348 Int. J. Logistics Systems and Management, Vol. 20, No. 3, 2015 Reverse supply chain management in consumer electronics: an Indian perspective Debadyuti Das* Faculty of Management Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi – 110 007, India Email: [email protected] E-mail: [email protected] *Corresponding author Rohit Chaudhari Parts and Components Exports, Volkswagen India Private Limited, Pune – 410 501, India Email: [email protected] Abstract: The present paper is an attempt to find out the strategic motive of an organisation to undertake reverse supply chain management (RSCM) activities with specific reference to consumer electronics industry in the Indian context. It has identified the facilitating factors as also the inhibiting factors faced by an organisation in pursuing RSCM activities by carrying out questionnaire survey amongst retailers and service providers doing repairing, refurbishing and remanufacturing of consumer electronic goods. This study has attempted to categorise the returned goods in terms of recency, usability and residual value and has tried to find out the percentage figures of individual element within each category of recency, usability and residual value. It has further analysed different return streams in terms of volume and residual value and revealed as to which return stream/s contribute most to the organisations. Finally, this study has analysed each element of RSCM activities in terms of time taken and cost incurred and identified the major activities consuming maximum amount of time and cost. Keywords: RSCM; recency; usability; residual value; return streams; RSC elemental time; RSC elemental cost; India. Reference to this paper should be made as follows: Das, D. and Chaudhari R. (2015) ‘Reverse supply chain management in consumer electronics: an Indian perspective’, Int. J. Logistics Systems and Management, Vol. 20, No. 3, pp.348–369. Biographical notes: Debadyuti Das is an Associate Professor in the Faculty of Management Studies, University of Delhi, Delhi. His current research interests include reverse supply chain management, sustainable supply chain management, supply chain coordination, environmental and supply chain issues in project management, and supply chain issues in tourism, etc. His research papers have appeared in various journals such as International Journal of Project Management, International Journal of Project Organization and Management, International Journal of Services and Operations Management, Productivity, Journal of Services Research, International Journal of Tourism Policy, etc. Copyright © 2015 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. Reverse supply chain management in consumer electronics 349 Rohit Chaudhari is currently the Operations Manager with Parts and Components Business at Volkswagen India Private Limited (VWIPL) in Pune. He has received his undergraduate degree in Engineering from College of Engineering, Pune and MBA degree from Faculty of Management Studies, Delhi University. His areas of interest include cost reduction, process optimisation in addition to operations strategy. This paper is a revised and expanded version of a paper entitled ‘Reverse supply chain management in consumer electronics industry: an Indian perspective’ presented at the 16th Annual International Conference of The Society of Operations Management (SOM 2012), IIT Delhi, 21–23 December 2012. 1 Introduction In recent years, reverse supply chain management (RSCM) has assumed great importance in view of proliferation of varieties in a product as also the reduced life-cycle of the same. This phenomenon has become even more acute in case of consumer electronic products. Due to shortened life-cycle of a product, the number of end-of-life (EOL), end-of-use (EOU) and other categories of returned products disposed of by consumers has increased exponentially. This has created growing concern for environment amongst customers and other stakeholders. For example, electronic products contain hazardous materials such as lead, mercury and cadmium. If these products are crushed in landfills, the hazardous materials leach into the soil (Lee et al., 2000). Such toxics can also threaten the quality of ground-water supply and other related water sources in that area, causing public health hazard to the community. Further, if the returned products are incinerated, substantial amount of energy will be consumed in burning the same which will be emitted through harmful gaseous waste into the atmosphere. In order to address the above challenges, the governments in the developed countries have passed regulations aiming to reduce the amount of waste stream and to properly dispose of the EOL products for pollution prevention. EOL take-back laws have been passed both in the European Union and the US (Prahinski and Kocabasoglu, 2006). Directives on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and end-of-life vehicles (ELV) bear testimony to this fact (European Commission, 2004). India generates about 400,000 tons of waste every year which is increasing at the rate of 10% to 15% (Hazra et al., 2011). Majority of this waste (around 70%) comes from government institutions and business houses. Unorganised sector takes back and processes more than 90% of this e-waste using the most rudimentary methods which do not allow them to recover the full value of returned products. While processing the returned products, it has been found that most of the times, the same contain modules and components in usable condition, which if properly retrieved and cleaned, could be used along with the new components in manufacturing new products. Sometimes partially used and unused products are also returned. Some of these products may require minor repair while others may require refurbishing which could further be sold to the prospective customers as repaired and refurbished products along with the new ones. In addition, materials could also be reclaimed from the EOL products through recycling. The above activities including repair, refurbishing, remanufacturing and recycling (also known as product recovery activity), on one hand, address the problem of resource depletion and on the 350 D. Das and R. Chaudhari other attempt to properly manage the disposal of waste stream. In addition, this also creates the possibility of generating separate revenue stream for an organisation. Thus, judicious disposition of returned products and its management takes care of environmental concerns and also gives rise to profitable economic activity. Most of the works carried out in the domain of RSCM has been in the field of network design of reverse logistics (RL) (Assavapopokee and Wongthatsanekorn, 2012; Cruz-Rivera and Ertel, 2009; Mutha and Pokharel, 2009; Srivastava, 2008; Chandiran and Rao, 2008) and network design of closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) (Cardoso et al., 2013; Xanthopoulos and Lakovou, 2010; Kusumastuti et al., 2008; Schultmann et al., 2006) particularly with reference to the developed countries. The focus of these researches are to find out the optimum number of set-ups for collection, repair, remanufacturing and recycling of returned products and also the optimum flow among these set-ups with a view to minimising the total costs across the whole reverse chain or the CLSC. In addition, quite a few empirical works have also been carried out in the developed countries (Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1999, 2001; Kumar and Putnam, 2008; Li and Olorunniwo, 2008; Ramireź, 2012) and China (Lau and Wang, 2009; Xiang and Ming, 2011). These empirical works have been mostly used in finding out the drivers and barriers affecting RL functions in electronics and automotive industry. Very few empirical studies on RSCM in consumer electronics have been undertaken in India which provide managerial insights in understanding the challenges, barriers and the driving forces relating to the return of used products faced by the electronic industries. Further, hardly any study has been carried out in evaluating the quality and condition of returned goods in terms of recency, usability and recovery value and the uncertainty involved in each case. The success of any RSCM initiative depends, to a large extent, on the quality and the uncertainty concerning returned goods. In addition, we have not come across a proper study in which the percentage of time and cost required to carry out elemental RSC function has been analysed. With this backdrop, the present study is an attempt to identify the strategic motives of the consumer electronic organisations in pursuing RSC initiative and to find out the facilitating factors as also the inhibiting factors (both managerial and infrastructural) in carrying out the above mission. The study will also attempt to evaluate the quality of returned goods in terms of recency, usability and recovery value. It will further demonstrate as to which particular element/s of RSC function consumes maximum proportion of time and cost. The organisation of this paper is as follows. The following section presents review of relevant literature. Section 3 deals with research methodology encompassing the target respondents, the design of questionnaire and its validity, etc. Section 4 provides research findings and analysis of the same. The concluding section presents a brief summary, managerial implication of the findings, limitations of the current work and future research directions. 2 Literature review Guide and Van Wassenhove (2002) have recommended dividing RSCM functions into five components namely: 1 product acquisition Reverse supply chain management in consumer electronics 2 RL 3 inspection and disposition 4 reconditioning 5 distribution and sales for proper management of entire RSCM functions. 351 Dowlatshahi (2000) has provided a holistic view of RL considering both strategic and operational factors and mentioned 11 managerial insights for successful implementation of RL. Researchers have viewed RSCM from different perspectives. Some of them have given emphasis on driving forces and barriers in pursuing RSC functions, few others have dealt with product return characteristics while others have analysed the dimension concerning inspection and disposition decision of the returned products. Some of the researchers have also touched upon the strategies for redistribution and sales of remanufactured products. In addition, there exist a significant number of research papers on network design of RL and CLSC. Recently, there has been a trend towards linking RSC functions with green supply chain management (GSCM) and sustainable supply chain management (SSCM). Thus, there exists huge potential in carrying out research on different dimensions of RSCM. We have reviewed a significant number of pertinent research papers covering the above aspects of RSCM. In addition, we also went through a few white papers on RL written by consulting firm (Wipro) and 3PL service provider (GENCO) in order to find out the contemporary practices of RSCM functions in the industry. The literature review section has been organised under various sub-sections based on different facets of RSCM. 2.1 Motivating factors and inhibiting factors to pursue RSCM functions Rogers and Tibben-Lembke (2001) indicated in their findings that the competitive pressure is the dominant reason for most of the firms in taking back the returned goods. They further mentioned that the main barriers to implementing RL functions are the importance of RL functions relative to others and the ineffective company policies. The study carried out by Lau and Wang (2009) in four consumer electronic manufacturing firms based in China revealed that the driving forces of RL activities vary from firm to firm while the barriers are mostly common. However, two drivers namely fulfilment of obligation for environment protection and improvement of customer service seem to be present in all these firms. The major barriers encountered are the lack of enforceable laws or regulations, the absence of economic support and preferential tax policies, etc. to motivate manufacturers to carry out RSCM functions. Kovacs et al. (2006) have attributed the significant changes in the RSC functions of the Finnish glass recycling supply chain to the legislative changes in the European Union. Toffel (2004) identified few motivating factors namely reducing production costs, promoting an environmentally-friendly image, meeting customer needs, protecting after markets and pre-empting regulations which induce an organisation to undertake RL activities. Guide and Van Wassenhove (2009) emphasised that the volume and quality of returns are the major drivers of RSC functions. Erol et al. (2010) indicated that the firms pursuing RSCM functions do the same due to national legislative liabilities and competitive compulsions. They also added that the lack of legislation and economic incentives as also improper company policy is the main reason for non-availability of an efficient RSCM in 352 D. Das and R. Chaudhari electronic industry in Turkey. Akdoğan and Coşkun (2012) have identified broadly three drivers of RL activities namely economic reasons, legislation and corporate citizenship (or environmentally-friendly image) with reference to household appliance industry in Turkey. Their work further revealed that the importance of these drivers vary over products and firms. Shams and Subramanian (2012) also came up with similar kind of findings while identifying the factors influencing the implementation of EOL computer recycling operations. They indicated that the government legislation, incentive and customer demand are the major drivers of RSCM functions. The case study carried out by Ritchie et al. (2000) in a pharmaceutical firm demonstrated that significant financial and operational benefits are the most important reasons for the firm in pursuing RL process. Bellmann and Khare (2000) have dealt with the economic feasibility of recycling EOL vehicles with a view to containing the environmental damage. 2.2 Return flow types and their characteristics Rogers and Tibben-Lembke (1999) classified the categories of returns depending on the type of origin – items returned by supply chain partner (B2B) or items returned by the final customer (B2C). Rogers et al. (2002) have indicated how the returns of various types including consumer returns, marketing returns, asset returns, etc. should be managed across the whole RSC. deBrito and Dekker (2003) differentiated returns according to supply chain phases: manufacturing returns, distribution returns and customer returns. In addition, they classified returned products based on returning reasons, i.e., function failures (e.g., warranty and service returns) and function of the product is no longer needed (e.g., functional returns). Guide (2000), Guide et al. (2000) and Toffel (2004) mentioned that the uncertainty in product returns, imbalances in return and demand rates and the unknown condition of returned products make the production planning and control of remanufacturing extremely complicated. Guide et al. (2000) further identified the differences between traditional manufacturing environment and recoverable manufacturing environment in terms of production planning and control, inventory control, forecasting, purchasing, logistics, etc. Krikke et al. (2004) suggested applying a product life cycle-based classification that allows evaluating business opportunities and requirements for processing different types of product returns. They have suggested four different categories of returns namely EOL returns, EOU returns, commercial returns and re-usable items. The B2B commercial returns include wrong deliveries, damaged, outdated or unsold goods (deBrito and Dekker, 2003; Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1999). The B2C commercial returns refer to products that are returned by the end consumers in cases when their expectations were not met (deBrito and Dekker, 2003; Krikke et al., 2004; Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1999). Thus, depending on return reasons, type and origin, impact of environmental policies and business opportunities for commercial returns, the requirements for handling reverse flows may vary significantly. These may require establishing several reverse flows with contradictory focuses on cost, speed and quality (deBrito and Dekker, 2003; Krikke et al., 2004; Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 1999). Tibben-Lembke and Rogers (2002) have pointed out many differences between forward and RL processes from the perspective of retail environment. Tan and Kumar (2008) examined the viability of reverse supply chain in computer industry by developing a decision making model and showed that RSC could only be profitable when the returns volume is high. Reverse supply chain management in consumer electronics 353 Blackburn et al. (2004) demonstrate that there are broadly two categories of product returns: returns with high marginal value of time (high MVT) also known as time-sensitive products and the returns with low marginal value of time (low MVT) also referred to as time-insensitive products. The loss in value per unit time for high MVT products is very high with increasing delays at different layers of reverse supply chain. They have further suggested a decentralised and responsive RSC for high MVT products and centralised and efficient RSC for low MVT products. Guide et al. (2006) have added that the companies facing large returns and high recoverable product value should adopt a responsive reverse network. Savaskan et al. (2004) have considered three options for collection of used products from customers. They have shown that the retailer happens to be the most effective agent for collection of returned products. 2.3 Inspection and disposition of returned products The inspection and disposition processes involve activities such as inspection, testing, sorting, and grading returned products. The testing, sorting, and grading of returned products are labour-intensive and time consuming tasks. These processes may take place at retail store or at other echelons of supply chain. Prahinski and Kocabasoglu (2006) identified four disposition options namely: 1 direct reuse 2 product upgrade 3 material recovery 4 waste. According to Guide and Van Wassenhove (2002), disposition decision should be made based on product characteristics such as quality and product configuration. Various disposition options considered by the researchers are direct reuse, repair, refurbishing, remanufacturing, cannibalisation and scrap (Thierry et al., 1995; Rogers and Tibben-Lembke, 2001; Krikke et al., 2004). Rogers and Tibben-Lembke (2001) showed the distribution of processing time of the returned products. Over 15% of the firms process returns in two days or less while nearly 15% take more than one month to process their returns. Over 40% of the firms process the returns in a week or less. Using data gathered from a computer manufacturer based in Singapore, Tan and Kumar (2006) observed that transportation delay and supplier delay in processing returns have a significant impact on the viability of RL regardless of returns volume. Guide and Van Wassenhove (2009) demonstrated that a slow reverse supply chain that takes 10 weeks to put returned products back on the market would result in a loss of 10% of the total value in that product. Srivastava and Srivastava (2006) have presented a framework for estimation of product returns and its disposition through various facilities under strategic, operational and customer service constraints. 2.4 Redistribution and sales Guide and Van Wassenhove (2002) have indicated that a company should make investment to educate customers before marketing remanufactured or recycled products. They have further added that significant business opportunities often exist in markets 354 D. Das and R. Chaudhari where customers cannot afford the new products but can buy used or refurbished ones at lower prices. Thierry et al. (1995) have mentioned that the recovered products or parts can be sold by the company, its supply chain partners or companies outside the supply chain. Padmanabhan and Png (1995) have considered returns policy offered to the distributor by the manufacturer as an incentive to coordinate the distribution channel. Tibben-Lembke (2004) has given some suggestions as to how companies can maximise their secondary market revenues without damaging their primary market sales and the brand identity of main products. Liang et al. (2009) argued that the customers need to be incentivised in order to attract them to return the EOL products. With the help of a mathematical model, they attempted to show the relationship between the acquisition price of returned products (referred to as cores) and the sales price of remanufactured products (referred to as core products). 2.5 Network design of RL and CLSC Modelling techniques are quite helpful in improving the RL processes and aid in real-world RL problems. However, the issues relating to RSC are not as simple as forward supply chain. Managers need to understand the trade-off between RL cost and customer service while modelling a RL process (Rogers et al., 2012). A number of researchers (Assavapopokee and Wongthatsanekorn, 2012; Cruz-Rivera and Ertel, 2009; Mutha and Pokharel, 2009; Srivastava, 2008; Xanthopoulos and Lakovou, 2010) have designed strategic network of RSC for collection and processing of EOL, EOU and partially used products by utilising mathematical programming approach. The issue in the above research findings is to derive economic benefits for the firms by offering repaired, refurbished and recycled products to the customers and also to minimise the adverse environmental impact of landfill and incineration. Chandiran and Rao (2008) made an interesting revelation with regard to the design of reverse and forward supply chain network for an automobile battery manufacturer. They mentioned that bypassing certain stage of supply chain network in the reverse flow reduces the cost of the network and also the amount of time spent by products in the supply chain network. Cardoso et al. (2013) incorporated demand uncertainty into the RL network while developing a generic supply chain with forward and reverse flows. A few researchers (Kusumastuti et al., 2008; Schultmann et al., 2006) have proposed network design of CLSC with a view to making both forward and reverse supply chain integrated and efficient. Pishvaee et al. (2009) have developed a stochastic programming model for an integrated forward/RL network design by incorporating uncertainty in respect of demand, quantity and quality of returns, etc. Qiang et al. (2013) developed a CLSC network with decentralised decision makers consisting of raw material suppliers, retail outlets and the manufacturers that collect the recycled product directly from the demand market. 2.6 RL and GSCM Researchers (Khor and Udin, 2013; Marsillac, 2008; Sheu, 2008) have shown that RL processes including repair, refurbishment, reclamation, recycling of EOL, EOU and partially used products minimise the exploitation of the earth’s virgin resources and at the same time lessen the negative impact on ecological environment. This enables an organisation to pursue its environmental goals on one hand by minimising landfill through toxic waste and on the other, allows it to achieve economic goals by creating the Reverse supply chain management in consumer electronics 355 possibility of developing a separate revenue stream from returned goods. This ultimately helps the organisation to promote its green image. Few other researchers (Sarkis et al., 2010; Rosa et al., 2013) have also indicated the benefits accrued to the broad stakeholders of the society in addition to the economic and environmental benefits as a result of undertaking RSCM activities. However, the findings of Lai et al. (2013) indicate that the adoption of RL practices by Chinese manufacturers generates substantial environmental and financial gains, but not social benefits. The foregoing discussion suggests that the field of RSCM is very rich and diverse in nature. However, the number of empirical research papers in this domain does not seem to be noteworthy. Further, we have hardly come across any empirical paper on RSCM with reference to Indian perspective. The present paper is an effort to bridge the gap towards that direction. 3 Research methodology The key issue in this research is to uncover the motives of consumer electronics firms in pursuing RSCM activities, the facilitating factors and inhibiting factors faced by these firms, etc. Accordingly research methodology followed in this work is primarily exploratory in nature. This involves the design of survey instrument and validation of the same which was followed by the selection of study site and identification of target respondents. Finally, responses were secured from the respondents with the help of survey instrument through face-to-face interview. 3.1 Design of survey instrument Review of relevant research papers cited in the literature review section as well as the company practices identified through white papers allowed us to design a preliminary questionnaire incorporating all relevant dimensions of RSCM. Subsequently, the same was shown to three experts consisting of one professor, one SC professional and one retailer of consumer electronics products. All of them gave very diverse and valuable inputs. We tried to incorporate these inputs to the maximum possible extent without diluting the essence of RSCM dimensions which enabled us to revise the questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into five sections. The first section contains questions relating to the background information of respondents while the second section seeks to find out the strategic motive of RSCM functions and relative importance of the same with the help of ranks. The third section tries to find out the perception of the respondents with regard to the factors influencing an organisation to undertake RSCM activities. A five-point Likert-scale was used as a response format for different factors with the assigned values ranging from 1 = not at all true to 5 = absolutely true. The fourth section attempts to capture information on recency, usability and recovery value of returned products in percentage firms. This section also tries to find out the ranking of different categories of return streams in terms of volume and residual value. The final section seeks to capture the percentage of cost incurred and that of time taken in carrying out the elemental functions of RSCM. The questionnaire was presented to the same experts once again with a view to seeking their expert opinion on the adequate and appropriate coverage of the items relevant to RSCM functions and also the user-friendliness and 356 D. Das and R. Chaudhari workability of the questionnaire. This helped us in achieving the content validity of the questionnaire. 3.2 Study site and identification of target respondents The present study has been carried out amongst the retailers of consumer electronic goods and service providers engaged in repairing, refurbishing/remanufacturing of these goods based in Delhi and Northern Capital Region (NCR) of India. Thus broadly two categories of respondents, e.g., retailers and service providers responsible for repairing/refurbishing of consumer electronic goods were considered in our study. We targeted both organised and unorganised sectors. Initially we gathered an idea about the establishment of the business units of these respondents from internet and other sources. We made a preliminary assessment of these business units by looking at the relevant information available through internet and other secondary sources. This allowed us to pinpoint appropriate business establishments for the purpose of administering the survey instrument to the owners/managers of those units. This, in essence, constitutes judgmental sampling. 3.3 Plan for securing responses We collected the contact addresses, telephone number and e-mail of the concerned persons of consumer electronic stores and the repairing/refurbishing agents as mentioned in Section 3.2 and tried to secure responses from them by first of all explaining them the purpose of undertaking the current study over telephone. Subsequently, we sent them the questionnaire through e-mail in order to enable them to have an idea about the kind of responses required by us. In the next stage, we took an appointment with them and finally visited their stores in person with hard copies of the questionnaire with a view to eliciting responses from them through face-to-face interview. This process was necessary both from the perspective of researchers and the respondents for the purpose of securing reliable responses. This, in fact, allowed us to explain face-to-face, in nutshell, the issues of RSCM to the respondents once again and also gave them the opportunity to seek clarifications on different issues relating to RSCM. 4 Research findings We could manage to approach 48 retailers of consumer electronic goods in Delhi and NCR. However, 22 of them agreed to give responses to our survey with a response rate of 46%. Out of these 22 respondents, responses from 14 were collected through face-to-face interview and the remaining eight were collected through telephonic interview. Further, 15 service providers doing repairing, refurbishing and remanufacturing of electronic goods were approached out of which eight gave consent to provide responses in our study thereby giving us a response rate of slightly more than 50%. Out of these eight respondents, responses from four were collected through face-to-face interview and the remaining four were received through e-mails. Reverse supply chain management in consumer electronics 357 4.1 Composition of retailers and service providers Broadly, three categories of retailers selling consumer electronic goods were identified. These are: 1 retailers selling mobile phone and related hardware 2 retailers selling computer and accessories 3 retailers selling consumer durables which include air-conditioner, refrigerator, washing machine, CTV, music system, micro-oven, etc. It is found in our sample that the mobile phone retailers sell mobile phone of a particular OEM only and also receive the returned mobiles of the same OEM. However, both computer retailers and the retailers dealing with consumer durables sell goods of different OEMs from the same retail store as observed in our sample. Further, they also receive returned goods of different OEMs based on the conditions of the same. The distribution of retailers is as follows: Table 1 Composition of retailers Categories of retailers Number % of retailers 1 Mobile phone 6 27.3% 2 Computer 11 50.0% 3 Air-conditioner, washing machine, refrigerator, CTV, etc. 5 22.7% It is evident from the above findings that most of the retailers (50%) are in computer retailing. As regards service providers, we identified three categories of service providers for three types of consumer electronic products similar to the retailers: 1 service provider for repairing/refurbishing mobile phone 2 service provider for repairing/refurbishing computer 3 service provider for repairing/refurbishing consumer durables. It is found in our sample findings that although the mobile phone retailers are exclusive agents of a particular OEM, the service providers doing repairing/refurbishing of mobile phone carry out these functions for several OEMs simultaneously. Similar trend of pooling returned computers of different OEMs and returned consumer durables of different OEMs by the computer service provider and the consumer durables service provider respectively has been observed for the purpose of doing repairing/refurbishing. Table 2 Composition of service providers Categories of service providers Number % of service providers 1 Mobile phone 2 25.0% 2 Computer 3 37.5% 3 Air-conditioner, washing machine, refrigerator, CTV, etc. 3 37.5% 358 D. Das and R. Chaudhari 4.2 Responses collected from organisations based on the number of people employed The size of organisations selling consumer electronic goods and doing repairing/refurbishing functions were categorised based on the number of people employed in the same. The number of responses from each category was then found out. Table 3 Frequency of responses based on the size of organisations No. of people Frequency of responses % of responses 25 or fewer 8 26.7% 25 to 50 10 33.3% 50 to 100 10 33.3% 100 to 250 0 0.0% More than 250 2 6.7% It is evident that we could manage to collect most of the responses from organisations with the number of people ranging from 25 to 100. 4.3 Motivating factors of an organisation to pursue RSCM Review of contemporary literature on RSC, investigation of company white papers and finally discussion with the experts helped us in finalising 12 motivating factors. The respondents were asked to give a particular motivating factor rank 1 which is considered most important from the perspective of the organisation based on its philosophy and the changing market dynamics. They were further requested to give rank 2 to the second most important motivating factor. Likewise they were asked to give the least important motivating factor rank 12. Once the responses from all 30 respondents were collected, we computed the individual cumulative score of each motivating factor and arranged it in an ascending order. The lowest total score was assigned rank 1, the second lowest rank 2 and so on. Table 4 Motivating factors and its relative importance Motivating factors Rank Separate revenue stream 1 Increased profit 2 Improved brand image of the organisation 8 Increased market competitiveness 7 Improved customer service 4 Recapture/reclaim value 3 Better utilisation of assets 6 Maximise reuse 9 Competitive pressures 5 Legal disposal issues 10 Clean channel 11 Minimise landfill/incineration 12 Reverse supply chain management in consumer electronics 359 The study findings suggest that ‘separate revenue stream’, ‘increased profit’ and ‘reclaim value’ were ranked 1, 2 and 3, respectively. This demonstrates that the consumer electronics organisations based in Delhi and NCR are primarily motivated by economic reasons to pursue RSCM functions. This is consistent with the findings of Ritchie et al. (2000). However, this contradicts the findings of Rogers and Tibben-Lembke (2001), and Erol et al. (2010). Because their findings have attached highest importance to the competitive compulsions. 4.4 Facilitating factors and inhibiting factors faced by organisations in doing RSCM From the perspective of operationalising RSCM functions in an organisation, we identified 17 factors through literature review and also by consulting the experts. These factors, if found conducive, would serve as facilitating factors while the same would act as barriers to implementing RSCM functions if they are not found favourable. Before applying appropriate statistical test on these factors, we reversed the scores obtained on negatively framed statements. We carried out one sample t-test (left-tailed) with a test value of 3. If the mean value of a particular factor is equal to or greater than 3, the null hypothesis is not rejected. Otherwise the null hypothesis is rejected. In the present findings, the failure to reject null hypothesis in respect of a particular factor is analogous to the same being considered as a facilitating factor in pursuing RSCM functions while the rejection of null hypothesis with a regard to a factor is equivalent to the same being treated as an inhibiting factor. These facilitating factors and the inhibiting factors are shown separately in Tables 5 and 6, respectively. Table 5 Facilitating factors of RSCM faced by organisations Factors Mean value S.D. T-value High level of coordination between retailer and 3PL service providers for shipping and storage of take-back items 3.47 0.819 3.120 High level of coordination between retailer and the agent responsible for repairing/refurbishing/remanufacturing of take-back items 3.47 0.900 2.841 High level of coordination between retailer and the agent responsible for sale of repaired/refurbished/remanufactured items 3.67 0.711 5.135 Attitude of people to undertake specific RSCM activities is positive 3.63 1.098 3.159 Cannibalisation of mainstream products by repaired/refurbished/remanufactured ones 3.83 1.262 3.618 Notes: Perception scores are based on five-point Likert scale; test value = 3; H0: μ >= 3; Ha: μ < 3; α = 0.05; 1-tailed test (left-tailed); df = 29; tabled t-value: 1.699. Tables 4 and 5 reveal that the co-ordination amongst different agents responsible for carrying out RSCM functions is quite satisfactory. There is hardly any chance of cannibalisation of main products by the repaired or refurbished products. This probably indicates that there exist separate customer segments for both new products and refurbished ones. Further attitude of the people undertaking RSCM functions indicates that they are ready to adopt RSCM functions. However, the skill level of people, being 360 D. Das and R. Chaudhari inadequate, suggests that the top management needs to impart proper training to these people. The most important barrier in pursuing RSCM function turns out to be the lack of commitment of the top management. The support of the middle level managers, as shown in Table 6, is far from satisfactory. Physical infrastructure, technology and IT infrastructure and financial resources required to support RSCM activities pose hindrance to implementing RSCM functions. In addition, the management hardly pays any attention to the environmental management system. Other important barriers in adopting RSCM functions are in respect of uncertainty in the volume and the quality of returned goods. This indicates that a suitable mechanism needs to be created by the electronic goods manufacturers and retailers to motivate the customers to return the EOL, EOU electronic goods in a uniform manner. Table 6 Inhibiting factors of RSCM faced by organisations Factors Commitment of the top management towards implementation of RSCM Support of middle level managers for RSCM activities is available for implementation of RSCM activities Environmental management systems are in place Technology and sound physical infrastructure is available to support RSCM activities Sound IT infrastructure is available to support RSCM activities Adequate financial resources are available to support RSCM activities Skill level of people to undertake specific RSCM activities is adequate Volume of returned goods from customers has been consistently high Uncertainty in the volume/quantity of returned goods Uncertainty in the quality (usability) of returned goods Uncertainty in the quality (recency) of returned goods Uncertainty in the quality (recovery value) of returned goods Mean value S.D. T-value 2.33 1.213 –3.01 2.20 1.297 –3.378 1.60 2.37 1.221 1.159 –6.283 –2.993 2.20 1.297 –3.378 2.17 1.44 –3.169 2.07 1.311 –3.898 2.33 1.47 –2.484 1.77 1.83 2.03 1.97 0.898 0.874 1.066 0.964 –7.526 –7.309 –4.966 –5.869 Notes: Perception scores are based on five-point Likert scale; test value = 3; H0: μ >= 3; Ha: μ < 3; α = 0.05; 1-tailed test (left-tailed); df = 29; tabled t-value: 1.699. 4.5 Returned consumer electronic goods from recency perspective We asked the respondents to provide us an idea about the percentage of returned consumer electronic goods in terms of how old or how new the same is based on his or her experience. We requested them to furnish the approximate percentage figures on five categories namely ‘very old (> 5 years)’, ‘considerably old (3–5 years)’, ‘somewhat old (2–3 years)’, ‘recent (1 1/2–2 years)’ and ‘very recent (< 1 1/2 years)’ and also told them that the sum of individual percentage figures assigned to five categories by one particular respondent should be 100%. We computed the percentage figures of each individual category of returned products by taking the geometric mean of percentage scores across 30 respondents. The percentage figures are shown in a pie chart as given in Figure 1. Reverse supply chain management in consumer electronics Figure 1 361 Percentage of returned electronic goods in terms of recency (see online version for colours) The percentage figures shown in Figure 1 suggest that significant percentage of returned goods (almost half) is accounted for by ‘considerably old’ items which are followed by ‘somewhat old’ items. 4.6 Returned consumer electronic goods from usability perspective We asked the respondents to provide us an idea about the extent of usable returned consumer electronic goods in percentage terms. We requested them to furnish the approximate percentage figures on five categories namely ‘absolutely usable’, ‘considerably usable’, ‘somewhat usable’, ‘scarcely usable’ and ‘not at all usable’ and also told them that the sum of individual percentage figures assigned to five categories by one particular respondent should be 100%. We followed the same procedure for finding out the percentage figure of each individual category as explained in Section 4.5. The percentage figures are shown in a pie chart as given in Figure 2. Figure 2 Percentage of returned electronic goods in terms of usability (see online version for colours) Figure 2 reveals that quite a significant percentage of returned consumer electronic goods constitute usable items. 362 D. Das and R. Chaudhari 4.7 Returned consumer electronic goods from recovery (residual) value perspective We further requested the respondents to give us an idea pertaining to the reclamation of residual value of returned electronic goods in percentage terms. We requested them to provide us the percentage figures in six category namely ‘resold as is’, ‘repackaged and sold as ‘new’, ‘repaired and sold’, ‘refurbished/remanufactured’, ‘recycled’ and ‘landfill/disposal’. We also told them that the sum of individual percentage figures assigned to six categories by one particular respondent should be 100%. We followed the same procedure for finding out the percentage figure of each individual category as explained in Section 4.5. The percentage figures are shown in a pie chart as given in Figure 3. Figure 3 Percentage of returned goods in terms of residual value (see online version for colours) Figure 3 reveals that a substantial percentage of returned consumer electronic goods are repaired and sold. This is followed by the categories of returned items which are refurbished and or remanufactured. 4.8 Categories of returned consumer electronic goods in terms of volume We identified different categories of returned consumer electronic goods from literature and also by talking to few retailers. At the same time, we took inputs from the panel of experts and incorporated their expert opinions into the questionnaire. Accordingly, we finalised nine categories of returned consumer electronic goods. The respondents were asked to give a particular return stream rank 1 which is considered to have the highest return flow in terms of volume. They were further requested to assign rank 2 to the return stream with the second highest return volume. Likewise they were asked to rank 9 the return stream with the least return volume. Once the responses from all 30 respondents were collected, we computed the individual cumulative score of each return stream and arranged it in an ascending order. The lowest total score was assigned rank 1, the second lowest rank 2 and so on. Reverse supply chain management in consumer electronics Table 7 363 Ranking of return streams in terms of volume Return streams Rank End of life (EOL) returns 1 End of use (EOU) returns (e.g. leasing) 4 Commercial returns from customers (e.g. convenience returns, exchange offers) 2 Commercial returns from channel partners (e.g. overstocks, channel clearance) 8 Warranty returns 3 Maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) returns 6 Product recalls 7 Distribution related returns (wrong/damaged deliveries) 5 Others 9 Table 7 reveals that the EOL return streams constitute the largest return flow in terms of volume which is followed by the commercial returns from customers. Warranty returns come third in the order. 4.9 Categories of returned consumer electronic goods in terms of residual value The above nine categories of return streams were further evaluated in terms of their respective residual value through ranks. The respondents were asked to follow the same procedure explained in Section 4.8 while ranking a particular return stream in terms of its residual value. Subsequently, we found out the overall rank of each individual return stream in terms of its residual value by following the same method explained in Section 4.8. Table 8 Ranking of return streams in terms of residual value Return streams Rank End of life (EOL)returns 1 End of use (EOU) returns (e.g., leasing) 4 Commercial returns from customers (e.g., convenience returns, exchange offers) 2 Commercial returns from channel partners (e.g., overstocks, channel clearance) 8 Warranty returns 3 Maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) returns 6 Product recalls 7 Distribution related returns (wrong/damaged deliveries) 5 Others 9 364 4.10 D. Das and R. Chaudhari Elements of RSC cost in percentage terms Once the EOL, EOU or other types of goods are received from the customers, a number of elemental activities need to be performed in order to reclaim value from these returned goods and also to dispose it off in an environmentally-friendly manner. Each activity involves certain amount of cost. The purpose of analysing this exercise is to identify as to which particular element of RSCM accounts for the maximum share of cost incurred in carrying out RSCM functions. We requested the respondents to furnish the approximate cost of elemental RSCM functions namely ‘collection and customs clearance’, ‘inspection and sorting’, ‘shipping and storage’, ‘repairing’, ‘refurbishing/remanufacturing’, ‘recycling’, ‘disposal/landfill’ in percentage terms. We also told them that the sum of individual percentage figures assigned to these seven elemental functions by one particular respondent should be 100%. We computed the percentage figures of elemental RSC cost by following the same procedure already explained in Section 4.5. Figure 4 Elements of RSC cost in % terms (see online version for colours) It is evident from Figure 4 pie diagram that refurbishing/remanufacturing cost accounts for maximum share of the cost of RSC functions which is followed by repairing cost. 4.11 Elemental time of RSC functions in percentage terms It is a well-known fact that the value of the returned consumer electronic goods falls rapidly with the passage of time as the MVT of these products is very high. Therefore, the purpose of doing this exercise is to identify as to which particular element of RSC consumes maximum amount of time. We followed the same procedure for finding out the percentage of time consumed by each element of RSC as explained in Section 4.5. Figure 5 suggests that maximum time is consumed by refurbishing/remanufacturing function of RSC which is closely followed by repairing function. Reverse supply chain management in consumer electronics Figure 5 5 365 Elemental time of RSC functions in % terms (see online version for colours) Conclusions and managerial implications The present study has attempted to find out the motivating factors of consumer electronics firms based in Delhi and NCR of India to pursue RSCM functions which are involved in retailing consumer electronic goods, accepting EOL, EOU returned goods and repairing/refurbishing those returned goods by collecting responses from 30 firms. Motivating factors may be considered to be the strategic drivers of a firm to carry out RSCM functions. Findings of the study have revealed that the economic reason rather than the competitive pressure is the prime motive of a consumer electronics firm to do RSCM functions. This has great positive impact on the RSC functions of consumer electronics firms. The study has also determined the facilitating factors and the inhibiting factors faced by the firms in pursuing RSCM functions. Facilitating factors are considered to be the operational enablers while inhibiting factors are deemed to be the operational hurdles of RSC functions. The findings reveal that there are five facilitating factors and 12 inhibiting factors towards RSCM implementation in consumer electronics firms. Commitment of the top management and the support of the middle-level managers are the primary pre-requisites for successful implementation of RSCM. Further, the management should make adequate financial resources available and also commit resources in terms of IT infrastructure, physical infrastructure and environmental management system. The present work has evaluated the incoming quality of returned goods in terms of recency, usability and residual value. Recency statistics of returned goods reveal that most of the items returned by the consumers are either ‘considerably old’ or ‘somewhat old’. Taken together they account for 82% of the incoming electronic goods. A minor percentage of the incoming quality constitutes items of ‘recent’ or ‘very recent’ category. This gives an insight to the management that most of the Indian electronic goods consumers continue to use electronic goods for reasonably sufficient period. This needs to be sustained and customers should be encouraged to use the existing electronic items till the end of its useful economic life with a view to generating less electronic waste. Usage quality of the incoming items suggests that a substantial percentage (around 75%) of the electronic goods is either ‘considerably usable’ or ‘somewhat usable’. This 366 D. Das and R. Chaudhari revelation of usability data demonstrates that there exists tremendous business potential in creating a separate segment of customers for used electronic products. The quality of incoming items in terms of residual value suggests that a significant share (approx. 79%) of the goods come under ‘repaired’ and ‘refurbished/remanufactured’ category. This also provides an important managerial insight to the management in terms of its potential in reclaiming value from the returned electronic items. Considering different categories of return streams, the study findings present that ‘EOL return stream’ is ranked 1 in terms of volume which is followed by ‘Commercial returns from customers’. This is again followed by ‘Warranty returns’. Further from the perspective of residual value, the findings on different categories of return streams surprisingly reveal the same ranking of return streams. This has an important managerial implication in terms of improving the operational efficiency of the processing of returned items and at the same time recovering significant value from the same by focusing maximum resource of an organisation on few dominant return streams. The main return streams are EOL returns, commercial returns, warranty returns and EOU returns which are ranked 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively in terms of both volume and residual value. The present study has also found out the percentage of cost incurred in doing elemental RSC functions and also the percentage of time required in performing those elements of RSC function. The findings suggest that refurbishing/remanufacturing accounts for the major share of RSC cost which is followed by repairing cost of RSC. Further ‘refurbishing/remanufacturing’ and ‘repairing’ consume the major percentage of time in carrying out RSC functions and these two require nearly the same percentage of time of the total available time. This gives an idea to the managers as to which elemental functions of RSC should be given more emphasis for minimising cost and time in carrying out RSCM functions. The study suffers from several limitations. The first and foremost limitation is the inadequate size of the sample. Generalisation has been drawn based on this small sample which is fraught with inherent risk. Further, the survey was carried out mostly within unorganised sectors. Only few organised RSC companies were interviewed which did not allow us to do a comparative study of RSC practices between organised and unorganised sectors. Future study should take care of the issues relating to the sample size, size of organised and unorganised sectors within the sample, etc. so that the study findings become generalisable across consumer electronic goods. The findings would be more enriching if the responses are collected from almost all major parts of the country. Similar kind of study could also be undertaken in automobile sector, telecom sector, fashion goods, etc. References Akdoğan, M.S. and Coşkun, A. (2012) ‘Drivers of reverse logistics activities: an empirical investigation’, Procedia – Social and Behavioural Sciences, Vol. 58, pp.1640–1649, 12 October. Assavapopokee, T. and Wongthatsanekorn, W. (2012) ‘Reverse production system infrastructure design for electronic products in the state of Texas’, Computers & Industrial Engineering, Vol. 62, No. 1, pp.129–140. Bellmann, K. and Khare, A. (2000) ‘Economic issues in recycling end-of-life vehicles’, Technovation, pp.677–690. Reverse supply chain management in consumer electronics 367 Blackburn, J.D., Guide Jr., V.D.R., Souza, G.C. and Van Wassenhove, L.N. (2004) ‘Reverse supply chains for commercial returns’, California Management Review, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp.6–22. Cardoso, S.R., Barbosa-Póvoa, A.P.F.D. and Relvas, S. (2013) ‘Design and planning of supply chains with integration of reverse logistics activities under demand uncertainty’, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 226, No. 3, pp.436–451. Chandiran, P. and Rao, K.S.P. (2008) ‘Design of reverse and forward supply chain network: a case study’, International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, Vol. 4, No. 5, pp.574–595. Cruz-Rivera, R. and Ertel, J. (2009) ‘Reverse logistics network design for the collection of end-of-life vehicles in Mexico’, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 196, No. 3, pp.930–939. deBrito, M.P. and Dekker, R. (2003) ‘A framework for reverse logistics’, ERIM Report Series Reference No. ERS-2003-045-LIS. Dowlatshahi, S. (2000) ‘Developing a theory of reverse logistics’, Interfaces, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp.143–155. Erol, I., Velioglu, M.N., Serifoglu, F.S., Buyukozkan, G., Aras, N., Cakar, N.D. and Korugan, A. (2010) ‘Exploring reverse supply chain management practices in Turkey’, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol. 15, No. 1, pp.43–54. European Commission (2004) ‘Waste electrical and electronic equipment’ [online] http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/weee/legis_en.htm, http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/elv_index.htm (accessed 1 September 2012). Guide Jr., V.D.R. (2000) ‘Production planning and control for remanufacturing: industry practice and research needs’, Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 18, No. 4, pp.467–483. Guide Jr., V.D.R. and Van Wassenhove, L.N. (2002) ‘The reverse supply chain’, Harvard Business Review, Vol. 80, No. 2, pp.25–26. Guide Jr., V.D.R. and Van Wassenhove, L.N. (2009) ‘The evolution of closed-loop supply chain research’, Operations Research, Vol. 57, No. 1, pp.10–18. Guide Jr., V.D.R., Jayaraman, V., Srivastava, R. and Benton, W.C. (2000) ‘Supply chain management for recoverable manufacturing systems’, Interfaces, Vol. 30, No. 3, pp.125–142. Guide Jr., V.D.R., Souza, G.C., Van Wassenhove, L.N. and Blackburn, J.D. (2006) ‘Time value of commercial product returns’, Management Science, Vol. 52, No. 8, pp.1200–1214. Hazra, J., Sarkar, A. and Sharma, V. (2011) [online] http://tejas-iimb.org/articles/87.php (accessed 1 September 2012). Khor, K.S. and Udin, Z.M. (2013) ‘Reverse logistics in Malaysia: investigating the effect of green product design and resource commitment’, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 81, pp.71–80. Kovacs, G., Spens, K.M. and Korkeila, R. (2006) ‘Stakeholder response to future changes in the reverse supply chain’, International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp.160–176. Krikke, H., Blanc, I.L. and Velde, S.V.D. (2004) ‘Product modularity and the design of closed-loop supply chains’, California Management Review, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp.23–39. Kumar, S. and Putnam, V. (2008) ‘Cradle to cradle: reverse logistics strategies and opportunities across three industry sectors’, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 115, No. 2, pp.305–315. Kusumastuti, R.D., Piplani, R. and Lim, G.H. (2008) ‘Redesigning closed-loop service network at a computer manufacturer: a case study’, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 111, No. 2, pp.244–260. Lai, K., Wu, S.J. and Wong, C.W.Y. (2013) ‘Did reverse logistics practices hit the triple bottom line of Chinese manufacturers?’, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 146, No. 1, pp.106–117. 368 D. Das and R. Chaudhari Lau, K.H. and Wang, Y. (2009) ‘Reverse logistics in the electronic industry of China: a case study’, Supply Chain Management: an International Journal, Vol. 14, No. 6, pp.447–465. Lee, C.H., Chang, S.L., Wang, K.M. and Wen, L.C. (2000) ‘Management of scrap computer recycling in Taiwan’, Journal of Hazardous Materials, Vol. 73, No. 3, pp.209–220. Li, X. and Olorunniwo, F. (2008) ‘An exploration of reverse logistics practices in three companies’, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol. 13, No. 5, pp.381–386. Liang, Y., Pokharel, S. and Lim, G.H. (2009) ‘Pricing used products for remanufacturing’, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 193, No. 2, pp.390–395. Marsillac, E.L. (2008) ‘Environmental impacts on reverse logistics and green supply chains: similarities and integration’, International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp.411–422. Mutha, A. and Pokharel, S. (2009) ‘Strategic network design for reverse logistics and remanufacturing using new and old product modules’, Computers & Industrial Engineering, Vol. 56, No. 1, pp.334–346. Padmanabhan, V. and Png, I. (1995) ‘Returns policies: make money by making good’, Sloan Management Review, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp.65–72. Pishvaee, M.S., Jolai, F. and Razmi, J. (2009) ‘A stochastic optimization model for integrated forward/reverse logistics network design’, Journal of Manufacturing Systems, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp.107–114. Prahinski, C. and Kocabasoglu, C. (2006) ‘Empirical research opportunities in reverse supply chains’, Omega, Vol. 34, No. 6, pp.519–532. Qiang, Q., Ke, K., Anderson, T. and Dong, J. (2013) ‘The closed loop supply chain network with competition, distribution channel investment and uncertainties’, Omega, Vol. 41, No. 2, pp.186–194. Ramireź, A.M. (2012) ‘Product return and logistics knowledge: influence on performance of the firm’, Transportation Research Part E, Vol. 48, No. 6, pp.1137–1151. Ritchie, L., Burnes, B., Whittle, P. and Hey, R. (2000) ‘The benefits of reverse logistics: the case of the Manchester Royal Infirmary Pharmacy’, Supply Chain Management: an International Journal, Vol. 5, No. 5, pp.226–233. Rogers, D.S. and Tibben-Lembke, R.S. (1999) ‘Going Backwards: Reverse Logistics Trends and Practices, RLEC Press, Pittsburgh, PA. Rogers, D.S. and Tibben-Lembke, R.S. (2001) ‘An examination of reverse logistics practices’, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp.129–148. Rogers, D.S., Lambert, D.M., Croxton, K.L. and Garcia-Dastugue, S.J. (2002) ‘The returns management process’, International Journal of Logistics Management, Vol. 13, No. 2, pp.1–18. Rogers, D.S., Melamed, B. and Lembke, R.S. (2012) ‘Modeling and analysis of reverse logistics’, Journal of Business Logistics, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp.107–117. Rosa, V.D., Gebhard, M., Hartmann, E. and Wollenweber, J. (2013) ‘Robust sustainable bi-directional logistics network design under uncertainty’, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 145, No. 1, pp.184–198. Sarkis, J., Helms, M.M. and Hervani, A.A. (2010) ‘Reverse logistics and social sustainability’, Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, Vol. 17, No. 6, pp.337–354. Savaskan, R.C., Bhattacharya, S. and Van Wassenhove, L.N. (2004) ‘Closed loop supply chain models with product remanufacturing’, Management Science, Vol. 50, No. 2, pp.239–252. Schultmann, F., Zumkeller, M. and Rentz, O. (2006) ‘Modeling reverse logistics tasks within closed-loop supply chains: an example from the automotive industry’, European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 171, No. 3, pp.1033–1050. Shams, R. and Subramanian, N. (2012) ‘Factors for implementing end-of-life computers recycling operations in reverse supply chains’, International Journal of Production Economics, Vol. 140, No. 1, pp.239–248. Reverse supply chain management in consumer electronics 369 Sheu, J.B. (2008) ‘Green supply chain management, reverse logistics and nuclear power generation’, Transportation Research Part E, Vol. 44, No. 1, pp.19–46. Srivastava, S.K. (2008) ‘Network design for reverse logistics’, Omega, Vol. 36, No. 4, pp.535–548. Srivastava, S.K. and Srivastava, R.K. (2006) ‘Managing product returns for reverse logistics’, International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, Vol. 36, No. 7, pp.524–546. Tan, A. and Kumar, A. (2008) ‘A decision making model to maximise the value of reverse logistics in the computer industry’, International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, Vol. 4, No. 3, pp.297–312. Tan, A.W.K. and Kumar, A. (2006) ‘A decision-making model for reverse logistics in the computer industry’, The International Journal of Logistics Management, Vol. 17, No. 3, pp.331–354. Thierry, M., Salomon, M., Nunen, V.J. and Wassenhove, V.L. (1995) ‘Strategic issues in product recovery management’, California Management Review, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp.114–135. Tibben-Lembke, R.S. and Rogers, D.S. (2002) ‘Differences between forward and reverse logistics in a retail environment’, Supply Chain Management: An International Journal, Vol. 7, No. 5, pp.271–282. Tibben-Lembke, R.S. (2004) ‘Strategic use of the secondary market for retail consumer goods’, California Management Review, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp.90–104. Toffel, M.W. (2004) ‘Strategic management of product recovery’, California Management Review, Vol. 46, No. 2, pp.120–138. Xanthopoulos, A. and Lakovou, E. (2010) ‘A strategic methodological optimisation framework for the design of a reverse logistics network with forward supply channel synergies’, International Journal of Logistics Systems and Management, Vol. 7, No. 2, pp.165–183. Xiang, W. and Ming, C. (2011) ‘Implementing extended producer responsibility: vehicle remanufacturing in China’, Journal of Cleaner Production, Vol. 19, Nos. 6–7, pp.680–686.