Uploaded by Ruschelle Lao

Lesson1 Fundamentals of Comm

Oral Communication
Schedule: Mondays & Wednesdays @ 10am-11am
1st Semester
Academic Year 2020=2021
I. Nature and Elements of
1. Fundamentals of Communication
• A process of sharing and conveying messages
or information from one person to another
within and across channels, contexts, media
and cultures
• It can be face-to-face interactions, a phone
conversation, a group discussion, a meeting or
interview, a class recitation
Etymology of Communication
1. Communication (from Latin word ‘communicare’
meaning, to share or to have something in
2. Communication provides central meaning to
human experience.
3. Keith Davis: Communication is a process of
passing information and understanding from
one person to another.
4. John Adair: Communication is essentially the
ability of one person to make contact with
another and make himself or understood.
Nature of Communication
1. Communication is a process (involves a message,
sender, receiver, and channel).
2. Communication is symbolic which could be enhanced
through the use of nonverbal cues involving facial
expressions, gestures, body language, volume, tone,
and pitch of the speaker's voice.
3. Communication is a verbal communication that uses
words to share information with others.
4. Communication employs readily understood spoken
words. It mainly uses words to express one’s self.
Nature of Communication
5. Communication could be one-way or maybe
two-way process.
6. Communication involves the flow of
information from a sender to the receiver.
7. Communication ensures appropriate
enunciation, stress and tone of voice for
common understanding to take place.
8. Verbal communication includes sounds,
words, language, and speech
Importance of Oral Communication
1. Oral communication is important because the
goal of learning a language is to communicate in
order to be understood. Without understanding,
there is no communication.
2. Oral communication skills are fundamental to the
development of literacy. Literacy is the ability to
read and write.
3. Oral communication is essential for thinking and
4. Oral Communication is the glue that puts all the
components of a language together.
Importance of Oral Communication
5. Oral communication plays an important role
in the development of the country.
6. Oral Communication reduces the distance and
makes the flow of information faster.
7. Oral communication enables one to be a voice
or instrument of truth and a light of the world.
Elements of Communication
1. Speaker- the source of information or message
2. Message- the information, ideas or thoughts conveyed by the speaker in
words or in actions
3. Encoding- the process of converting the message into words, actions, or other
forms that the speaker understands
Channel- the medium or the means, such as personal or non-personal, verbal
or non-verbal, in which the encoded message is conveyed
5. Decoding- the process of interpreting the encoded message of the speaker by
the receiver
6. Receiver- the recipient of the message, or someone who decoded the
7. Feedback- the reactions, responses, or information provided by the receiver
8. Context- the environment where communication takes place
9. Barrier- the factors that affect the flow of communication
Process of Communication
The speaker generates an idea.
Daphne loves Rico as a friend.
The speaker encodes an idea or converts
the idea into words or actions.
She thinks of how to tell him using their
native language.
The speaker transmits or sends out a
She tells him, “Rico, mahal kita bilang
The receiver gets the message.
Rico hears what Daphne says.
The receiver decodes or interprets the
message based on the context.
The receiver sends or provides feedback.
He tries to analyze what she means, and he
is heartbroken.
He frowns and does not say something,
because he is in pain.
Models of Communication
A. Shannon-Weaver Model
• Transaction Model
Schramm Model
What has Schramm added to the Shannon-Weaver’s model? Is the new model
more comprehensive? Why do you think so? How is it different from or similar to
the transaction model?
Field of experience
Field of experience
Functions of Communication
1. Control- Communication functions to control
2. Social Interaction- Communication allows
individuals to interact with others.
3. Motivation- Communication motivates or
encourages people to live better.
4. Emotional Expression- Communication
facilitates people’s expression of their feelings
and emotions.
5. Information Dissemination- Communication
functions to convey information.
Features of an Effective Communication
(7 C’s of Effective Communication)
1. Completeness- Communication should include everything that the receiver
needs to hear for him/her to respond, react, or evaluate properly.
2. Conciseness- Making the message direct or straight to the point.
3. Consideration- Speaker should always consider relevant information about
his/her receiver such as mood, background, race preference, education, status,
needs, among others.
4. Concreteness- Effective communication happens when the message is
concrete and supported by facts, figures, and real-life examples and situations.
5. Courtesy- Speaker is respecting the culture, values, and beliefs of his/her
6. Clearness-
In communication, it implies the use of simple and specific words
to express the ideas. It is also achieved when the speaker focuses only on a
single objective in his/her speech so as not to confuse the audience.
7. Correctness- Correctness in grammar eliminates negative impact on the
audience and increases the credibility and effectiveness of the message.
Barriers to Communication
You are having a bad day or you feel
You sit in a meeting or class where
you think the speaker is boring.
Use of jargon
You are a doctor discussing a certain
malignant illness with the patient’s
family who does not know much
about the topic.
Lack of
You are asked to share something
about your day or weekend, but you
are hesitant because you are shy.
You are having a conversation with
some friends when a song was played
Verbal Communication-refers to an interaction in which
words are used to relay a message
Things to consider:
1. Appropriateness- formal or informal
2. Brevity- use simple yet precise and powerful words
3. Clarity- clearly state your message and express your
ideas and feelings
4. Ethics- consider the gender, roles, ethnicity,
preferences, and status of the person you’re talking to
5. Vividness- usually add color and spice to
Nonverbal Communication- refers to all interaction
where behavior is used to convey and represent meanings.
- All kinds of human responses that are not
expressed in words (stares, smile, tone of
voice, movements, manners of walking,
standing and sitting, appearance, style of
attire, attitude towards punctuality and space,
personality and others.
Mastery of nonverbal communication
is important for several reasons:
It enhances and emphasizes the message of your speech, thus
making it more meaningful, truthful and relevant.
2. It can communicate feelings, attitudes, and perceptions without
you saying a word.
3. It can sustain the attention of listeners and keep them engaged in
the speech.
4. It gives the audience a preview to the type of speaker you are.
5. It makes you appear more dynamic and animated in your delivery.
6. T serves as a channel to release tension and nervousness.
7. It helps make your speech more dramatic.
8. It can build a connection with listeners.
9. It makes you a credible speaker.
10. It helps you vary your speaking style and avoid monotonous
Activity 1
• Statements About Communication
Interview a friend or family member and ask him or her what he or she thinks
of one of the following statements and how this statement impacts
relationships. Do not tell your interviewee that these are myths or facts about
communication. Instead, record his or her perceptions about the statement
and discuss whether you agree or disagree with his or her views.
Communication does not always require understanding.
Communication is not always a good thing.
No single person or event causes another's reaction.
Communication will not solve all problems.
Meanings are in people, not words.
Communication is not simple.
More communication is not always better.
Assignment 1
• Create a 2-3 minute video introducing yourself
(background, likes, dislikes, etc.). Include why
you choose the HUMMS strand and ECA as
your school.
• Be creative and fun as much as possible in
creating your video.
• You can use video editor to enhance your
video presentation.
Rubric for Assignment 1
• Originality and Uniqueness 50%
• Grammar and Projection 40%
• Overall Presentation 10%