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The Gymnast
Name
Draw Conclusions
• A conclusion is a sensible decision you make after you think about facts or details that you
read.
• Drawing conclusions may also be called making inferences.
• Use your prior knowledge to help you draw conclusions.
Directions Read the following passage. Then complete the diagram below.
E
© Pearson Education, Inc., 5
nrique is a young gymnast who is
training for the Olympics. He goes
to live at the Olympic Training Center
in Colorado Springs. There he trains
twelve hours a day with other athletes.
In addition, he regularly takes part in
competitions to test his skills. Enrique sets
goals for himself. He wants to improve in
gymnastics skills and to learn routines that
are more difficult. His training schedule is
so demanding, he does not have time to go
to a regular school. He studies all of his
school subjects with a tutor. After more
years of training, Enrique hopes to make
the Olympic team.
What does the text
say?
What does the text
say?
What do I already
know?
1.
2.
3.
What can I conclude?
4.
5. Visualize Enrique studying with his tutor. What conclusion can you draw about the
advantages or disadvantages of studying with a tutor rather than studying at a regular school?
Home Activity Your child read a short passage and drew a conclusion based on the details in it. Tell your
child a story about an athlete you know about. Ask your child to visualize the details as you describe them.
Ask your child to draw a conclusion based on the details you provide.
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The Gymnast
Name
Writing
•
Writing for Tests
The Runner
O
ne evening my grandfather said to
me, “Come watch television with me.
The show is about Jesse Owens.”
“Who is he?” I asked with hesitation.
My grandfather loves history, but I don’t.
My grandfather turned to me with an
amazed face to tell me that Jesse was the
athlete whom the whole world saw as
the fastest and best track star. I snuggled
in next to my grandfather to watch the
television show about Jesse.
After I watched the show, I wanted to
be the fastest track star like Jesse. The
next day, I ran to school and skidded in
early! Since then, I have run home every
afternoon, sometimes wincing from lack
of breath. I have run fast errands for my
grandfather, doing cartwheels when I
arrived.
I have run so much that my brother has
asked me, “Who do you think you are?”
My father and teacher have asked me, “For
whom do you hurry?” My grandfather has
said simply, “Thank you.”
I told everyone that I love running, and
that I am practicing to be a track star like
Jesse. However, my brother said that I have
to eat more vegetables and fewer potato
chips. My father said that track and field
also includes long jumps and hurdles. My
grandfather said, “World records come
from people who are not only the fastest
in short and long runs, but also the best at
jumping.”
My head was throbbing from all their
advice. But now that I have a record of
short runs to class and speedy errands,
next year I will sign up for track and field!
2. What details does the author give about his or her feelings? Underline sentences
that tell about feelings.
© Pearson Education, Inc., 5
1. What can you tell about the author’s personality?
292 Writing Writing for Tests
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The Gymnast
Name
Vocabulary
Directions Choose the word from the box that best matches each definition below. Write the
word on the line.
�����������������������
1. to run or jump, turning the heels
over the head
�����������������������
2. a sport in which very difficult
exercises are performed
�����������������������
3. act of failing to act promptly
�����������������������
4. somewhat blue
�����������������������
5. sideways handsprings with the
legs and arms kept straight
Check the Words
You Know
bluish
cartwheels
gymnastics
hesitation
limelight
skidded
somersault
throbbing
wincing
Directions Choose the word from the box that matches the clues and
complete the crossword puzzle.
DOWN
6
6. the pain I felt when I broke my toe
7. the color of a pale sky
8. the place the star wants to be
8
9
7
ACROSS
© Pearson Education, Inc., 5
9. what my bicycle did when I slammed
on the brakes
10. what I am doing when I eat food I
don’t like
10
Write a News Report
Imagine you’re a sports reporter covering a gymnastics meet. On a separate sheet of paper write a
news report. Use as many vocabulary words as you can.
Home Activity Your child identified and used vocabulary words from The Gymnast. Skim the articles about
a single sport in the sports section of a newspaper. Point out and define the vocabulary word that is used to
describe each type of sport.
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The Gymnast
Name
Using Who and Whom
People sometimes confuse the pronouns who and whom when they write. Who is a subject form.
It is used as a subject of a sentence or a clause.
Who made this mess?
I saw a performer who could do four back flips. [Who is the subject in the dependent clause
who could do four back flips.]
Whom is an object form. It is used as the object of a preposition or as a direct object.
To whom did you send a letter?
Whom will you ask?
In the first example, whom is the object of the preposition to. In the second example, whom is a
direct object.
• To understand why whom is used in the second sentence, change the word order so that the
subject comes first. (Whom will you ask? becomes You will ask whom?) This makes it easier
to see that whom is a direct object.
Directions How is the underlined word used? Write subject, object of preposition, or direct object.
1. Who wants to learn gymnastics?
2. She is a person for whom gymnastics is hard.
3. Matt is the person who did a triple somersault.
4. Whom did she help the most?
5. Who won the Olympic medal last year?
Directions Underline who or whom to complete each sentence correctly.
7. Work with Brenda, (who, whom) has taken gymnastics for years.
8. To (who, whom) should we go for advice?
9. (Who, Whom) remembers the order of events?
10. The gymnast (who, whom) stumbled on the dismount still won a medal.
© Pearson Education, Inc., 5
6. (Who, Whom) should we support?
Home Activity Your child learned about using who and whom. Ask your child to write sentences about a
sport using whom as an object and who as a subject.
294 Conventions Using Who and Whom
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The Gymnast
Name
Negative Prefixes
Spelling Words
invisible
informal
inactive
indefinite
illiterate
illegal
imperfect
inappropriate
irregular
impatient
impolite
immobile
irresistible
independent
immature
irresponsible
impossible
incorrect
illogical
inexpensive
Missing Words Write the missing list word.
1. If you learn to read, you are not ____.
1. ___________________
2. If you have good manners, you’ll rarely be ____.
2. ___________________
3. If you earn a living, you can be ____.
3. ___________________
4. If you have a “can do” attitude, little is ____.
4. ___________________
5. If you’re always trustworthy, you are never ____.
5. ___________________
6. If you always follow the law, then you never do anything ____.
6. ___________________
7. If you’re always right, then you’re never ____.
7. ___________________
8. If you always act responsibly, then you are not ____.
8. ___________________
9. If you set an exact time to meet, it is not ____.
9. ___________________
10. If something always makes sense, it is not ____.
10. ___________________
© Pearson Education, Inc., 5
Classifying Write the list word that completes the group.
11. cheap, reasonable, low-cost, ____
11. ___________________
12. flawed, faulty, defective, ____
12. ___________________
13. restless, fidgety, ____
13. ___________________
14. unseen, faint, ____
14. ___________________
15. casual, relaxed, ____
15. ___________________
16. idle, quiet, immobile, ____
16. ___________________
17. out of place, unsuitable, ____
17. ___________________
18. stationary, motionless, ____
18. ___________________
19. tempting, appealing, enticing, ____
19. ___________________
20. uneven, lopsided, ____
20. ___________________
Home Activity Your child wrote words with prefixes. Ask your child to spell one word for each of the
four negative prefixes.
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Spelling Negative Prefixes
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The Gymnast
Name
Scoring Rubric: Writing for Tests:
Autobiographical Sketch
3
2
1
Focus/Ideas
Autobiographical
sketch clearly
focused on
an important
event in
writer’s life
Autobiographical
sketch
fairly clear;
somewhat
focused on
an event in
writer’s life
Autobiographical
sketch with
some details
about an event
in writer’s life
Autobiographical
sketch with
no focus on
writer’s life
Organization
Clear events in
chronological
order
Events
largely in
chronological
order
Events
somewhat
disorganized
Little or no
organization
Voice
Clearly shows
writer’s
personality and
feelings about
the subject
Gives some
indication
of writer’s
personality and
feelings about
the subject
Gives little
indication
of writer’s
personality and
feelings about
the subject
No indication
of writer’s
personality or
feelings about
the subject
Word Choice
Firstperson used
appropriately
throughout
First-person
used correctly,
but not
consistently
First-person
pronouns used
incorrectly
First-person
pronouns used
incorrectly, if
at all
Sentences
Sentences
clear and
interesting
Sentences
mostly clear
and interesting
Choppy
sentences
Fragments or
run-ons
Conventions
Excellent
control and
accuracy;
who and
whom used
consistently
and correctly
Good control;
who and whom
used correctly
but not
consistently
Errors may
prevent
understanding;
who and whom
used or spelled
incorrectly
Frequent errors
that interfere
with meaning;
who and
whom used
incorrectly, if
at all
© Pearson Education, Inc., 5
4
296 Writing Writing for Tests
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The Gymnast
Name
Vocabulary • Suffixes
• A suffix is a syllable added to the end of a base word to change its meaning or the way it is
used in a sentence. For example, the Old English suffix -ish means “somewhat,” as in childish.
The Latin suffix -ion means “the act or state of being ______,” as in determination. The suffix -ics
means “study or system,” as in athletics. The suffix -ist means “a member of a profession” as in
dentist. You can use suffixes to help you figure out the meanings of words.
• In dictionaries, the definition of a base word with the suffix added is usually found near that of
the base word. The base word’s definition is helpful in understanding a word’s meaning.
Directions Read the following passage. Notice the words with suffixes as you read. Then answer
the questions below.
T
he gymnastics meet started with a
spectacular balance beam routine
by Amy’s main competitor. Then Amy
hopped onto the beam and started her
routine with no hesitation. She did fine
on her somersaults and cartwheels, but on
one backflip she had a bad landing. Her
ankle felt like a knife had ripped through
it, and she saw bluish stars in front of her
eyes. As she finished her routine, Amy
thought, “There goes my chance to be
a finalist.” But when the numbers came
up, she scored the highest! Although her
ankle was throbbing, she stepped to the
judges’ table and accepted her medal.
1. What is the suffix in gymnastics? How does the suffix change the meaning of the base word?
© Pearson Education, Inc., 5
2. What is the suffix in hesitation? How does the suffix change the meaning of the base word?
3. What is the suffix in bluish? How does the suffix change the meaning of the base word?
4. Change the suffix of competitor from -or to -ion. What is the meaning of the new word?
5. Which word in the passage has a suffix like dentist? Write its definition.
Home Activity Your child read a short passage and identified and used suffixes to understand new words.
Work with your child to identify unfamiliar words with suffixes. Then ask your child how the suffixes help
him or her to understand the meanings of the new words. Confirm the meanings by looking them up in a
dictionary.
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Vocabulary
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The Gymnast
Name
Graphs
Graphs show information visually. You can use graphs to compare different pieces of information.
Look at the title of a graph to see what is being compared. There are many types of graphs, but
two types of graphs are bar graphs and circle graphs. A bar graph uses horizontal and vertical
lines. Words or numbers along each line explain what is being compared. A circle graph, which is
also called a pie chart, compares the parts of a whole.
Directions Use this graph to answer the questions below.
300
Height in cm
250
200
150
100
50
0
Rings
Parallel Bars
Vault
High Bar
Pommel Horse
Men’s Gymnastic Equipment
1. Explain what kind of graph this is and how you know.
3. How many pieces of equipment are being compared?
4. Approximately how tall are the parallel bars? The high bar?
© Pearson Education, Inc., 5
2. What is the tallest piece of equipment? What is the shortest piece of equipment?
5. Would this graph be a good source for finding out information about equipment used by female
gymnasts? Explain.
298 Research and Study Skills
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The Gymnast
Name
Directions Use this graph to answer the questions below.
Basketball = 50%
Swimming = 5%
Soccer = 35%
Baseball = 10%
Favorite Sports of Sawyer School Fifth Graders
6. What kind of graph is this? How do you know?
7. What is the favorite sport of the fifth graders at Sawyer School? What percent of students prefer
that sport?
8. What sport is second-most popular? What percent of students prefer that sport?
© Pearson Education, Inc., 5
9. What sport is the least popular? What percent of students prefer that sport?
10. What is being compared in this graph? Explain why you think this type of graph displays this
information effectively.
Home Activity Your child learned about using graphs as resources. With your child, look at a graph that
appears in the newspaper or in a brochure. Ask your child what information is being compared. Ask your
child specific questions about information the graph shows.
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The Gymnast
Name
Negative Prefixes
“I want to create an irresistable toy for children. It will
make the user innvisible. I need five independent teams
to work on this. As always, I am impashent to get this
project started! We do not have an indefinute amount of
time. I’m hoping to have this toy on the market by the
end of the year. Does anyone have any questions? Does
anyone think this task is ilogical or inpossible to do? Do
we all agree this can be done let’s get to work!”
1. ________________
2.
_________________
3. ________________
4.
_________________
5. ________________
6.
_________________
7. ___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________
Proofread Words Circle the word that is spelled correctly.
8. irresistible
unresistable
ilresistable
9. ilexpensive
imexpensive
inexpensive
10. inmature
immature
imature
11. imperfect
ilperfect
unperfect
12. imdependent
independent
ildependent
13. imactive
innactive
inactive
14. impolite
inpolite
unpolite
15. illiterate
iliterate
inliterate
16. imappropriate
inappropriate
inapropriate
Spelling
Spelling
Words
Words
invisible
illiterate
irregular
irresistible
impossible
informal
illegal
impatient
independent
incorrect
inactive
imperfect
impolite
immature
illogical
indefinite
inappropriate
immobile
irresponsible
inexpensive
Frequently
Misspelled
Words
through
always
© Pearson Education, Inc., 5
Proofread a Speech Circle six spelling errors in the toymaker’s speech.
Write the words correctly. Write the run-on sentence as two sentences.
Home Activity Your child identified misspelled list words. Take turns spelling list words that begin with
the four negative prefixes studied.
300 Spelling Negative Prefixes
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The Gymnast
Name
Using Who and Whom
Directions Read the passage. Then read each question. Circle the letter of the correct answer.
Making the Team
(1) When Coach Reed asked, “Whom would like to try out for the basketball
team?” we all raised our hands. (2) “Who will make the team?” I wondered.
(3) Some of the kids were already very good at basketball. (4) It wasn’t hard to see
who had not played much. (5) I could run and shoot, but I was never sure to whom I
should pass the ball. (6) Whom could I ask for help? (7) Coach Reed saw me practice
and asked me to be on the team.
What change, if any, should be made in
sentence 1?
A Change Coach to coach
B Remove quotation marks
C Change Whom to Who
D Make no change
4
Which describes the underlined word in
sentence 5?
A Subject
B Object of preposition
C Direct object
D None of the above
2
What change, if any, should be made in
sentence 2?
A Change I wondered to I wonder
B Remove quotation marks
C Change Who to Whom
D Make no change
5
Which describes the underlined word in
sentence 6?
A Subject
B Object of preposition
C Direct object
D None of the above
3
Which describes the underlined word in
sentence 4?
A Subject
B Object of preposition
C Direct object
D None of the above
© Pearson Education, Inc., 5
1
Home Activity Your child prepared for taking tests on who and whom. Have your child read newspaper
articles to highlight uses of who and whom. Then ask him or her to tell whether the words are used correctly,
and why.
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Conventions Using Who and Whom
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