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Moods and feelings THEORY (1)

“Moods and Feelings”
TUTOR : Luisa Liev
Surprised: // By something unexpected or unusual.
“When Charlotte saw how good her exam results was, she was pleasantly surprised.”
Surprised that: “I’m very surprised that he remembered my birthday.”
Surprised at: “Helen was surprised at how small the room really was.”
Surprised to hear/ to see/to learn/to read etc.: “Parents were surprised to read of
plans to sell off the school playing fields.”
Astonished: / Very surprised at something that has happened.
“Miss Evans was astonished when the nurse said that there was no bed for her in the
Amazed: / So surprised that you cannot believe what has happened.
“Frank has finally passed his driving test. I’m amazed”
Astounded: // Extremely surprised at something that has happened or at
some information that you have heard because it is so completely unexpectedly.
“People were astounded that he gave up a successful acting career to become a priest”
Staggered: Extremely surprised for something very bad or very good
that has happened and you find it difficult to believe it.
“When parents heard of the terrible disaster at their children school, they were
Flabbergasted: An informal word meaning so surprised at something
bad that has happened that you don’t know hat to do or say.
“I was flabbergasted to see the delivery man leaving the furniture on the pavement
and driving away.”
Dumbfounded: /Confused and unable to speak because you are very
“Suddenly, all the airhostesses started screaming while the passengers watched
Speechless: So surprised or shocked that you are unable to
speak. “Mark watched speechless as his son drop the car straight into a brick wall”
Speechless with anger  grief  or shock: /”Benson made a
coarse remark and walked away leaving his boss speechless with anger”
Gobsmacked: Informal BR word meaning so
surprised that you cannot speak.
“I was absolutely gobsmacked when they told me she was
going to have triplets”
Stunned: So shocked that you are unable to react
“There was a stunning silence when she walked into the party - No one expected her to
come after her split with Fred”
They stood in stunned silence beside the bodies.
Dazed: Very shocked and unable to think clearly or do anything.
“Dan sat in the kitchen looking dazed, telling us over and over again about the
Aghast: (At something) Feeling or looking shocked by something that you
have been told or have found about.
“Mr. Sullivan seemed aghast at the prospect of losing his only daughter to this rude
arrogant young man”
Shocked: /”When the police came to arrest him he was so shocked …..- he
didn’t think he had done anything wrong”
Horrified: terrified; frightened
“She was horrified to hear of his death.”
Traumatized:To be shocked so badly that you are affected
by it for a very long time. To subject or be subjected to mental trauma.
“He was traumatized by his war experiences.”
Shattered:So badly shocked by something unpleasant that has happened,
that you lose your confidence or ability to do things.
“Laura’s recent experience has left her shattered and now she is nervous about going
out and meeting people”
Shaken/shaken up/ badly shaken: 
”The fire in the hotel was not very serious but everyone was shaken up by it”
“She was badly shaken by the attack and founded it difficult to describe her or deal to
the police.”
Gasp: /To make a sudden short sound by breathing in quickly as a reaction to
something surprising, shocking or impressive. “Mr. Atkins gasped in disbelief.”
Idioms and expressions
Be taken aback: /To be so surprised by something that someone says or does
that you do not know what to say or do. “My aunt was taken aback when I told her
that I wouldn’t be spending the holidays at home.” (always used in the passive)
Be in state of shock: To experience or cause to
experience extreme horror, disgust, surprise, or
something that causes a sudden and violent
disturbance in the emotions.
“After the accident, he was bleeding and clearly in a
state of shock.”
Come as a shock: Be sudden and unexpected news
Since you are always late to work, it should not come as a shock that you would get
Can’t get over: If you say that you can’t get over something that has happened, you
mean that you are so surprised by it that you cannot believe it.
“Mavis couldn’t get over how big his nephew had grown. The last time she had seen
her he was just a little baby.”
Be lost for words/be at loss for words Feel so surprised and so full of emotion that
you are unable to speak.
“Jerry was at a loss for words because she had never been given such an expensive
Knock somebody for a loop: An Informal AME
expression meaning to shock somebody.
“When Debra left Thomas so suddenly it really knocked
him for a loop”
Knock one’s socks off: To surprise someone thoroughly.
“The exciting news just knocked my socks off!”
“The news knocked the socks off of everyone in the office.”
Knock your sideways: To surprise, confuse or upset someone very much.
“The news of her brother's death knocked her sideways.”
Drop a bombshell: An Informal expression meaning to say something that
shocks other people because it is so unexpected.
“The manager dropped a bombshell at the weekly meeting. We were all going to lose
our jobs”
Caught off guard/unawares: To catch a person at a time of carelessness.
“Tom caught Ann off guard and frightened her.”
“She caught me off my guard, and my hesitation told her I was lying.”
Not know what hit you: To be shocked and confused by something surprising.
“When Nancy said she wanted a divorce, I didn't know what hit me.”
Be caught napping: To not be ready to deal with something at the time when it
“Arsenal's defence was caught napping as Andrews chipped in a goal from the right.”
Can’t believe ones eyes/ears: Used to say that someone is very surprised by something
they see or hear.
“The local pilot refused to believe his eyes and wanted to disembark when he found he
was on a ship with a woman captain. ”
Take your breath away: To cause someone to be out of breath due to a shock.
“Mary frightened me and took my breath away.”
Your eyes nearly pop out of your head: A way of describing the way you look when
you are extremely surprised to see something or someone.
“When she saw the amount written on the check, her eyes nearly popped out of her
Confused: /kənˈfjuːzd/ Unable to think clearly or to understand something
“Grandfather gets quite confused sometimes, and doesn't even know what day it is”
“I'm a bit confused. Was that her husband or her son she was with?”
Bemused: /bɪˈmjuːzd/ Slightly confused
“I must admit that I was rather bemused at his sudden anger.”
A bemused expression/ smile
Puzzled: /ˈp z d/ Confused because you do not understand something
“He had a puzzled look on his face.”
“I'm still puzzled as to why she said that.”
“I'm a bit puzzled that I haven't heard from Liz for so long.”
Muddle-headed: / m d ˈhed ɪd/ not thinking clearly or in an organized way
Perplexed: /pəˈp ekst/ Confused or worried
“The students looked perplexed, so the teacher tried to explain once again”
Mixed up: / mɪkstˈ p/ upset, worried, and confused, especially because
of personal problems
“He's just a mixed-up kid”
“She felt very mixed up after the divorce”
Screwed up: /skruːd ˈ p/ Confused and worried because of bad personal experiences
“He's been really screwed up since his wife died”
Baffling: /ˈbæf ɪŋ/ Impossible to understand; perplexing; bewildering; puzzling
“A baff ing mystery”
“I found what he was saying completely baffling”
The question in the exam baffled me completely. (VERB)
Bewildered: /bɪˈwɪ dəd/ To cause to lose one's bearings; disorient
“Arriving in a strange city at night, I felt alone and bewildered”
Baffle: /ˈbæf / To cause someone to be completely unable to understand or
explain something.
“She was completely baffled by his strange behavior”
Bewilder: /bɪˈwɪ də/ To confuse someone.
“The instructions completely bewildered me”
Muddle somebody up: / m d ˈ p/ To confuse somebody mentally.
“Don’t cry and explain it again or you’ll muddle me up completely.”
Muddle something up: (Phrasal Verb)
a)- To be confused about two or more things or people and therefore make mistakes
in arrangements, etc.
“I've arranged the books alphabetically so don't muddle them up.”
b)- To be confused one person or thing with another one
“I often muddle up Richard with his brother.”
Informal expressions to say that somebody is confused
In a fog = to be in a spin= to be in a whirl
Be completely at sea
Tie oneself in knots
Not know if you are coming or going
Frightened: /ˈfraɪ tənd/ Feeling fear or worry.
“I was frightened (that) you would fall”
“Don't be frightened to complain if the service is bad”
Scared: /skeəd/ Frightened or worried.
“She had a scared look on her face”
Terrified: /ˈter ə faɪd/ Very frightened.
She's terrified (that) her mother might find out her secret.
Petrified: /ˈpet rə faɪd/ Extremely frightened.
She's petrified of being on her own in the house at night.
Panic- stricken: /ˈpæn ɪk strɪk ən/ Very frightened and worried about a situation,
and therefore unable to think clearly or act reasonably
“The streets were full of panic-stricken people trying to escape the tear gas”
Afraid: /əˈfreɪd/ Feeling fear, or feeling worry about the possible results of a situation.
“He was/ felt suddenly afraid”
“Don't be afraid to say what you think”
Fearful: /ˈfɪə fə / Frightened or worried about something.
“He hesitated before ringing her, fearful of what she might say”
Foreboding: /fɔːˈbəʊ dɪŋ/ A strong feeling or fear that something unpleasant or
dangerous is going to happen.( Formal )
“A foreboding feeling that something was wrong”
Dismayed: /dɪˈsmeɪd/ A worried, sad feeling after you have received an unpleasant
“I was dismayed to discover that he'd lied”
Alarmed: /əˈ ɑːmd/ Worried or frightened by something.
“I was a bit alarmed at/by how much weight she'd lost”
Dread: /dred/
To feel extremely worried or frightened about something
that is going to happen or that might happen.
“He's dreading his driving test - he's sure he's going to fail”
Panic: /ˈpæn ɪk/
To suddenly feel so worried or frightened that you cannot think or
behave calmly or reasonably.
“Don't panic! Everything will be okay”
Fear: /fɪə/ To be worried or frightened that something bad might happen or might
have happened
“Police fear (that) the couple may have drowned”
Scare: /skeə/ To (make a person or animal) feel frightened
“Sudden noises scare her”
Idioms and expressions
Scared stiff: badly frightened
Be frightened/nervous/scared of your own shadow: to be very easily frightened
Be frightened/scared/terrified out of your wits: to be very frightened
Be scared/bored witless: to be extremely frightened or bored
Scared to death: Very frightened
For fear that/of something: because you are worried that a particular thing
might happen
Have a phobia about: a strong unreasonable fear of something
In fear of your life: feeling frightened that you might be killed
Strike fear, etc. into somebody/somebody's heart: to make somebody be afraid, etc.
Take fright (at something): to be frightened by something
(as) white as a sheet: If someone is (as) white as a sheet, their face is very pale,
usually because of illness, shock, or fear
Shake in your shoes: to be very frightened or nervous
Shake like a leaf: to make short quick movements that you cannot control,
for example because you are cold or afraid
Words to describe something makes somebody feel fear
Hair- Rising
Spine- Chilling
Blood- Curdling
To make somebody feel frightened
Give somebody a fright
Give somebody the creeps/willies
Make someone's hair stand on end
Spook (verb)
Rattle (verb)
Daunt (verb)
Terrorize (verb)
Joyful: /ˈdʒɔɪ fə / Very happy. “Christmas is such a joyful time of year”
Jubilant: /ˈdʒuː bɪ ənt/ Feeling or expressing great happiness, especially because of
a success. “The fans were jubilant at/about/over England's victory over Germany”
Jolly: /ˈdʒɒ i/ Happy and smiling”
“A jolly smile/ manner/ mood”
“She's a very jolly, upbeat sort of a person.
Merry: /ˈmer i/ Happy or showing enjoyment
“he merry sound of laughter”
“She's a merry little soul”
Cheerful: /ˈtʃɪə fə / Happy and positive.
“He's usually fairly cheerful”
“You're in a cheerful mood this morning”
Glad: /ɡ æd/ Pleased and happy.
“We were glad about her success”
“I'm glad (that) you came”
Pleased: /p iːzd/ Happy or satisfied.
“A pleased expression/ smile”
“I’m really pleased with your work this term”
Delighted: /dɪˈ aɪ tɪd/ Very pleased.
“A delighted audience”
“Pat was delighted with her new flat”
Thrilled: /θrɪ d/ Extremely pleased.
“I was thrilled that so many people turned up to the party”
Elated: /ɪˈ eɪ tɪd/ Extremely happy and excited, often because something
has happened or been achieved.“The prince was reported to be elated at/by the birth
of his daughter”
Idioms and expressions
To be in high spirits: Someone who is in high spirits is extremely happy and
enjoying the situation.
“She was in high spirits after scoring the winning basket”
Like the cat that got the cream: If someone looks like the cat that got the cream, they
annoy other people by looking very pleased with themselves because of something
good that they have done.
“Of course Mark got a glowing report so he was sitting there grinning like the cat that
got the cream”
Beam/ Smile/ Grin from ear to ear: to smile a very wide, beaming smile
“She was grinning from ear to ear as she accepted the prize”
“We knew Timmy was happy because he was grinning from ear to ear”
Be all smiles: To look very happy and friendly, especially when other people are not
expecting you to.
“She spent the whole of yesterday shouting at people and yet this morning she's all
To be over the moon: To be extremely pleased about something
“Marie got the job. She's over the moon”
To be on cloud nine: To be very happy
“For a few days after I heard I'd got the job, I was on cloud nine”
To be blissfully happy: Extremely or completely happy.
“They seemed to be blissfully happy”
To be floating/ walking on air: To be very
happy and excited because something very
pleasant has happened to you.
“When the doctor told me I was going to
have a baby, I was walking on air”
To be/ feel on top of the world: to feel very
“She'd just discovered she was pregnant and she felt on top of the world”
To be full of the joy of spring: To be very happy
“He bounced into the office, full of the joys of spring”
I'm glad to say (that…): used when you are commenting on a situation and saying that
you are happy about it.
“Most teachers, I'm glad to say, take their jobs very seriously”
Jump for joy: to be extremely happy
"-So how did Robert take the news? - He didn't exactly jump for joy“
Be in seventh heaven: To be extremely happy
“Since they got married they've been in seventh heaven.”
Like a dog with two tails: To be very happy
“Ben's team won the match. Their manager was like a dog with two tails.”
Thrilled to bits: To be extremely pleased
“So what did your parents say when they heard you were pregnant?' 'Oh, they were
thrilled to bits.”
Be tickled pink: [Informal] Very pleased; delighted.
“I was tickled pink by the compliment.”
Furious: /ˈfjʊəriəs/ Extremely angry.
“Judge Roberts' comments provoked a furious public response”
Furious with: “Dad was furious with us”
Furious that: “Rosie was absolutely furious that I'd borrowed her car without asking”
Furious at: “They were furious at not being invited to the party”
Livid: /ˈ ɪvɪd/ Extremely angry.
“I was absolutely livid when I found out that my girlfriend was cheating on me”
Fuming: To feel or show a lot of anger.
“Motorists are fuming over the latest petrol shortages”
Teed off: / tiːd ˈɒf/ Angry, or annoyed.
“I was getting teed off by his constant interruptions”
Incensed: /ɪnˈsenst/ To cause to be extremely angry; infuriate.
“He was so incensed at being called a liar that he kicked the table over and stormed
out of the room”
Riled: /raɪ / To annoy someone
“The president's outspoken remarks have riled conservatives.”
Irate: /aɪˈreɪt/ Very angry
“An irate customer”
Exasperated: /ɪɡˈzɑːspə reɪtɪd/ Extremely annoyed and impatient because things are
not happening in the way that you want or people are not doing what you want them
to do.
"A scene . . . that exasperates his rose fever and makes him sneeze" (Samuel Beckett).
To infuriate somebody: /ɪnˈfjʊərieɪt/ To make someone extremely angry.
“His stubborn refusal to answer any questions infuriated the police.”
To enrage somebody: /ɪnˈreɪdʒ/ To make someone extremely angry.
“They enrage her by their continual harassment.”
Shout: /ʃaʊt/ VERB
To use a loud voice when you are angry.
Shout at someone/something: “Donna shouted at the men furiously.”
Shout insults/abuse (at someone): “As she left the court, she shouted insults at the
Scream and shout (at someone/something): “Some of the patients were screaming
and shouting at the nurses.”
To say something in a loud voice, or to make a loud noise
because you are angry, afraid, excited, or in pain.
“Watch out, Victor yelled.”
Yell at: “Her husband was yelling at her.”
Roar: /rɔː(r)/ [INTRANSITIVE] If a crowd of people roar, they all shout at the same time
because they are angry or excited.
“It was a performance that had spectators roaring in appreciation”
[TRANSITIVE] To say something in a loud, deep, angry voice.
“Come here at once, he roared.”
Bawl: /bɔː / [INTRANSITIVE/TRANSITIVE] To shout in a loud angry way.
“His main complaint was that Mr. Green bawled at him during meetings.”
Bellow: /ˈbe əʊ/ [INTRANSITIVE/TRANSITIVE] To shout very loudly
“'I can't hear you!, he bellowed.”
Swear /sweə(r)/ VERB
[INTRANSITIVE] To use words which are deliberately
offensive, for example because you are angry with someone.
“That's the first time I've ever heard him swear.”
Swear at: “She was shouting and swearing at everyone.”
Swear profusely: “I hammered my thumb and then swore profusely.”
Curse: /kɜː(r)s/ [INTRANSITIVE] To use offensive or impolite language.
“He looked at his watch, cursed, and ran for a taxi.”
[TRANSITIVE] To say or think offensive or impolite words about someone or
“Joe will be cursing me when he finds out I've gone in without him.”
“I cursed myself for being such a fool.”
Cuss: /K S/ VERB INFORMAL To swear.
Don't cuss at me.
Mutter. /ˈm tə(r)/ [INTRANSITIVE/TRANSITIVE] To talk in a quiet voice that is difficult
to hear, especially because you are annoyed or embarrassed, or are talking to yourself
“He muttered an apology and then left.
“'That's a matter of opinion,' she muttered under her breath.
Mutter (something) about someone/something: “Her husband muttered something
about going out to find her.”
Mutter to yourself: “He turned and went upstairs, muttering to himself.”
[INTRANSITIVE] To complain indirectly or unofficially.
Mutter about: “People began muttering about the unfair way he was being treated.”
something in an unfriendly and angry way.
“I couldn't care less, Ben growled.”
speak in an unpleasant angry way.
“Be quiet!' he snarled at them.”
Idioms and phrases
Hit the roof (also go through the roof) To suddenly become
very angry.
“I'm afraid he'll hit the roof when he finds out our vacation is
“Officials went through the roof when a local newspaper published the report.”
Have a fit, to throw a fit/hysteric, to have a fit of anger: To be very angry; to show
great anger.
“The teacher had a fit when the dog ran through the classroom.”
“John threw a fit when he found his car had been damaged.”
To see red: To be angry.
“Whenever I think of the needless destruction of trees, I see red.”
“Bill really saw red when the tax bill arrived.”
Be fed up/sick to the back teeth: To be bored or angry because a bad situation has
continued for too long or a subject has been discussed too much.
(often + with ) “He's been treating me badly for two years and, basically, I'm fed up to
the back teeth with it.”
(often + of ) “You're probably sick to the back teeth of hearing about my problems!”
Climbing the walls: To be extremely nervous or upset.
“If your kids are climbing the walls, they need to get out and work off some of that
excess energy.”
Browned / pissed off (slang): To be very annoyed, fed up, disappointed.
Teacher: "I am really browned off now"
Hot under the collar: Very angry
“The boss was really hot under the collar when you told him you lost the contract”
“I get hot under the collar every time I think about it”
To fly off the handle: To lose one's temper.
“Every time anyone mentions taxes, Mrs. Brown flies off the handle.”
“If she keeps flying off the handle like that, she'll have a heart attack.”
Bent out of shape:
a)- Angry; insulted.
“Man, there is no reason to get so bent out of shape.
“I didn't mean any harm. I got bent out of shape because of the way I was treated.”
b)- Intoxicated by alcohol or drugs.
I was so bent out of shape I thought I'd never recover.
I've been polluted, but never as bent out of shape as this.
Step on someone's toes and tread on someone's toes: To offend or insult someone,
as if causing physical pain.
“You're sure I won't be stepping on her toes if I talk directly to her supervisor?”
“I didn't mean to tread on your toes”
Rub somebody up the wrong way also rub somebody the wrong way: (AME)
To annoy someone without intending to.
“It's not her fault - she just rubs me up the wrong way.”
“Whenever they meet, they always manage to rub each other the wrong way.”
Needle someone about someone or something: To pester or bother someone about
someone or something.
“Please don't needle me about Jane.”
“Stop needling me about eating out.”
Be like a red rag to a bull: If a statement or an action is like a
red rag to a bull, it makes someone very angry.
“For Claire, the suggestion of a women-only committee was
like a red rag to a bull.”
Tick someone off: To make someone angry.
“That really ticks me off!”
“Doesn't that tick off everyone?”
Get on (someone's) nerves: To irritate or exasperate.
His constant humming is really beginning to get on my nerves.
Get under someone's skin: To bother or irritate someone.
“John is so annoying. He really gets under my skin”.
“I know he's bothersome, but don't let him get under your skin.”
Ruffle someone's feathers: To irritate or annoy someone.
“I didn't mean to ruffle his feathers. I just thought that I would remind him of what he
promised us.”
To behave angrily – Reactions and body language
To have a face like thunder, also look like thunder: To have a very angry expression.
“I don't know what had happened but he had a face like thunder.”
“She didn't say anything but she looked like thunder.”
Lose one's cool and blow one's cool: To lose one's temper; to lose one's nerve.
“Wow, he really lost his cool! What a tantrum!”
“Whatever you do, don't blow your cool.”
Look daggers at someone: To give someone a dirty look.
“Tom must have been mad at Ann from the way he was looking daggers at her.”
“Don't you dare look daggers at me! Don't even look cross-eyed at me!”
To glare at somebody /ɡ eə(r)/ VERB [INTRANSITIVE]
To look at someone or something in a very angry way.
“They glared at each other across the table ”
To scowl at somebody /skaʊ / VERB [INTRANSITIVE]
To twist your face into an expression that shows you are angry.
“Now stop scowling and smile!”
“She scowled furiously at his back as he walked away.”
To give a durty/shoot a dirty/ black look at somebody: To quickly look at someone
angrily to show that you are angry with them, especially in a situation when you
cannot tell them that you are angry.
“Her father would give her black looks whenever she disagreed with him in front of
other people.”
Make a scene/ create a scene: To make a public display or disturbance.
“When John found a fly in his drink, he started to create a scene.”
“Oh, John, please don't make a scene. Just forget about it.”
Throw a tantrum: To have a temper tantrum; to put on an active
display of childish temper.
“I never dreamed that Bob would throw a tantrum right there in
the department store. You must be so embarrassed!”
Outburst: /ˈaʊt bɜː(r)st/ A sudden spoken expression of a strong feeling, especially
anger emotional outbursts.
“His colleagues used to be shocked by his outbursts of temper.”
Shake your fist: To hold up your fist and shake it in order to show
people you are angry.
“Victor shook his fist angrily at the naughty children.”
To stamp your foot: To bring your foot down hard on the ground because you are
angry about something and you want to make a lot of noise.
“How dare you to say that! Shouted Laura stamping her foot with rage.”
Let off (some) steam and blow off (some) steam: To release one's pent-up emotions,
such as anger, usually verbally.
“I'm sorry I yelled at you. I guess I needed to let off some steam.
“She's not that mad. She's just letting off steam.”
Let rip: To suddenly express your emotions without control.
“This time I was furious and I let rip.”
“He's a very restrained sort of person - you can't imagine him ever really letting rip.”
Raise your voice: (to /at somebody) To shout very loudly because you are angry at
“There is no need to raise your voice. I am sure we can discuss this in a civilized
Rant and rave: (about someone or something) To shout angrily and wildly about
someone or something.
“Barbara rants and raves when her children don't obey her.”
“Bob rants and raves about anything that displeases him.”
Give somebody an earful: [Informal] To tell someone how angry you are with them.
“You can just imagine the earful he gave her when they got home.”
Encouraging: /ɪnˈk rɪdʒɪŋ/ Giving you confidence or hope.
“The news from the doctors is very encouraging.”
“An encouraging smile.”
Promising: /ˈprɒmɪsɪŋ/ Likely to be successful or very good
“Portugal got off to a promising start with a goal in the 13th minute.”
“A highly promising young artist.”
Auspicious: /ɔːˈspɪʃəs/ Showing signs that suggest that something is likely to be
“This is not an auspicious time to be opening a new factory.”
“An auspicious date for the wedding.”
“Make an auspicious start for the new term.”
Optimistic / ɒptɪˈmɪstɪk/
a)- Someone who is optimistic is hopeful about the future and tends to expect that
good things will happen.
Optimistic about: “She said that she was optimistic about the future of the company.”
Be/remain optimistic that:” I remain optimistic that a peaceful settlement of the
dispute can be achieved.”
Used about beliefs, attitudes, or periods in history: “The sixties were, in general, an
optimistic decade.”
b)- Based on beliefs that are too confident.
“Their profit forecasts were a little optimistic.”
Idioms and phrases
Light at the end of the tunnel: Something which makes you believe
that a difficult or unpleasant situation will end.
“We're halfway through our exams now, so we can see light at
the end of the tunnel.”
“Unemployment is still rising but analysts assure us there is light at
the end of the tunnel.”
A glimmer/ ray / flicker /spark of hope: A glimmer of hope is the belief that there is a
slight chance that something positive will happen.
“Don’t give up ! there is always a ray of hope!”
Pin /place /put your hopes on something/somebody: To hope that something or
someone will help you achieve what you want.
“The party is pinning its hopes on its new leader who is young, good-looking, and very
popular with ordinary people.”
Build one's hopes on someone or something: To make plans or have aspirations
based on someone or something.
“I have built my hopes on in making a success of this business.”
“I built my hopes on John's presidency.”
Have high/great hopes: Be very confident.
“She has high hopes of winning the contest.”
“Parents often have much high hopes for their children.”
Hope against hope (that): To hope that something will happen or be true, even
though you know it is very unlikely.
“We are hoping against hope that some people may have survived.”
Half hope/hoping (that): Used about your feelings when you are not sure whether you
want something or not.
“She waited at the station; half hoping that he would not show up.”
Dash / shatter / wreck / destroy / end / kill / kill off/ someone's hopes: To ruin
someone's hopes; to put an end to someone's dreams or aspirations.
“Mary dashed my hopes when she said she wouldn't marry me.”
Hope for the best: To hope that a bad situation will have the best result that is
“Good luck. You know we all hope for the best.”
“Mary is worried, but she hopes for the best.”
Live in hope(s) of something: To live with the hope
that something will happen.
“I have been living in hopes that you would come
home safely. “
“Greg lives in hope of winning a million dollars in the
A fond of hope (that): A foolish hope.
“The old man nourished the fond hope that his grandson would qualify as a doctor,
although the boy had no interest on medicine.”
Keep your fingers crossed/cross one’s finger: To that one’s plans will be successful.
“I am crossing my fingers that my proposal will be accepted.”
“She is keeping her fingers crossed that her relationship lasts.”
A vain/ forlorn/ false hope: When what you want for will not happen.
“Such a lie is unkind because it keeps false hope alive.”
Not hold out any/much hope: Have very little hope.
“We could try asking them, but i don’t hold out very much hope.”
To be somebody’s last /only/ best hope: To be someone’s last, only, etc. chance of
getting the result they want.
“Please help me. You are my last hope.”
“Paul’s only hope of survival was heart transplant.”
Lose /abandon/give up (all) hope: To stop hoping for something. (Fixed order) Don't
give up hope. There's always a chance.
“We had given up all hope when a miracle happened.”
Disappointed: / dɪs əˈpɔɪn tɪd/ Unhappy because something you
hoped for did not happen, or because someone or something was
not as good as you expected:
“Dad seemed more disappointed than angry.”
-Disappointed customers.
Disappointed at/with/about: “Local residents were disappointed with the decision.”
Disappointed (that): “I was disappointed that we played so well yet still lost.”
Disappointed in: “I'm very disappointed in you.”
Bitterly/deeply/terribly disappointed: “The girl's parents were bitterly disappointed at
the jury's verdict.”
Disappointed to hear/see/find etc: “Visitors were disappointed to find the museum
Discouraged: /dɪˈsk r ɪdʒd/ No longer having the confidence you need to continue
doing something [= demoralized]:
“A lot of players get discouraged and quit.”
Deflated: /dɪˈf eɪ tɪd/ Feeling less confident and positive than before.
“Her criticism left me feeling a bit deflated”
Disillusioned: / dɪs ɪˈ uː ʒənd/ Disappointed because you have lost your belief that
someone is good, or that an idea is right [= disenchanted]
Disillusioned by/with: “As she grew older, Laura became increasingly disillusioned
with politics.”
Letdown: /ˈ et daʊn/ [Informal] an event, performance etc that is not as good as you
expected it to be [= disappointment]:
“The end of the book was a real letdown”
Disenchanted: / dɪs ɪnˈtʃɑːn tɪd/ Disappointed with someone or something, and no
longer believing that they are good [= disillusioned]
Disenchanted with: “By that time I was becoming disenchanted with the whole idea.”
To be an anticlimax: / æn tiˈk aɪ mæks/ An event , situation or experience that causes
disappointment because it is less exciting than was expected or because it happens
immediately after a much more interesting or exciting event (Ser un aguafiestas):
“When you really look forward to something it's often an anticlimax when it actually
“Coming home after a trip somewhere is always a bit of an anticlimax.”
“Even when you win a match there's often a sense of anticlimax - you always feel you
could have played better.”
Not be all it's cracked up to be: [Informal] to be not as good as people say:
“This new radio station's not all it's cracked up to be.”
Let sb down: /let daʊn/ To disappoint someone by failing to do what you agreed to
do or were expected to do:
“You will be there tomorrow - you won't let me down, will you?”
“When I was sent to prison, I really felt I had let my parents down.”
Live / ɪv/ up to something / come /k m/ up to expectations: [Phrasal verb]
If something or someone lives up to a particular standard or promise, they do as well
as they were expected to, do what they promised etc:
“The bank is insolvent and will be unable to live up to its obligations.”
Dash/shatter/ sb's hopes: To destroy someone's hopes:
“Saturday's 2–0 defeat dashed their hopes of reaching the final.”
Nervous: /ˈnɜː vəs/
a)- Worried or frightened about something, and unable to relax [= anxious]
Nervous about: “She was so nervous about her exams that she couldn't sleep.”
“I wish you'd stop looking at me like that. You're making me nervous.”
Feel/get nervous: “Paul always gets nervous whenever he has to give a presentation.”
Nervous smile/laugh/look/glance: “Don't be silly, there's no such thing as ghosts; she
said with a nervous laugh.”
Nervous wreck: Extremely nervous. “By the time I got into the interview I was a
nervous wreck”
b)- Often becoming worried or frightened, and easily upset:
“She's a nervous, sensitive child.”
Nervous of: To be frightened of someone: “We were all a bit nervous of him at first”
Nervous disposition: People who are easily frightened. “The film is unsuitable for
people of a nervous disposition”
Nervously: [Adverb]: “She smiled nervously”
Nervousness: [noun]: “Mike's nervousness showed in his voice.”
Tense: /tens/
a)- A tense situation is one in which you feel very anxious and worried because of
something bad that might happen (= tension)
Tense situation/atmosphere/moment etc:
“Marion spoke, eager to break the tense silence.”
b)- Feeling worried, uncomfortable, and unable to relax:
“Is anything wrong? You look a little tense.”
c)- Unable to relax your body or part of your body because your muscles feel tight:
“Massage is great if your neck and back are tense.”
“She tried to relax her tense muscles.”
—tensely [adverb]/ˈtens i/
—tenseness [noun]/ˈtens nəs/
Edgy: /ˈedʒ i/ Nervous and worried:
“She's been edgy lately, waiting for the test results.”
Uneasy: / nˈiː zi/
a)- Worried or slightly afraid because you think that
something bad might happen
Uneasy about: “90% of those questioned felt uneasy about
nuclear power.”
b)- Used to describe a period of time when people have agreed to stop fighting or
arguing, but which is not really calm.
Uneasy peace/truce/alliance/compromise: “The treaty restored an uneasy peace to
the country.”
c)- Not comfortable, peaceful, or relaxed:
“She eventually fell into an uneasy sleep.”
—uneasily: /-zɪ i/ [adverb] Not fit well with.
“Bill shifted uneasily in his chair.”
“Charles' concern for the environment sits uneasily with his collection of powerful cars.
—uneasiness: [noun] / nˈiː zi nəs/ Worry or anxiety:
“Growing unease at the prospect of an election is causing fierce arguments within the
Uptight: / pˈtaɪt/ [Informal]
a)- Behaving in an angry way because you are feeling nervous and worried
Uptight about: “You have to learn to laugh instead of getting uptight about things.”
b)- Having strict traditional attitudes and seeming unable to relax
Tenterhooks: To be in suspense, in an agony of doubt, “He was still on tenterhooks
waiting for a decision to be made.”
Panicky: /ˈpæn ɪ ki/ [Informal] Feeling suddenly very worried or frightened.
“By 10 o'clock she was starting to get a bit panicky.”
“Is he the panicky type?”
-A panicky feeling/ expression/ action
Agitated: /ˈædʒ ɪ teɪ tɪd/ So nervous or upset that you are unable to keep still or think
“Amanda was getting visibly agitated.”
“She became very agitated when her son failed to return
Excited: /ɪkˈsaɪ tɪd/
a)- Happy, interested, or hopeful because something good
has happened or will happen:
“Steve flies home tomorrow - we're all really excited.”
Excited about: “Maria's starting to get pretty excited about
the wedding.”
“The food was nothing to get excited about” (=not very good or special).
Excited by/at: “We're all excited by the prospect of a party.”
Excited to do something: “Michelle sounded excited to hear from him.”
Excited (that): “I'm so excited that we're going to New York.”
-Excited crowds of shoppers.
b)- Very nervous and upset about something so that you cannot relax.
Excited about: “There's no point getting excited about it. We can't change things.”
c)- Feeling sexual desire.
—excitedly /-li/ [adverb]: “People had gathered and were talking excitedly.”
Nerves: /nɜːv/ Used to talk about someone being worried or frightened.
Be jittery/ˈdʒɪt ər.i/ [Informal] Anxious or nervous:
“It was probably the tension that made him jittery.”
Jumpy /ˈdʒ m pi/ Worried or nervous especially because you are expecting something
bad to happen.
“My mother gets very jumpy when she's alone in the house.”
Agitation: / ædʒ ɪˈteɪ ʃən/ When you are so anxious, nervous, or upset that you cannot
think calmly.
“She was in a state of considerable agitation.”
Nervy: /ˈnɜː vi/ Worried. “ I'm always nervy before an exam.”
Disposition: / dɪs pəˈzɪʃ ən/ The particular type of character that a person naturally
has: “ She is of a nervous/ cheerful/ sunny disposition.”
Tension: A nervous worried feeling that makes it impossible for you to relax.
“The tension was becoming unbearable, and I wanted to scream.”
-The source of tension
Tense /tens/
a)- Tense situation is one in which you feel very anxious and worried because of
something bad that might happen.
-Tense situation/atmosphere/moment etc
“Marion spoke, eager to break the tense silence.”
b)- Feeling worried, uncomfortable, and unable to relax.
“Is anything wrong? You look a little tense.”
c)- Unable to relax your body or part of your
body because your muscles feel tight.
“Massage is great if your neck and back are
“She tried to relax her tense muscles.”
—tensely adverb
—tenseness noun
Strained: /streɪnd/
a)- A strained situation or behavior is not relaxed, natural, or friendly.
“ I couldn't stand the strained atmosphere at dinner any more.”
“The increasingly strained relations between the French and German governments!
b)- Showing the effects of worry or too much work.
“Nina's voice sounded strained.”
“Alex's pale, strained face”
Nail-biting: /ˈneɪ baɪ tɪŋ/ [only before noun]
Describes a situation that is very exciting or worrying because you do not know how it
will end.
“The match went all the way to a nail-biting finish.”
Charged: /tʃɑːdʒd/ Causing strong feelings and differences of opinion or, more
generally, filled with emotion or excitement (of arguments or subjects).
“Abortion is a highly charged issue.” “He spoke in a voice charged with emotion.”
Uneasy / nˈiː zi/
a)- Worried or slightly afraid because you think that something bad might happen
uneasy about: “90% of those questioned felt uneasy about nuclear power.”
b)- Used to describe a period of time when people have agreed to stop fighting or
arguing, but which is not really calm.
uneasy peace/truce/alliance/compromise: “The treaty restored an uneasy peace to
the country.”
c)- Not comfortable, peaceful, or relaxed.
“She eventually fell into an uneasy sleep.”
—uneasily adverb: “Bill shifted uneasily in his chair.”
“Charles' concern for the environment sits uneasily with his collection of powerful
—uneasiness noun [uncountable]
Agitate: /ˈædʒ ɪ teɪt/ To make someone feel worried or
“I didn't want to agitate her by telling her.”
Reduce/relieve/ease/cause/generate etc tension:
“Exercise is the ideal way to relieve tension after a hard
Grow tense:“Hazel grew tense with the sudden fear
that something had happened to her baby”
Soothe /suːð/ somebody’s nerves: [Transitive] To make someone feel calmer and less
anxious, upset, or angry.
“Lucy soothed the baby by rocking it in her arms.”
“She made a cup of tea to soothe her nerves.”
Unsettle: / nˈset əl / [transitive] To make someone feel slightly nervous, worried, or
upset: “The sudden changes unsettled Judy.”
Unnerve: / nˈnɜːv/ [transitive] To upset or frighten someone so that they lose their
confidence or their ability to think clearly. “He was unnerved by the way Sylvia kept
staring at him.”
Idioms and phrases
Have the jitters: /ˈdʒɪt əz/ [Informal] A nervous, worried feeling, especially before an
important event:
“The jitters are worst in the capital, where 61% of people are fearful of a terrorist
Somebody's nerves are on edge/frayed: Someone feels very worried or frightened.
“The riots had shocked the nation, and everyone’s nerves were on edge until it was
On the edge of something: /edʒ/ Close to the point at which something different,
especially something bad, will happen:
“Their economy is on the edge of collapse.”
“She is on the edge of despair.”
Be on tenterhooks /ˈten tə hʊks/ To feel nervous and excited because you are waiting
to find out something or for something to happen:
“She had been on tenterhooks all night, expecting Joe to return at any moment.”
Be on pins and needles [AmE] To be very nervous and unable to relax, especially
because you are waiting for something important.
Have/get butterflies in your stomach: [Informal] To feel very nervous before doing
something: “I always get butterflies in my stomach before an exam.”
To have a nervous breakdown: /ˈbreɪk daʊn/ A serious medical condition in which
someone becomes mentally ill and is unable to work or deal with ordinary situations in
“I was worried he might have a breakdown if he carried on working so hard.”
“Two years ago he suffered a mental breakdown.”
“She had already had one nervous breakdown.”
Wreck /rek/ [Informal] Someone who is very nervous, tired, or unhealthy.
He looked a complete wreck.
Nervous/emotional wreck: “The attack had left her an emotional wreck.”
Calm/steady your nerves: Stop yourself feeling worried or frightened.
“Sean drank a large glass of brandy to calm his nerves.”
Be a bundle/bag of nerves/mass of nerves: Be extremely worried or frightened.
“I remember you were a bundle of nerves on your wedding day.”
“A lot of people suffer from nerves before they go on stage.”
“What's wrong with Rachel? - It's just nerve, she's got her driving test tomorrow.”
Highly strung: Very nervous and easily upset.
-A highly strung young woman
-A highly strung racehorse
Worried /ˈw r id/ Unhappy because you keep thinking about a
problem, or about something bad that might happen.
“You look worried. What's the matter?”
“Don't look so worried - we'll find him.”
“By this time, I was really getting worried.”
Worried about: “I'm really worried about my brother.”
Worried by: “Local people are worried by the rise in crime.”
Worried (that): “I was worried we wouldn't have enough money.”
Worried expression/look/frown etc: “Where have you been? I was worried sick! 2
You had me worried: [spoken] Used to say that someone made you feel anxious
because you did not properly understand what they said, or did not realize that it was
a joke “You had me worried there for a minute!”
—worriedly adverb
Bothered: /ˈbɒð əd/ [not before noun] Worried or upset
Bothered about: “He doesn't seem too bothered about the things that are written
about him in the papers.”
Bothered that: “No one else seemed bothered that Grandfather wasn't there.”
Frantic: /ˈfræn tɪk/ Extremely worried and frightened about a situation, so that you
cannot control your feelings
Brood /bru:d/ [Intransitive] To keep thinking about something that you are worried or
upset about. “Don't sit at home brooding all day.”
Brood over/about/on: “There's no point brooding over it - she's gone.”
Be worried sick/be sick with worry: To be extremely worried.
Why didn't you tell me you were coming home late? I've been worried sick!
Idioms and phrases:
Not like the sound of something: To feel worried by something that you have heard or
read: “There's been a slight change in our plans. -I don't like the sound of that.”
Be at your wits' end: To be very upset and not know what to do, because you have
tried everything possible to solve a problem.
Get/become frantic: “There was still no news of Jill, and her parents were getting
Frantic with: “Your mother's been frantic with worry wondering where you've been.”
On your/somebody's mind: If something is on your mind, you keep thinking or
worrying about it.
“He looked as though he had something on his mind.”
“Sorry I forgot. I've got a lot on my mind at the moment.”
Not to worry: [Informal] It is said to show that you are not worried or upset because
something has gone wrong or something unexpected has happened:
“Not to worry - perhaps you'll be able to come next week instead.”
There’s nothing to worry about: Used to comfort someone who is worrying about sth
that is going to happen “It’s just a simple operation. There’s nothing to worry about.”
Rest easy/rest assured: Used to tell someone not to worry and that you are in control
of the situation. "Rest assured, Mrs. Cooper -said the police officer- We will find your
son for you."
Anxious: /ˈæŋk ʃəs/
a)- Worried about something.
Anxious about: “He was a bit anxious about the safety of the machinery.”
Anxious for: “We were anxious for you.” “She gave me an anxious look.”
Anxious (that): “She was anxious that it might be cancer.”
b)- An anxious time or situation is one in which you feel nervous or worried.
“We had an anxious couple of weeks waiting for the test results”.
“There was an anxious moment when the plane suddenly dropped.”
c)- Feeling strongly that you want to do something or want something to happen.
“He seemed most anxious to speak to me alone.”
“The president is anxious not to have another crisis.”
Anxious to do something: “The company is anxious to improve its image.”
Anxious for somebody to do something: “Why was she so anxious for me to stay?”
Anxious for: “We were all anxious for news.”
Anxious (that): “Both sides were anxious that the agreement should be signed as
quickly as possible.”
—anxiously [Adverb]: “She waited anxiously by the phone.”
Concerned: /kənˈsɜːnd/ Worried about something.
Concerned about: “She is concerned about how little food I eat.”
Concerned for: “He called the police because he was concerned for Gemma's safety.”
Concerned (that): “Pamela was concerned that her schoolwork had deteriorated
despite her hard work.” “The drug came under strong attack from concerned
professional observers.”
Apprehensive: / æp rɪˈhen sɪv/ Worried or nervous about something that you are
going to do, or about the future.
“Some had apprehensive looks on their faces.”
Apprehensive about/of: “We'd been a little apprehensive about their visit.”
Apprehensive that: “I was apprehensive that something would go wrong.”
—apprehensively: [Adverb] “What's wrong?, I asked apprehensively.”
Preoccupied / priːˈɒk jʊ paɪd/ Thinking about something a lot, with the
result that you do not pay attention to other things.
“What's wrong with Cindy? She seems a little preoccupied.”
Preoccupied with: “He's completely preoccupied with all the wedding
preparations at the moment.”
Stressed (out): [after verb] Worried and nervous.
“She's been feeling very stressed since she started her new job.”
“I was really stressed out before the exam.”
Comfortable: /ˈk m fə tə b /
a)-furniture/places/clothes etc: Making you feel physically relaxed, without any pain
or without being too hot, cold, etc.
Comfortable chair/bed/sofa etc: “The bed wasn't particularly comfortable.”
Comfortable room/lounge/hotel etc.: “She has a comfortable apartment in Portland.”
Comfortable clothes/shoes/boots etc : “Wear loose, comfortable clothing.”
Comfortable to wear/use/sit on etc : “Linen is very comfortable to wear.”
b)- Physically relaxed: Feeling physically relaxed, without any pain or without being
too hot, cold, etc.
“I was so comfortable and warm in bed I didn't want to get up.”
“Sit down and make yourself comfortable.”
“With difficulty, she rolled her body into a more comfortable position.”
c) Confident: [not before noun] Relaxed and not worried.
Comfortable with: “She's never felt very comfortable with men.”
“In our business, we need people who are comfortable in an unstructured
Happy-go-lucky: / hæp i ɡəʊˈ k i/ Describes someone who does not plan much and
accepts what happens without becoming worried.
Let yourself go: To relax completely and enjoy yourself. “It's a party - let yourself go!”
at (your) ease: /iːz/ Relaxed.
“He felt completely at ease.”
“She soon put/set me at ease” (= made me relaxed)
Tired: /ˈtaɪə(r)d/ Needing to rest or sleep.
“She was too tired to do any more.”
“My mother looked tired and ill.”
Exhausted: /ɪɡˈzɔːstɪd/ Extremely tired and without enough energy to do anything
“The exhausted skiers are looking forward to a good night's sleep”.
“Trying to find a solution to the problem had left the sisters mentally exhausted.”
Exhausted by/from: “She returned home, exhausted by overwork.”
Worn out: Extremely tired.
“He looked worn out, as if he'd missed a night's sleep.”
Tired of (doing) something: No longer wanting something or wanting to do something
because you are bored with it or annoyed by it.
“We were tired of waiting for him to call.”
Sick and tired of (doing) something: Very bored with.
“I'm sick and tired of hearing about politics.”
Burned-out: / bɜː(r)nd ˈaʊt/ Worn out or exhausted, especially as a result of long-term
“Burned-out caregivers are more likely to take out their frustration on their vulnerable
loved ones.”
Drained /dreɪnd/ Feeling as though you have no mental or physical energy left.
“His limbs were drained of all energy."
“Ruth slumped down in her seat, drained by all that had happened.”
Shattered /ˈʃætə(r)d/ [Informal] Extremely tired.
“I usually feel too shattered to do more than crawl into bed.”
Sluggish: /ˈs ɡɪʃ/
a)- Not performing or reacting as well as usual.
“Sasha woke up feeling tired and sluggish.”
a)- Not moving as quickly as usual:
“A sluggish stream.”
Weary: /ˈwɪəri/ Very tired, especially because of hard work or activity.
“They collapsed on to their beds, too weary to get changed.”
“He rested his head on his hand with a weary gesture.”
A weary activity is one that makes you fee very tired: “The weary tedious journey.”
Tired and impatient about something: “There was a note of weary irritation in his
Weary of: She was weary of the constant arguments between them.
Weary of doing something: “He was weary of repeating things again and again.”
Bushed: /bʊʃt/ [NEVER BEFORE NOUN] Extremely tired.
“Unless you’re totally bushed, it’s best to press on.”
Whacked /wækt/ [Informal] Completely exhausted.
“I’m not staying long—I’m whacked.”
Pooped (out). /puːpt ˈaʊt / [Informal] Exhausted; worn out.
“I'm really pooped out.” “The horse looked sort of pooped in the final stretch.”
Dead beat/beat. [Informal, NEVER BEFORE NOUN]
Completely exhausted.
“I’m beat—I need an hour or so to rest.”
“I must go to bed—I’m dead beat.”
Be wiped out: / waɪpt ˈaʊt/ [Informal]
Be exhausted or intoxicated.
I’m so wiped out I’m ready to keel over.
Dog-tired. [Informal] Extremely tired.
“He usually got home at around seven o'clock, dogtired after a long day in the office.”
Sleepy: /ˈs iːpi/
Feeling tired and wanting to sleep.
“I felt very sleepy after lunch.”
Get/grow/ feel tired of doing something:
“She's getting tired of going into that office every day.”
“He felt too tired to drive home.”
Tired out: PHRASAL VERB [TRANSITIVE] To make someone feel very tired.
“All that exercise really tired me out.”
Idioms and phrases:
Be dead on your feet: To be very tired.
“I've spent the whole day cleaning the house and I'm dead on my feet.”
Fit/ready to drop: Extremely tired.
“I'd just walked 10 miles and I was ready to drop.”
Grumpy: /ˈɡr mpɪ/ Someone who is grumpy is bad-tempered, complains a lot and
looks unhappy all the time.
“Since his retirement he was often silent and grumpy.”
Grouchy: /ˈɡraʊtʃɪ/ [Informal] Someone who is gruchy is bad-tempered and complains
a lot even when there is little reason to complain.
“Resentment can make people grounchy, sullen and moody. “
Disagreeable: / dɪsəˈɡriːəbə / Someone who is disagreeable is bad-tempered and very
unfriendly and behaves in an unpleasant way towards people.
“I'm fed up with you. You've been disagreeable all day. “
Short/Quick temepered /ʃɔːtˈtempəd//ˈkwɪkˈtempəd/ Someone who gets andy very
easily and quickly.
“Pat was violent, quick tempered and always seems to be shouting at people. “
Cantankerous: /kænˈtæŋkərəs/ Someone who is cantakerous is bad-tempered and
complains a lot, especially and old person.
“As she grew older she became more and more cantankerous.”
Irritable /ˈɪrɪtəbə / Easily annoyed by unimportant things.
“Susan was in an irritable mood and snapped at anyone who offered help.”
Crochety: /ˈkrɒtʃɪtɪ/ [Informal] Someone who is crotchety becomes angry about
unimportant things and complains a lot (especially an old person).
“Nothing I say seems to please him. He is a crotchety old man.”
Petulant: /ˈpɛtjʊ ənt/ Behaving in a bad-tempered manner because of petty things or
for no reason at all, like a child. “Paul became petulant and started stamping his feet ”
Fractious: /ˈfrækʃəs/ Someone, especially a child, who becomes angry or upset about
unimportant things usually because they are tired.
“Babies tend to be fractious when they are teething “
Sullen: /ˈs ən/ Someone who is sullen behaves in a bad-tempered and unfriendly way
and does not smile or talk much to people.
“He sat there with a sullen grown on his face refusing to speak.”
Sulky: /ˈs lkɪ/ Someone who is sulky refuses to smile or be pleasant for a period of
time because they are angry about something.
“He was a sulky little boy who always got his own way.”
Surly: /ˈsɜː ɪ/ Someone who is surly behaves in a rude, bad-tempered and unhelpful
way when dealing with people.
“The sales assistant answered me in a surly manner and refused to give my money
Idioms and phrases:
To be in a huff: /h f/ [Informal] Feeling bad-tempered because someone has
offended, upset or annoyed you.
To be in a bad mood:/bæd muːd/ To be unpleasant to everyone for a moment or for a
short time. “Watch out - he's in a bad mood.”
To be in a mood: To not be friendly to other people because you are feeling angry.
“It's no use trying to reason with her right now; she is in a mood.”
To be like a bear with a sore head: To be in a bad mood that causes you to treat other
people badly and complain a lot.
“You're like a bear with a sore head this morning. What's wrong with you?“
To have a short fuse: /ʃɔːt fjuːz/ [Informal] To often get angry suddenly and easily.
“Don't argue with John. I've heard that he has a short fuse.”
You could cut the atmosphere with a knife: Used to describe a situation in which
everyone is angry or nervous and you feel that something unpleasant could soon
To get out of bed on the wrong side: To be in a bad mood and be easily annoyed all
Miserable: /ˈmɪzərəb / Very unhappy or depressed; wretched.
“She is miserable because he left without saying good bye.”
Depressed: /dɪˈprest/ feeling unhappy for a long tme so that you don´t have physical
energy and hope for the future. I feel depressed today, nothing went right. *
Despondent: /dɪˈspɒn dənt/ Unhappy and with no hope or enthusiasm.
“He became/ grew increasingly despondent when she failed to return his phone calls.”
Dejected: /dɪˈdʒektɪd/ If someone is dejected, they show by the expression on their
face and by their lack of energy that they are very unhappy and disappointed about
“She looked a bit dejected when she was told that she hadn't got the job.”
Downcast: /ˈdaʊnkɑːst/ Sad and disappointed, in a way that is noticeable from the
expression on your face and your behaviour.
“Martha had been really looking forward to the trip and was quite downcast when it
was cancelled.”
Wistful: /ˈwɪstfə / Sad and thinking about
something that is impossible or in the past,
wishing thinks were different now.
“Simon's face grew wistful as he recalled the
happy days of his youth.”
Glum: /ɡl m/ Disappointed or unhappy, and
“He's very glum about the company's prospects.”
Broken-hearted/ Heart broken: / brəʊ kənˈhɑː tɪd/ A feeling of great sadness,
especially when someone you love dies or does not love you.
“They say he died of a heart broken”
Inconsolable: / ɪn kənˈsəʊ əb / So sad or disappointed that it is impossible for anyone
to make you feel better.
“They were inconsolable after the death of their young son.”
Desolate: /ˈdesə ət/ Having the feeling of being abandoned by friends or by hope.
“He may make me feel desolate, make my spirits sink, hide the future from me.”
Self-pity: / se fˈpɪti/ Sadness for yourself because you think you have a lot of problems
or have suffered a lot.
“He faced his illness bravely and without any hint of self-pity.”
Heartache: /ˈhɑːt eɪk/ Feelings of great sadness.
“You've caused me nothing but heartache ”
Grief-Stricken: /ɡriːf ˈstrɪk ən/ Deeply affected by sorrow or distress.
“Newspaper pictures of grief- stricken re atives ”
Grieve: /ɡriːv/: to feel or express great sadness, especially when someone dies.
“He is still grieving for/over his wife.”
Mourn: /mɔːn/ To feel or express great sadness, especially because of someone's
“Queen Victoria mourned Prince Albert/ Prince Albert's death for 40 years.”
Idioms and phrases:
To be fed up: /fed p/ Bored, annoyed, or disappointed, especially by something that
you have experienced for too long.
“I'm fed up with my job.”
To do something with a heavy heart: Feeling of unhappiness.
“With a heavy heart, she turned to wave goodbye ”
To be/ feel low/down: Low in spirits; depressed.
“He's been feeling down since he failed his language exam for the fifth time.”
To be down in the dumps: [Informal] A state of melancholy or depression.
“She's down in the dumps because all her friends are out of town.”
To feel blue: [AmE- informal] expression meaning sad or disappointed.
“Tom has been feeling blue since her wife left him.”
To feel sorry for yourself: Disapproving. To feel sad because you have a problem and
you feel that it is not fair that you are suffering so much.
“He sounded very sorry for himself on the phone.”
To mope around/about: To move about without any particular purpose or energy
because you are unhappy or disappointed.
“He was driving me mad, moping about the house all day.”
To wallow in self-pity/despair/misery: If you say that someone is wallowing in an
unpleasant situation, you are criticizing them for being deliberately unhappy.
“His tired mind continued to wallow in self-pity...”
To break somebody’s heart: To make someone who loves you very sad, usually by
telling them you have stopped loving them.
“He's broken a lot of girls' hearts.”
To drive somebody to despair: To make someone feel very unhappy and without hope
especially because they think that they have been badly treated.
“The whole atmosphere at the boarding school drove me to despair. I couldn't
understand why my parents made me stay here.”
Overcome sorrow/sadness: To defeat or succeed in controlling or dealing with.