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romantics

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Romanticism was a literary movement that emphasized nature and the importance of
emotion and artistic freedom. In many ways, writers of this era were rebelling against the
attempt to explain the world and human nature through science and the lens of the
Industrial Revolution. In Romanticism, emotion is much more powerful than rational
thought. During the Romantic period changes in various fields took place: in philosophy,
politics, religion, literature, painting and music. All these changes were represented,
articulated and symbolized by the English Romantic poets.
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“Literature depicting emotional matter in an imaginative form”
Imagination, emotion and freedom are certainly the focal points of Romanticism
Romanticism (the Romantic Movement), a literary movement, and profound shift in
sensibility, which took place in Britain and throughout Europe from 18th century. This
movement is in response to industrialism and the Neoclassical era. They rebelled against
the sciences, reason and conformities of society and embraced qualities such as
individualism, imagination, intuition, and emotion.
Intellectually it marked a violent reaction to the Enlightenment.
Politically it was inspired by the revolutions in America and France and popular wars of
independence in Poland, Spain, Greece, and elsewhere.
emotionally it stresses on self expression and individual uniqueness
The Romantic Age began in 1798 when William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor
published Lyrical Ballads, and ended in 1832 when Walter Scott died.
Some authors have been regarded as pre-Romantic:
William Blake (1757-1827) a visionary poet who was also an artist and engraver, with a
particular interest in childhood and a strong hatred of mechanical reason and industri
alization;
Major work
Songs of Innocence &experience
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Robert Burns (1759-1796) who worked as a ploughman and farm labourer but who had
received a good education and was interested in early Scots ballads and folk-song;
Walter Scott (1771-1832), another Scot, who developed his interest in old tales of the
Border and early European poetry into a career as poet and novelist.
The first generation of Romantics is also known as the Lake Poets because of their attachment
to the Lake District in the north-west of England:
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William Wordsworth (1770-1850) who came from the Lake District and was the leading
poet of the group, whose work was especially associated with the centrality of the self
and the love of nature;
Major Work
The Prelude
Lyrical Ballade
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Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) was Wordsworth's closest colleague and
collaborator, a powerful intellectual whose work was often influenced by contemporary
ideas about science and philosophy;
Major work
Joint publication: Lyrical Ballade
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Robert Southey (1774-1843), a prolific writer of poetry and prose who settled in the Lake
District and became Poet Laureate in 1813; his work was later mocked by Byron;
Charles Lamb (1775-1834) was a poet but is best-known for his essays and literary
criticism; a Londoner, he was especially close to Coleridge;
Thomas de Quincey (1785-1859) the youngest member of the group, best known as an
essayist and critic, who wrote a series of memories of the Lake Poets.
The second generation of Romantic poets included:
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George Gordon, Lord (1788-1824);
Percy Bysshe shelly (1792-1822) was one of the leading poets;
John Keats (1795-1821) was a London poet, especially known for his odes and sonnets
and for his letters, which contain many reflections on poetry and the work of the
imagination.
Romanticism Saw shift from
Faith in the senses feelings and emotions
Interest in the rural and natural
Subjective poetry
Interest in mysterious and infinite
Imagination is superior to reason
Love & worship of nature
Characteristics of Romantic Age( Poetry)
 Romantic Poetry is a revolt against the artificial, pseudo classical Poetry.
 Romantic Poetry is highly imaginative poetry which is also known as escapism, in which a
writer fails to face the agonies of real life.
 It is emotional and sensuous poetry rather than logical and reason based.  Romantic poets
rely on Intuition.
 Romantics were attracted towards the rebellion and revolution, especially concerned with the
human rights, individualism, and freedom from oppression.
 There was an emphasis on introspection, psychology, melancholy and sadness; the feelings of
man.
 The artist was an extremely individualistic creator whose creative spirit was more important
than strict adherence to formal rules and traditional procedures.  Romantics used symbolism to
derive different meanings from a single expression. 
The pastoral life is mentioned frequently in Romantic poetry.
 Romantic poetry is Subjective poetry; Individualism of the poet.
 Love and worship of Nature and dislike of urban life is one of the chief characteristics of
Romantic Poetry.
 Romantics have love for Medieval Age and they used the elements of Middle ages.
 Romantics abandoned the Heroic couplet completely.
 The Romantics have love for the supernatural and the Mystical.  Romantics used common
language of ordinary people.
 Romantics used Hellenism; the love, commitment and fascination for the antiquated society,
values and individuals of Greeks, various allusions, to the art, Literature and Culture of Greeks.
Romanticism was a literary movement that emphasized nature and the importance of
emotion and artistic freedom. In many ways, writers of this era were rebelling against the
attempt to explain the world and human nature through science and the lens of the
Industrial Revolution. In Romanticism, emotion is much more powerful than rational
thought. During the Romantic period changes in various fields took place: in philosophy,
politics, religion, literature, painting and music. All these changes were represented,
articulated and symbolized by the English Romantic poets.
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