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ASA Case Evaluation

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ASA Case Evaluation – Iceland Rang-tan Advertisement
Christmas-themed advertisements and campaigns are fundamental to the success of
businesses over the Christmas period, and can have both short-term and long-term effects
in sales and profits if executed correctly. Iceland’s deforestation-focused advertisement for
Christmas 2018 was originally created by Greenpeace and featured a cartoon orangutan
who had fled the destruction of the rainforest to hide in a child’s bedroom. Iceland
attempted to use their Christmas campaign to highlight the destructive nature the
production of palm oil has on the environment. Iceland’s managing director Richard Walker
stated: “This year we were keen to do something different with our much-anticipated
Christmas advert. The culmination of our palm oil project is offering our customers the
choice of an orangutan friendly Christmas, and we wanted to reflect this in our advertising”
(Edie, 2018).
The advert was criticised by Clearcast for not complying with ‘political rules’ and was
considered to defy the Broadcasting Committee of Advertising Practice code. “Clearcast and
the broadcasters have to date been unable to clear this Iceland ad because we are
concerned that it doesn’t comply with the political rules of the BCAP code. The creative
submitted to us is linked to another organisation (referring to Greenpeace) who have not
yet been able to demonstrate compliance in this area” (Clearcast, 2018). The
Communications Act 2003 prohibits political advertising. According to the Advertising
Standards Authority, an advertisement contravenes the prohibition on political advertising if
it is ‘inserted by or on behalf of a body whose objects are wholly or mainly of a political
nature’. Therefore, through the video being initially produced by Greenpeace, it was
deemed ‘political’, Clearcast ruled that the advertisement could not be shown on television
as a result of this, but there was no ruling on whether the advertisement could not be
distributed online.
A spokesperson for Iceland stated, “it was never Iceland’s intention to use its Christmas
advert to support a political campaign – rather to raise awareness and solidify our position
on not using palm oil in food production” (The Guardian, 2018). Iceland’s managing director
Richard Walker also responded to the ruling to remove their advertisement, “It has a very
strong environmental message, but it’s not a political ad,” Mr. Walker said, emphasising
that the sole purpose of the advert was to raise awareness of deforestation, not to
condemn palm oil specifically. He also stated, “Whilst our advert sadly never made it to TV
screens, we are hopeful that consumers will take to social media to view the film, which
raises awareness of an important global issue” (Independent, 2018)
The verdict to remove the advertisement was met with uproar on social media and
an online petition was created whereby almost 700,000 signatures, including endorsement
of celebrities Stephen Fry and James Corden, were collected in protest of the decision.
Despite being banned from distributing the advertisement on television, Iceland still
uploaded the video to social media platforms and acquired 65 million views and almost
100,000 ‘thumbs up’ positive responses, on the video sharing service YouTube. The
comments section below the video is also flooded with positive reactions to the video in
support of Iceland and against the decision to ban the video from broadcasting, for instance,
‘Banned not because it’s political but because it tells the truth’ and ‘Iceland, the author and
the production team ought to be commended for highlighting the plight of these animals’.
In regards to recommendations for future advertising Iceland should be more vigilant in the
future and should create their advertisements in line with the BCAP code if they wish to
distribute their advertisements via broadcasting on television. In order for the
advertisement to be considered suitable for broadcasting they should refrain from
collaborating with organisations such as Greenpeace that are considered to be ‘political’ in
nature.
On the contrary, despite the ban the advertisement still received more than 700 pieces of
media coverage, therefore television advertising may not be as necessary as once thought.
Over the week subsequent to the announcement of the ban Iceland’s consideration
amongst consumers in the supermarket sector massively increased from 5.9 points to a
score of 21.6, the highest increase of any retailer on YouGov Brand Index. This result further
reinforces if a campaign gains enough traction and support online it can still have a positive
effect on a business without the need for television advertising.
Link to Iceland Rang-tan Advertisement - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JdpspllWI2o
References:
07 Political and Controversial Matters. Retrieved 8 April 2020, from
https://www.asa.org.uk/type/broadcast/code_section/07.html
Barr, S. (2018). The UK’s favourite Christmas adverts have been revealed. Retrieved 8 April
2020, from https://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/christmas/iceland-christmasadvert-banned-palm-oil-sainsburys-aldi-mcdonalds-boots-a8695856.html
Butler, S., & Sweney, M. (2018). Iceland's Christmas TV advert rejected for being political.
Retrieved 18 March 2020, from
https://www.theguardian.com/media/2018/nov/09/iceland-christmas-tv-ad-bannedpolitical-greenpeace-orangutan
Clearcast (2018). Our response to the Iceland Ad Petition. Retrieved 18 March 2020, from
https://www.clearcast.co.uk/uncategorized/our-response-to-the-iceland-ad-petition/
Hickman, A. (2018). Iceland's 'Rang-tan' delivers 65m views plus sales and consideration lift.
Retrieved 8 April 2020, from https://www.campaignlive.co.uk/article/icelands-rangtan-delivers-65m-views-plus-sales-consideration-lift/1520132
Mace, M. (2018). Why Iceland's deforestation-focused Christmas advert won't be on TV this
year. Retrieved 23 March 2020, from https://www.edie.net/news/7/Why-Iceland-sdeforestation-focused-Christmas-advert-won-t-be-on-TV-this-year-palm-oil/
Magra, I. (2018). U.K. Ad Highlighting Plight of Orangutans Is Deemed Too ‘Political’ to Air.
Retrieved 8 April 2020, from
https://www.nytimes.com/2018/11/14/world/europe/palm-oil-ad-uk-iceland.html
Qureshi, T. (2018). Why (On Earth) Was The Iceland Rang-Tan Advert Banned?. Retrieved 8
April 2020, from https://tqlegal.co.uk/blog/iceland-rang-tan-advert-banned/
Sommerlad, J. (2018). Iceland Christmas advert 'ban' a 'misunderstanding', says advisory
body. Retrieved 19 March 2020, from https://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/homenews/iceland-christmas-advert-banned-orangutan-latest-palm-oil-londonenvironment-indonesia-a8633861.html
Copywriting Evaluation – Neoglory Jewellery
Neoglory Jewellery, a major domestic Chinese brand, distributed a brochure detailing their
products and services. Through this report an evaluation of the copywriting within the
brochure will be analysed and recommendations will be suggested of how to more
effectively advertise the company.
The front cover of the brochure is clear and concise with the company name and title of the
brochure featured, this aids in building context for the reader of what exactly is being
advertised. The slogan Neoglory employs in their advertising, ‘Finding more beautiful
jewellery just in brilliant Neoglory’, is wordy and complex and should be shortened in order
to remain memorable to the reader. The purpose of a slogan is to deliver a clear and
focused message to the consumer of what exactly the company is offering. Research
(Eighmey & McCord, 1998) suggests that in order for information to be interpreted more
efficiently the message delivered to the reader must be clear and concise. The cognitive cost
model (Todd & Benbasat) also suggests that consumers have limited cognitive abilities
which may affect their responses to stimuli, such as slogans. Therefore, if the cognitive load
to understand the slogan increases the likeability of the slogan tends to decline (Payne
1982). Therefore, I would recommend a slogan such as, ‘Neoglory. Glorious Jewellery For
Every Occasion’, as this slogan clearly demonstrates what the company is offering to the
consumer without appearing wordy or overcomplicated. This slogan can be employed to
give Neoglory a memorable expression over an extended period of time through a variety of
marketing communication messages (Wells et al, 2003).
The inside pages of the brochure struggle to maintain attention through being cluttered
with spelling and grammatical errors, which will cause the reader to misinterpret what the
company offers and cause the reader to perceive Neoglory to be unprofessional. The use of
bullet points is also flawed and further reinforces the unprofessional nature of the
brochure. The first bullet point states, ‘Leading enterprise of China jewel industry, which is
steering the Chinese jewel fashion tides’, this statement is illogical and does not make
grammatical sense. The production of jewels is also described within the brochure to be
‘most perfect’, the use of language used is invalid and doesn’t inspire the reader.
I would recommend the use of subheadings to be employed in order to create a sense of
movement so that the readers eye is carried progressively through the brochure, therefore,
making the text more interesting and readable while emphasising the selling points that
Neoglory have to offer (Jefkins & Yadin, 2000). Sub-headings such as ‘The Leading Enterprise
of China’s Jewel Industry’, ‘Driving Innovation and Quality with Partnerships’ and ‘Leading
Environmental Change’, will clearly demonstrate and emphasise Neoglory’s key selling
points to the reader. A strong statement such as, ‘Partnering with illustrious brands such as
Swarovski has enabled us to create beautiful jewellery of the highest quality’, could be used
in order to effectively highlighting the partnership with Swarovski as this is a key selling
point that consumers would be greatly interested in. The employment of descriptive
language should also be implemented, through words such as classic, alluring, lustrous,
divine, in order to inspire emotions such as love and happiness which are commonly
associated when purchasing jewellery. Research has found that generating an emotional
response in consumers results in more positive reactions (Goldberg and Gorn, 1987) and
higher levels of recall (Choi and Thorson, 1983).
Mere-exposure effect theory suggests that there is a positive relationship between
repetition and perceived quality (Zajonc, 1968). Therefore, repeating words, such as ‘high
quality’ and ‘value’, throughout the body of text within the brochure will aid in encouraging
the reader to believe that Neoglory is a reliable company producing high-quality products.
Scarcity is also profound for encouraging conversion and buying behaviour. Implementing a
call to action, such as ‘Be Quick. Shop Now’ followed by a website link, aids in inciting a
sense of urgency and making the products appear valuable, thus encouraging consumers to
purchase quickly before they potentially miss out. Perceived value of a product is regarded
as the primary driver of purchase intentions and behaviour (Zeithaml 1988).
Through the recommendations suggested within this evaluation, the company and the
benefits offered to the customer will be communicated more effectively whilst delivering a
distinctive message on how Neoglory differentiates to its competitors. In comparison to the
previous copy, key selling points should be clearly defined and highlighted in order to cater
towards the customer and increase the attractiveness of the brand to the consumer
directly, thus further encouraging buying behaviours.
References:
Caples, J., & Hahn, F. (1998). Tested Advertising Methods (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Prentice
Hall.
Choi, Y., & Thorson, E. (1983). Memory for Factual, Emotional and Balanced Ads under Two
Instructional Sets.
Eighmey, J., & McCord, L. (1998). Adding Value in the Information Age: Uses and Gratifications of
Sites on the World Wide Web. Journal Of Business Research, 41(3), 187-194. doi:
10.1016/s0148-2963(97)00061-1
Eisend, M. (2008). Explaining The Impact Of Scarcity Appeals In Advertising: The Mediating Role of
Perceptions of Susceptibility. Journal Of Advertising, 37(3), 33-40. doi: 10.2753/joa00913367370303
Goldberg, M., & Gorn, G. (1987). Happy and Sad TV Programs: How They Affect Reactions to
Commercials. Journal Of Consumer Research, 14(3), 387-403. doi: 10.1086/209122
Jefkins, F., & Yadin, D. (2000). Advertising. Harlow: Pearson Education.
Payne, J. (1982). Contingent Decision Behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 92(2), 382-402. doi:
10.1037/0033-2909.92.2.382
Todd, P., & Benbasat, I. (1992). The Use of Information in Decision Making: An Experimental
Investigation of the Impact of Computer-Based Decision Aids. MIS Quarterly, 16(3), 373-393.
doi: 10.2307/249534
Wells, W., Burnett, J., & Moriarty, S. (2003). Advertising: Principles and Practice (6th ed.). Upper
Saddle River: Prentice Hall.
Zajonc, R. (1980). Feeling and thinking: Preferences need no inferences. American
Psychologist, 35(2), 151-175. doi: 10.1037/0003-066x.35.2.151
Website – ikea.co.uk
IKEA, the world’s largest home furnishing retailer, has managed to adopt online technology
and social media through their effective digital marketing strategy. Despite originating from
Sweden, they have accumulated 433 operational stores across the world (as of 2019) and
have utilised online technology through their website and social media pages to further
increase their customer reach.
In order to attract consumers through the Internet, businesses need to make their website
as uncomplicated and appealing to use as possible (Taylor and England, 2006). In regards to
IKEA’s website, the layout is simple, responsive and easy to navigate, this aids in minimising
inconvenience and allows users to easily find what they are looking for. Karayani and Baltas
(2003) stated that the use of search function will improve the website user ability to
navigate the page and quickly identify the needed information, IKEA has implemented a
search function which is clear and visible on the homepage and make navigation more
efficient for users. With a bounce rate of 34.27% and over 167 million website visits, it is
clear that IKEA has effectively managed to build traffic and retain their customers through
their website.
The website is also optimised for mobile and tablet usage which maximises the available
audience and also aids in minimising user bounce rates. There is a clear visual hierarchy with
the usage of bold colours and a clear information hierarchy with the usage of bold fonts, this
contrast draws the users eyes to the key text and images on the website. The homepage is
image-centric, this grabs the users attention and allows IKEA to showcase their products,
with 67% of consumers stating that the quality of a product image is “very important” in
selecting and purchasing a product on e-commerce websites (MDG Advertising), the use of
images on the website is crucial. The homepage also features sliding images of IKEA’s
products in their customers homes, which have been submitted by their customers, this
allows IKEA to convey and build reliability and trust with their customers.
The homepage also encourages users to ‘Join the IKEA Family’ through the statement ‘Get
exclusive offers, inspiration, and lots more to help bring your ideas to life. All for free’, this
offers users an incentive in order to promote customer loyalty. The use of the word ‘family’
in their loyalty scheme is also representative of how IKEA values their customers and
intends to form a symbiotic relationship with their customers. IKEA also uses their website
to reinforce their online presence on other online platforms, such as Facebook, Twitter,
Pinterest, Instagram and YouTube, through having their links to their profile accessible on
the website.
‘Children need sleep so that the brain and body can grow and recover. That’s why the best
thing you can do for your child is to create the conditions for good and comfortable sleeping
habits’. This statement below a duvet set on the website sells the product to the consumer
by conveying the physical and emotional benefits of the product to the consumer directly
through the use of ‘you’ and ‘your child’, these key words connect with the consumer and
encourage purchase intention. Reviews are also offered below the product details, where
customers are encouraged to rate the product on its value for money, product quality and
appearance, this increases IKEA’s reliability and credibility with their customers and builds
trust as they are transparent about any faults in their products. Reviews can act as a form of
word of mouth marketing, and are a useful and effective signal of product reputation
(Amblee and Bui, 2011). Customer reviews also act as social proof, with 90% of consumers
reading online reviews before they make a purchase (Invesp), customers feel as though they
can trust a company if other customers also have purchased from the company. Below each
product there is also a section of ‘others also viewed’, this encourages purchases and aids
customers in their decision process through showing similar or corresponding products, this
could also be considered to be a form of social proof.
According to the 7 C’s of Customer Interface (Rayport and Jaworski, 2004), IKEA has
effectively communicated their context and content to their customers through their
creative but simple layout and design. IKEA has also effectively managed communication on
their website through having a virtual assistant present and helpline numbers readily
available for their customers. Furthermore, through the presence of reviews, user to user
communication is also available and customization is enabled through the websites function
to show similar products to those that the user has originally searched for. In addition, IKEA
also encourages connection through their social media platforms being clearly visible on the
website.
In conclusion, I believe that IKEA has an effective digital marketing strategy and has utilised
their online presence to extend their reach and build their customer base successfully. I
would recommend incorporating more call to actions across the website as I believe this will
encourage customer loyalty and buying behaviour. In addition, through 51% of traffic to the
website is via search engines, such as Google, search engine optimisation should be utilised
in order to encourage visits as they appear 5th when the keyword ‘furniture’ is searched on
Google.
Link to website: www.ikea.com
References:
(2020). Retrieved 2 May 2020, from https://www.similarweb.com/website/ikea.com#search
Amblee, N., & Bui, T. (2011). Harnessing the Influence of Social Proof in Online Shopping:
The Effect of Electronic Word of Mouth on Sales of Digital Microproducts. International
Journal Of Electronic Commerce, 16(2), 91-114. doi: 10.2753/jec1086-4415160205
Gigante, M. (2020). It’s All About the Images [Infographic]. Retrieved 20 May 2020, from
https://www.mdgadvertising.com/marketing-insights/infographics/its-all-about-theimages-infographic/
Karayanni, D., & Baltas, G. (2003). Web site characteristics and business performance: some
evidence from international business‐to‐business organizations. Marketing Intelligence
& Planning, 21(2), 105-114. doi: 10.1108/02634500310465416
Rayport, J., & Jaworski, B. (2004). Introduction to e-commerce. New York: McGraw-Hill Irwin
Saleh, K. (2020). The Importance Of Online Customer Reviews [Infographic]. Retrieved 2
May 2020, from https://www.invespcro.com/blog/the-importance-of-online-customerreviews-infographic/
Shop for Furniture, Home Accessories & More. Retrieved 2 May 2020, from
https://www.ikea.com/gb/en/
Taylor, M., & England, D. (2006). Internet marketing: web site navigational design
issues. Marketing Intelligence & Planning, 24(1), 77-85. doi:
10.1108/02634500610641570
Print Advert Evaluation – Patagonia Don’t Buy This Jacket Campaign
Patagonia
Patagonia’s mission statement is ‘Build the best product, cause no unnecessary harm, use
business to inspire and implement solutions to the environmental crisis’, therefore, their
environmental awareness should be conveyed to their customers through their advertising.
At Patagonia, transparency is highly valued and the primary aim of this campaign was to
address the issue of consumerism and inspire solutions to the environmental crisis that fastfashion is causing, especially in regards to Black Friday. It would appear hypocritical to
Patagonia’s customers if they were to advocate for environmental change, without first
encouraging their customers to think before they buy and try to reduce their consumption.
The Campaign
The bold statement ‘Don’t Buy This Jacket’ will catch the eye of consumers and will make
them ponder as to why Patagonia is encouraging them not to purchase their products.
Below the bold statement and image, the effect that fast fashion has on the environment
and how Patagonia is aiming to reduce this damage through their Common Threads
Initiative is detailed. Although, this strategy could also prove successful in inspiring sales,
through reactance theory. The threat of freedom through telling consumers they should not
purchase the jacket results in an increase of attractiveness of the forbidden act and an
increase in motivation to engage in purchasing behaviour (Brehm, 1966). Desire for the
jacket has been subconsciously created within the consumer through creating a barrier and
a sense of exclusivity in purchasing the jacket.
Target Audience
Patagonia has targeted its products towards environmentally conscious and upscale
customers as these individuals may resonate with Patagonia’s mission statement and brand
values. Individuals within this target market are considered to appreciate purchasing
products from an environmentally-aware and environmentally-friendly company. Therefore,
it is important to convey the environmental-friendly nature of the company through any
promotional activities.
What Patagonia is looking to achieve through this campaign?
Consumers’ attitude toward the advertisement has a direct influence on consumers’
attitude towards the brand (Sadeghi et al, 2015). Through this campaign, Patagonia is
looking to appeal to their consumers rational beliefs and accomplish this through the
informative nature of the advertisement. Rizwan et al (2013) demonstrated that rational
advertising appeal has more influence on the positive consumers’ attitude towards an
advertisement than emotional appeal, therefore it is more advantageous to employ rational
appeal advertising in order to influence consumers to view Patagonia in a positive light.
Furthermore, rational appeal advertising has been found to reduce consumers’ doubts and
uncertainty about products (Albers-Miller and Stafford, 1999).
The primary aim of this campaign is to encourage consumers to think before they buy and
try to reduce their consumption in regards to their Black Friday shopping, Patagonia is
attempting to appeal to consumers rational thinking and make them more aware of the
damage their individual shopping habits have on the environment, this is shown through the
statement ‘ Don’t buy what you don’t need. Think twice before you buy anything’ within the
advertisement.
‘Because Patagonia wants to be in business for a good long time – we want to do the
opposite of every other business today. We ask you to buy less and reflect before you spend
a dime on this jacket or anything else’. Through this statement within the advertisement,
Patagonia is also attempting to highlight itself as a company who is environmentally aware,
and encourage consumers to purchase their products instead of their competitors as the
bold statement and nature of the advertisement has not been attempted by any of
Patagonia’s competitors. Patagonia is attempting to differentiate itself from its competitors
through this campaign and reassure their environmentally conscious customers that they do
not need to be unsure about purchasing their products.
Customer Response
‘Don’t Buy This Jacket’ is a daring call to action featured within the advertisement, that
encourages consumers not to purchase Patagonia’s products and encourages customers to
think about the damage fashion has on the environment before they purchase more
products. Patagonia hopes that this advertisement will reduce buying behaviour in not only
their consumers but consumers of other companies also. In addition, Patagonia’s Common
Threads Initiative is highlighted and repeated, within the advertisement, in order to increase
customer retention of this project. The advertisement concludes with the call to actions ‘Go
to patagonia.com/CommonThreads’ and ‘Take the Common Threads Initiative pledge, and
join us –‘, these statements encourage consumer action outside of the advertisement and
encourage consumers to join Patagonia in their initiative to make fashion more
environmentally friendly.
Medium
The advertisement will reach consumers through being distributed via newspapers, such as
New York Times. New York Times was chosen through their target audience being similar to
that of Patagonia’s, therefore, allowing Patagonia to reach their target audience directly.
New York Times also has a wide reach with 9.32 million daily readers, of which 38% are high
income earners, therefore the advertisement will reach consumers of whom can afford
Patagonia’s upscale outdoor clothing. With the informative nature of the advertisement, it
also makes sense to distribute the advertisement through an informative medium such as a
newspaper.
References:
Albers‐Miller, N., & Royne Stafford, M. (1999). An international analysis of emotional and
rational appeals in services vs goods advertising. Journal Of Consumer Marketing, 16(1),
42-57. doi: 10.1108/07363769910250769
Brehm, J. (1966). A Theory of Psychological Reactance. New York: Academic Press.
Don't Buy This Jacket, Black Friday and the New York Times - Patagonia. (2011). Retrieved 10
May 2020, from https://www.patagonia.com/stories/dont-buy-this-jacket-black-fridayand-the-new-york-times/story-18615.html
Rizwan, M., Pirzada, S., Sohail, A., Nadeem, M., & Murid, W. (2013). The Role of Advertising
Appeals, Role of Celebrity & Expert in T.V Advertising Attitude. IOSR Journal Of Business
And Management.
Sadeghi, M., Fakharyan, M., Dadkhah, R., Khodadadian, M., Vosta, S., & Jafari, M. (2015).
Investigating the Effect of Rational and Emotional Advertising Appeals of Hamrahe Aval
Mobile Operator on Attitude towards Advertising and Brand Attitude (Case Study:
Student Users of Mobile in the Area of Tehran). International Journal Of Asian Social
Science, 5(4), 233-244. doi: 10.18488/journal.1/2015.5.4/1.4.233.244
Who Is the New York Times' Target Audience?. Retrieved 9 May 2020, from
https://www.reference.com/world-view/new-york-times-target-audiencec5e77c29eb68cef4
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