PROFILE OF GARFIELD TODD Formal Education and Previous Occupations Reginald Stephen Garfield Todd, a New Zealander by birth, attended Southland Boys' High School before he studied to be a teacher 1 at the University of Otago in Dunedin, New Zealand. From Otago, he went on to study at the College of the Bible at Glen Leith, also located in Dunedin. The school was started in 1927 by a national conference of the Churches of Christ in New Zealand and Todd was among the students in the first class. 2 At Glen Leith, Todd studied the Bible and theology, inductive and deductive logic, and “courses that stressed public speaking: two courses in Homiletics and one course in elocution.” 3 Casey would argue that Todd’s Church of Christ background, coupled with these courses, would significantly shape his future. In 1944, after serving in Rhodesia (now known as Zimbabwe) for ten years, Todd “decided to enroll at the medical school of the University of Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg, South Africa to improve his medical skills that were badly needed on the mission.” 4 Furthermore, Todd has received honorary doctorates from Butler University, Eureka College, Minnesota Bible College and Otago University. 5 Before his studies, Garfield worked for his father's brick making business, “Thomas Todd & Sons,” 6 “swinging a pick for 22s 6d a week.” 7 1 Patrick Keatley and Andrew Meldrum, “Sir Garfield Todd: Liberal Rhodesian Premier Brought Down Over Black Reforms,” The Guardian, 14 October 2002, <http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2002/oct/14/guardianobituaries.obituaries1> (20 April 2009). Michael W. Casey, “Sir Garfield Todd: Supporter of Black African Rights in Zimbabwe and his Reasonable Christian Rhetoric,” a paper presented for the Lilly Fellows Program National Research Conferences, Samford University, November 2004, 6. 2 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid, 10. 5 Michael W. Casey, The Rhetoric of Sir Garfield Todd: Christian Imagination and The Dream of an African Democracy (Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2007), 5. Suzanne Michele Bourgoin, "Garfield Todd," Encyclopedia of World Biography (Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale. 2004), available <http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3404707276.html> (21 April, 2009). 6 1 2 Missionary Recruit In 1906, a group of fifteen Churches of Christ founded the Southern Rhodesian Missionary Conference. This group made the education of black Rhodesians a major priority, leading to the Native Education Ordinance of 1907. Between 1907 and 1918, enrollment of blacks rose from 4, 000 to more than 40, 000. 8 By the 1930’s, the New Zealand Churches of Christ had established a number of schools throughout the country, this included a successful station called Dadaya. It has been said that “missionary work and opportunity” 9 led Todd to join the work as Superintendant of the Dadaya school. Todd was about twenty-three years old when he was recruited to the field. Departure to the Mission Field and Previous Ministry From 1928 to 1933, before leaving for the mission field, Todd served as the minister of the Oamaru Church of Christ. He was ordained as a minister in 1931 10 and arrived in Rhodesia three years later on 13 July 1934; this was his twenty-sixth birthday. Financial Support of the Mission Work Garfield Todd’s received his financial support from the Churches of Christ in New Zealand until he became Prime Minister in 1953. Beyond this point, he was supported by the Rhodesian government. The Host Country Todd’s relationship with his host country is especially significant. In 1953, he became “the first missionary to become a head of state when he was named prime minister of Southern Rhodesia.” 11 Todd, “considered an authority on native affairs,” 12 was in line with 7 “Sir Garfield Todd Obituary,” Telegraph, 13 October, 2002, <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1410080/Sir-Garfield-Todd.html?pageNum=3> (21 April 2009). 8 Bourgoin, “Todd.” 9 Ibid. 10 Rupert Cornwell, “Sir Garfield Todd: Courageous Southern African Statesman,” Independent, 13 October, 2002. <http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/sir-garfield-todd-614004.html> (21 April 2009). Douglas Allen Foster and Anthony L. Dunnavant, The Encyclopedia of the Stone-Campbell Movement (Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004), 743. 11 3 the interests of the vast majority of the nation; even so, he was rarely in agreement with the government itself, a structure run by the white minority. While Todd did accomplish much for African rights, his actions were not in sympathy with the aims and policies of his party. The consequences of his radical plans will be discussed belows. Social Background Garfield Todd was a first generation New Zealander; his grandfather emigrated from Scottland when Garfield’s father, Thomas, was only three years old. 13 His grandfather was a “brickmaker who had been employed on the Marquess of Bute's estate before emigrating.” 14 They were part of the working class, with his father taking over the family bricklaying company from his grandfather. Significant Family Influences Todd’s grandparents and father seem to have had a large influence on him. While he did not continue in the family trade, he did follow in their religious convictions. His grandparents converted to the Churches of Christ from Cameronian Presbyterianism, and his father served as an elder at the Invercargill Church of Christ. 15 His parents “were so devoted to the Churches of Christ that they named their son Garfield after James A. Garfield” 16 Casey claims, “If it were not for his particular religious heritage and its distinctive theology, style, and ways of thinking, Todd would never have been the speaker he was or made his mark in history” 17 Personal Experience and New Methods Due to his involvement in the church from a young age, a specific “conversion story” is not likely to be found about R. S. Garfield Todd. As for incidents that led him to the mission field, it Bourgoin, “Todd.” Judith Garfield Todd, Through the Darkness: a Life in Zimbabwe (Cape Town, South Africa: Struik Publishers, 2007), 209. 14 “Todd Obituary,” Telegraph. 15 Casey, 3-4. 16 Ibid. 17 Ibid, 2. 12 13 4 seems that it was his passion to educate and the opportunity in Rhodesia that led him there. Mungazi speaks as though there was a correlation between the effects of the Great Depression in New Zealand and his departure, 18 but this is uncertain. There are some experiences that appear to have led to a change in strategy, namely, for him to enter politics. One such event was World War II, during which “the horrific ideals of Nazism put racism on the center stage.” 19 He was quoted as saying, “The colour bar is an evil here as the race conscious theory of Hitler is in Europe.” 20 Todd’s concern for the Africans, cultivated at Dadaya, “led him to conclude that only if he became an MP could he improve the prospects of black Rhodesians”. 21 More specifically, he “saw that he could help advance education by entering into the political arena.” 22 The Todd’s implemented several new strategies during their nineteen year stay in Dadaya. “In addition to introducing new methods of agriculture, educating students, and teaching various trades,” Casey explains, “Todd established a Christian Endeavor youth group that had his African students learning how to debate and speak in public.” The couple also helped start one of the first four African Secondary Schools and Mrs. Grace Todd developed a new teaching scheme that came to be used nationwide. 23 As for his political career, there is no question that Todd blazed new trails. No missionary had ever become the head of state in their host country and no one had gone to such lengths to stand up for human rights in Rhodesia. End of Todd’s Ministry Todd’s work as a missionary for the Church of Christ officially ended in 1952 after nineteen years of service in Dadaya. It was said that the Church of Christ accepted Todd’s Dickson A. Mungazi, The Last British Liberals in Africa: Michael Blundell and Garfield Todd (Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999), 108. 18 19 Casey, The Rhetoric of Sir Garfield Todd, 54. 20 Weiss, 44. 21 Keatlty, The Guardian. Clinton J. Holloway, “Republic of Zimbabwe,” World Convention, January 2005, <http://www.worldconvention.org/country.php?c=ZW> (21 April 2009). 22 Fannuel Mashoko, “The Need for Contexualization in the Inter-Cultural Communication of the Gospel” (M. Th. dissertation, University of South Africa, 2005), 38. 23 5 resignation “with very deep regret” 24 Nevertheless, this was not the end of Todd’s ministry to the nation. “Todd adopted the view of the principal [of Glen Leith] A. L. Haddon that life was a unity from God and should not be divided into the secular and the sacred. Todd saw his political career as an extension of his Christianity.” Todd’s political career did not end as well. He was eventually rejected by his party and replaced because of his radical views of equality. He made two attempts at political comebacks, but failed on both attempts. He became a voice for the black Rhodesians to the United Nations, but this led to his house arrest by the Rhodesian government from 19651966, and again from 1972-1976. After Zimbabwe’s independence he served as a senator under the new government, but he retired in 1985 and became a critic of Robert Mugabe’s new tyranny. The following year he was knighted by Queen Elizibeth II. In 2002 his passport was revoked and he was denied the right to vote. Todd stayed in Zimbabwe until his death on 13 October 2002. Lasting Effects The missionary work of Garfield and Grace Todd continues to this day. The churches, schools and hospitals that were begun by the New Zealand Churches of Christ missionaries in Zimbabwe are now largely run by national Christians. As for Todd’s political work, his leadership as Prime Minister and his activism have reaped untold results. Unfortunately, the independence that Todd and the rebels worked so hard for has fallen under the oppression of the dictatorship of Mugabe. In light of his sixty-seven years in Zimbabwe, Holloway says it well: “It is perhaps safe to say that few other missionary couples had as profound an impact on their adopted country as Garfield and Grace Todd.”25 24 25 Ibid, 39. Holloway, “Zimbabwe.” 6 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bourgoin, Suzanne Michele. "Garfield Todd." Encyclopedia of World Biography. Detroit, MI: Thomson Gale. 2004. <http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G23404707276.html> (21 April, 2009). Casey, Michael W. “Sir Garfield Todd: Supporter of Black African Rights in Zimbabwe and his Reasonable Christian Rhetoric.” A paper presented for the Lilly Fellows Program National Research Conferences, Samford University, November 2004, 6. Casey, Michael W. The Rhetoric of Sir Garfield Todd: Christian Imagination and The Dream of an African Democracy. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press, 2007. Cornwell, Rupert. “Sir Garfield Todd: Courageous Southern African Statesman.” Independent, 13 October, 2002. <http://www.independent.co.uk/news/obituaries/sirgarfield-todd-614004.html> (21 April 2009). Foster, Douglas Allen and Anthony L. Dunnavant. The Encyclopedia of the StoneCampbell Movement. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2004. Holloway, Clinton J. “Republic of Zimbabwe.” World Convention, January 2005. <http://www.worldconvention.org/country.php?c=ZW> (21 April 2009). Keatley, Patrick and Andrew Meldrum. “Sir Garfield Todd: Liberal Rhodesian Premier Brought Down Over Black Reforms.” The Guardian, 14 October 2002. 7 <http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/2002/oct/14/guardianobituaries.obituaries1> (20 April 2009). Mashoko, Fannuel. “The Need for Contexualization in the Inter-Cultural Communication of the Gospel.” M. Th. dissertation, University of South Africa, 2005. Mungazi, Dickson A. The Last British Liberals in Africa: Michael Blundell and Garfield Todd. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999. Mungazi, Dickson A. The Last Defenders of the Laager: Ian D. Smith and F.W. de Klerk. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998. Mutunha, Daya. “The Rhodesian Crisis: Historical Perspective.” Black World Vol. 22, No. 4 (1973): 37-48. “Sir Garfield Todd Obituary.” Telegraph, 13 October, 2002, <http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/1410080/Sir-GarfieldTodd.html?pageNum=3> (21 April 2009). Todd, Judith Garfield. Through the Darkness: a Life in Zimbabwe. Cape Town, South Africa: Struik Publishers, 2007.