Functional Problem of social system Social system is a functional arrangement. Its functional character ensures social stability and continuity. It is generally agreed that the social system have four primary functional problems to attend and these are : Adaptation Goal attainment Integration Latency or Pattern-Maintenance ADAPTATION GOAL ATTAINMENT Economy INTEGRATION Cultural System Political System LATENCY Family, Education, Religion These primary functional problems are called AGIL paradigm. It is a sociological scheme created by American sociologist Talcott Parsons in 1950s. It is a systematic depiction of certain societal functions, which every society must meet to be able to maintain stable social life. Adaptation In order to survive or maintain equilibrium with respect to it’s environment, any system must to some degree adapt to the environment. The function of adaptation is to produce and allocate resources among the member of the society. Food and shelter must be provided to meet the physical needs of members. The economy is the institution primarily concerned with this function. Economy for its maintenance, division of labor for better production of goods and effective services, and role differentiation for job opportunity is essential. Goal Attainment A social system has to maximize the capacity of the society to attain it’s own goal. It is the responsibility of political system to set and achieve the goal of it’s respective societies. Example: Giving free education National security Integration Every social system has one or more goals to be attained through cooperative effort. When individual’s goal and social goal are complementary to each other and not contradictory that is called integration. The function of integration is bringing all the individual together in the society. Latency or Pattern-maintenance It refers to the ‘maintenance of the basic pattern of values, institutionalized in the society’. In absence of appropriate effort in this direction maintenance and continuity of social order is not possible. Institutions that perform this function includes the family, the educational system and religion.