rests below the
navel, and on the hips
Usually bikini has a high-cut leg line
The sides can be anything from a string to a thicker side panel
Back coverage depends on the style of the bikini. It normally
consists of two parts, a top and a bottom. The top bikini covers the
breast and the lower bikini covers the groin area of a woman.
Bikini is designed as a leisurewear or a beachwear
Bikini Tops
Bikini tops come in different style variations. Triangle top bikini, strapless
bikini tops, sports style, and push up style
Triangle Top Bikini
Push-Up Bikini Tops
Strapless Bikini Tops
Sport Tops
Full Support Bikini Tops
TAI4243 Foundation garments
course coordinator - M A H S Hansadhi