tecMATE IGNITIONMATE MANUAL Contents The manual is set out in sections (no numbered pages). 1. GENERAL DESCRIPTION & LEGEND (identifying components) 2. BEFORE OPERATING IGNITIONMATE – Power requirements 3. MAKING THE MOST OF YOUR IGNITIONMATE – operating principals & tips on how to start using IgnitionMate. 4. OPERATING INSTRUCTIONS 4-1. SPARK & HT (kV) readings, ignition coil to sparkplug 4-2. SPARK current measurement, Primary & Secondary 4-3. LOW TENSION (Vpk) readings, primary circuits 4-4. How to determine COIL VOLTAGE RESERVE 4-5. DC voltage measurements (battery & charging system) 5. IGNITION SYSTEMS - 1. The universal HT/LT/Spark current Hand-Held Ignition Tester The Hand-Held IgnitionMate Tester displays visually, with great versatility, all signals found in any ignition system in use in modern or classic vehicles, including cars and motorcycles, aeroplanes and outboard motors, lawnmowers and garden tractors, brushcutters, generators ….. The specially designed high tension (HT) pick-up caliper captures HT voltage signals and ignition current in secondary & primary of the ignition coil and exciter coil of a CDI system. Three different modes allow the user to measure all signals on any ignition system. The SPARK current mode allows the 5-1. Capacitive discharge ignition – AC-CDI (Magneto CDI) 5-2. Capacitive discharge ignition – DC-CDI (Battery CDI) 5-3. Battery Coil Ignition – Transistor, breaker points 5-4. Variations – Stick coil (coil on plug cap) & Dual output coil 6. TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURE – 6-1. How to start – tips & suggestions 6-2. Table of symptoms – Secondary (HT) side 6-3. Zooming in with SPARK current (use SPARK scale ) 6-4. HT (kV) TEST, ignition secondary circuits 7. TROUBLESHOOTING PROCEDURE – primary circuits 7-1. AC-CDI (Magneto CDI) 7-2. DC-CDI (Battery CDI) 7-3. FTI (full transistor ignition) 8. WEBSITES, PUBLICATIONS, TECMATE CONTACT & PRODUCT WARRANTY DETAILS. LEGEND 1. External battery connection 2. LT (Vpk) voltage test lead ports 3. HT (high tension-kV) port 4. LEFT LED bar display 5. RIGHT LED bar display 6. Eight scale indicators 7. SPARK/kV selector for LEFT display 8. HT (kV) polarity switch 9. HT (kV) pick-up ground. 10. Combination HT (kV) & SPARK current pick-up caliper 11. SPARK display sensitivity adjustor 12. SPARK current “zoom” 13. Vpk & kV range selector for RIGHT display 14. External 12V / NiMH battery selector & reset switch 15. Low battery indicator 16. Low Tension (Vpk) lead set 17. External power / charge cord-set 18. HT adapter mount for stick coils user to quickly zoom in on the area where fault could be, simply by detecting current flow caused by fast rising ignition pulses. Three separately calibrated HT scales (10,20,40kV) cover all possible conditions and ignition systems. Both positive and negative signals can be monitored. Three low tension (LT) scales (10,40,400Vpk) allow AC peak voltage measurements on ignition coil primary, exciter coil, pick-up coil and sensor circuitry and DC battery & charge system voltages. Simultaneous display of two signals (HT & SPARK , HT & LT, SPARK & LT) allow resolution of more complex faults, such as the cause and effect of an erratic system that result in misfiring & poor power delivery at high RPM. Performance comparison of cylinders on the same engine with calibrated SPARK current adjust and HT is made possible. An adapter allows HT measurements on integrated ‘stick’ coils. Powered by a rechargeable NiMH Internal battery pack, with external power lead supplied for recharging and optional 12V battery power. Automatic switch-off 5 minutes after cessation of input signals ensures 6 – 8 hour autonomy. A low battery light warns when to recharge to avoid erroneous readings. The IgnitionMate is delivered in a soft carry case that includes the components listed below as well as this manual and instructional DVD. 2. Before operating IgnitionMate Power requirements CAUTION! DO NOT connect the IgnitionMate to a 100V / 120V / 230V wall outlet. This could cause a FATAL electric shock to the user and will severely damage the IgnitionMate. The IgnitionMate has a rechargeable 7,2V NiMH battery pack that allows cordless operation. Autonomy is 6 – 8 hours. Recharging internal NiMH battery pack: Recharge when necessary with an external 12VDC source such as a well charged 12V battery or regulated 12Vdc power supply. If the " BATT LOW” indicator lights up the battery is flat and must be recharged. AccuMate Compact with 12Vdc powersupply selected is a suitable recharging source. Connection to a 12V lead-acid battery: Use the connection cable (#17-Sh.1) supplied. Connect the red power lead, to the positive (+) battery terminal and the black power lead to the battery negative lead. Powering the IgnitionMate from an external 12Vdc source (if the internal NiMH battery pack is flat): ATTENTION: POWERING THE IGNITIONMATE FROM THE VEHICLE’S BATTERY OR A GROUNDED DC SOURCE MAY INFLUENCE HT (Kv) AND SPARK CURRENT READINGS. FOR CONSISTENT READINGS POWER THE IGNITIONMATE FROM A CHARGED & COMPLETELY ISOLATED 12V BATTERY. WARNING! The IgnitionMate will be damaged if powered by a badly discharged vehicle battery in circuit with an activated starting / charging system, or, a charging system with a faulty regulator. Automatic shut off & reset When not actively measuring voltage signals the lgnitionMate shuts off automatically after 5 minutes to conserve battery power. To restart it, move the power switch to 12V (“0”), then to NiMH (“1”) again. Due to electromagnetic "noise" picked up by this sensitive instrument, there may be a small signal displayed (4 or 5 bars) even without input. This is normal and has negligible influence on actual readings. In case your lgnitionMate does not switch off automatically due to this "noise" signal, move the spark polarity switch to positive (+) to switch off the lgnitionMate. 3. Operating principals & making the most of your IgnitionMate The IgnitionMate measures peak voltages & current of fast rising signals in ignition systems. It is these peak voltages that are critical to normal ignition system operation. The IgnitionMate can quickly test the output of the ignition system and confirm if it is operating normally or if it should be tested further. If you are troubleshooting a poor driveability / engine power delivery complaint the IgnitionMate can help you evaluate the ignition system as a possible cause of the symptom. Some manufacturers may issue databooks with typical “peak-voltage” values that can be expected in their ignition systems. After market data books such as published by Clymer, Haynes may also provide typical ignition system values. IMPORTANT: It should not be considered, however, as essential to have all the data before one can troubleshoot ignition systems. By measuring the various signals on a few typical engines in good running condition that you normally service, you will quickly develop a “feeling” for this method. In the centre of the manual there is a typical Serive Data sheet that can be copied so that you may compile ignition data on your customers’ vehicles. This manual includes typical values that can be expected on various ignition systems. NOTE: These are typical values only. Some engines / vehicles may be different. View the IgnitionMate video (DVD may be included with the instrument) to familiarise yourself with the IgnitionMate & peak voltage test procedures or view or download an MPEG video at www.ignitionmate.com) For Honda technicians: View the Full Cycle video program “Ignition Troubleshooting – The Peak Voltage Method” (order #S163x) to familiarise yourself with the peak voltage test procedures. 4-1. Operating instructions –SPARK & 4-2. Operating instructions –SPARK HT (kV) readings, ignition coil to sparkplug current measurement, secondary & primary Measuring secondary HT (kV) voltage Clamp the pick-up jaw onto the spark plug lead near the spark plug. The spark plug lead should be clean and dry. NOTE : For models equipped with coil on plug ignition systems install the HT adapter (#18-Sh.2) between the coil and the spark plug. Connect the pick-up ground wire clip (#9) to a suitable ground point such as a metal body part. Ground clip Caliper on plug lead Switch on the IgnitionMate (#14). Select 40kV with the Vpk & kV range selector (#13) for RIGHT display. Crank the engine, and if it will start, set it to an idle speed. Determine the polarity of the signal by alternatively selecting + and – on the HT polarity switch (#8). The highest reading TIP: A single coil firing only one plug is usually – (negative). Dual coils with a single primary winding firing two sparkplugs simultaneously (on the same cylinder) will have a positive and negative output. You may now select a kV scale that is more appropriate for the signal being displayed. (10, 20kV). REMARK: As the HT (kV) voltage signals collected by the caliper are derived from magnetic fields around the sparkplug cable and coil, voltage signals may vary slightly from cylinder to cylinder due to influence by adjacent sparkplug cables and other magnetic components. When comparing signals between cylinders it is essential that the caliper is placed in the same position on every cylinder’s sparkplug lead and as far away from other cables & magnetic components as possible. For example, place it where the cable enters the sparkplug cap and away from the coil. Simultaneous measurement of secondary SPARK current & HT (kV) voltage With SPARK selected for LEFT & kV for the RIGHT, current and HT (kV) voltage may be monitored simultaneously. The SPARK scale indicates actual current flow as well as the stability of ‘spark’ across the sparkplug gap that ignites the fuel. A stable SPARK & good HT (kV) signal indicate a good system. A misfire will indicate as a sudden reduction in SPARK signal. Unstable SPARK current may indicate a lean or varying fuel/air mixture or poor coil operation. On multi-cylinder engines, be sure to compare spark currents & voltages of similar polarity to each other. If they are not fairly similar check the spark plugs and their gap settings. If these are O.K., and the difference in readings between cylinders of like polarity remains significant, there may be a weakness elsewhere in the ignition system. This may affect the displayed Adjusting SPARK current scale with theTest ZOOM selector & Check other signal (a higher or false signal may START: A components be displayed). sensitivity knob B : go to section 6-4 / 6-5 / 6-6 Reading displayedSensitivity Replace ignition coil & start HT test again knob Note firing voltage (Vs) at: Cranking speed Idle speed Mid & high speed & acceleration (see note 2) ZOOM selector Unstable Unstable stable at Replace all speeds sparkplug, check HT cable & cap & To start troubleshooting Set ZOOM note plug firing Check selector to lowunstable (left position) andcoil Very Stable voltage again primary voltage sensitivity/ intermittent knob to1. No/unstable Too • too small plug gap current To measure / compare current between Remove sparkplug Low • fouled plug cylinders - Set the sensitivity knob to 10 cap &: note (open • HT lead insulation Too Where primary circuitry current could circuit) voltage and adjust thelow ZOOM switch until (Vo) a defect (spark to ground) be measured: Calculate reserve High signal is displayed. Now adjust the • Too rich mi•ture Vo Vs = Vr in Ignition•coil Too primary winding (input) sensitivity knob untilvoltage the signal displays low compression (section 4-4) current • wires to/from ignition the centre. Read off the value indicated Too advancedthe timing by the knob pointer and note the position of the ZOOM selector. • istoo big plug gap NOTE: SPARK current influenced by Too high • HT When lead broken or engine speed, fuel mi•ture. loose comparing signals between cylinders • areMi•ture too lean ensure the conditions identical. fuel or carburettor problem or air leak Measuring primary current Any fast rising MisfireAC current in a primary ignition circuit part of the charge sparkplug at highor ACRemove cap &: noteand (open circuit (CDI) can be detected speed circuit)current voltagescale. (Vo) displayed on the SPARK control module (ICM) to ignition coil. E•citer or charge coil current - winding is usually found in the stator measure current on the wire(s) to/from the ICM. ChargingRepair / lighting coil from stator to problem regulator and measure start HT current between testthe again the coil and diode bridge rectifier or voltage regulator. LowNOTE: Pulse coil / sensor B :Current go to is usually too low for reliablesection 6-4 Check other measurement. / 6-5 / 6-6 components Calculate reserve OK voltage Vo Vs = Vr Clamp the caliper jaw onto the Check or replace (section 4-4)cable of the circuit you want to measure. sparkplug, cap or HT lead, check firing voltage again & stable DO NOTNormal connect the ground clip Ignition system at all speeds when measuring primary OK,current. verify timing. 4-3. Operating instructions –Low Tension (Vpk) readings - primary circuitry Measuring Low Tension (Vpk) signals These are all the other signals found at and before the primary side of the ignition coil. They should only be checked when some abnormality is found in the high voltage side. See below a typical waveform at the ignition coil primary during cranking / idling, as seen on an oscilloscope. Peak Volts (Vpk) There are three scales for Vpk & DC readings: 10Vpk-typically for pick up coils or sensor circuitry and battery voltage during cranking. 40Vpk-for pick up coil circuitry, measurement of DC voltages in ignition & charging circuitry. 400Vpk- ignition coil primary & exciter coil. NOTE: The low tension (Vpk) scales of the IgnitionMate are polarity sensitive. If no reading is seen at first, swap the leads around. 4-4. Operating instructions – How to determine coil voltage reserve Measuring Voltage Reserve The voltage (or ignition) reserve is the extra voltage the coil can produce to fire a worn spark plug (with an increased gap) or fire the spark plug under full load at high rpm. The voltage (or ignition) reserve is determined by measuring the difference between the voltage the coil is able to deliver when not connected to the plug and the firing voltage under normal running conditions. In general, the greater the reserve the better. Where to measure? Vo Average Volts For ignition systems the peak voltage values are important. The IgnitionMate reads the highest voltage points of any voltage waveform. In the case of direct current (DC) signals, the IgnitionMate reads DC voltage on Vpk scales automatically. To effectively troubleshoot a fault and narrow down the cause, take voltage (Vpk) readings at the extremities of the circuit and compare. For example, to determine if an ignition coil is receiving the correct signal from the ICM, measure as close as possible to the ICM then at the ignition coil primary connector pins and compare the readings. They should be very similar. In section 5 various ignition systems are covered plus suggestions how to use the IgnitionMate to troubleshoot. 35kV Vr Vs 12kV How to measure? Vo = Open circuit voltage Vs = Spark voltage Vr = Reserve voltage Connect the black and red test leads to the connectors of the same colour at the top of the IgnitionMate (# 2). Push either the alligator clips or the back probes onto the ends of the leads. Switch on the IgnitionMate (#14). Select the appropriate scale with the selector knob (#13) & read the voltage displayed. Connect the high voltage pick-up to the top of the IgnitionMate, making sure the connection is secure by tightening the threaded collar nut. Clamp the pick-up jaw onto the spark plug lead near the spark plug. The spark Vr = Vo – Vs Measuring voltage reserve plug lead should be clean and dry. The clamp jaw must close completely around the spark plug lead. NOTE : For models equipped with coil on plug ignition systems install the accessory test lead between the coil and the spark plug. Position the pick-up away from other coil wires to prevent picking up their voltage signals. Connect the pick-up ground wire clip to the engine. Disconnect the spark plug cap from the spark plug and position it away from any metal parts. Switch on the IgnitionMate. Select the 40kV scale. NOTE : Ignition coils with two spark leads will have one negative and one positive polarity spark. See section 4-1 to determine spark polarity. WARNING : Never rev the engine when testing coil output voltage. This test is hard on the coil and revving the engine can damage the coil during this test. Crank the engine, and if it will start (multi cylinder engine), set it to an idle speed. Note the voltage reading (Vo). Switch off the engine and re-attach the sparkplug cap. Crank the engine, and if it will start, set it to an idle speed. Record the voltage reading (Vs) and determine the reserve voltage (Vr). TIPS: If the Vo registers at the top of the 40kV scale (i.e. 40kV or more) the coil power is usually OK. Factors that influence Vs & therefore Vr: Vs higher, Vr lower - lean fuel mixture. – Vs lower, Vr higher - too small sparkplug gap, rich fuel mixture, low compression 4-5. Operating instructions – DC measurements (battery & charging system) In electric start vehicles the battery & charging system form part of ignition system operation. A poor battery will cause poor ignition performance. The Vpk (Volts Peak) scales can be used to measure DC voltages of the lighting, battery & charging system. How to measure? Connect the black and red test leads to the connectors of the same colour at the top of the IgnitionMate (# 2). Push either the alligator clips or the back probes onto the ends of the leads. Attach the black lead to ground or negative pole of the battery. Attach the red lead to the positive pole of the battery. Switch on the IgnitionMate (#14). Select the appropriate scale with the selector knob (#13) & read the voltage displayed. Battery & charging system tests Measuring battery voltage :Select the 40Vpk scale, connect the black test lead to the battery negative and red test lead to battery positive. Switch on the IgnitionMate. A reading of: 11V or less – indicates a discharged battery. Charge first before continuing with troubleshooting. 12V to 13V – indicates a charged battery. Performing a crank test: To determine if the battery is able to deliver sufficient power during cranking without adversely affecting ignition performance, select the 10Vpk scale. Crank the engine. The reading should not drop below 10V during cranking. If it does then the battery is not charged sufficiently or it cannot deliver the required cranking power and may need to be replaced. Checking the charging system: Select the 40Vpk scale and connect the leads to the battery. Start the vehicle and allow the engine to warm up. Adjust and hold the engine speed above 2000rpm. Check the voltage reading. It should measure 14 or 15V. A lower voltage may indicate an under performing charging system that is not recharging your battery sufficiently. A higher voltage points to a fault in the charging system that may cause damage to the vehicle electrical system and overcharge the battery. 5-1. Ignition Systems – Capacitive Discharge Ignition (CDI) : AC-CDI Mainly found in mid- and small size motorcycles, outboards and stationary engines. A condenser (capacitor) is charged at 300 – 400V and discharged through the primary winding of the ignition coil. At that time a high voltage is generated at the secondary side. The AC-CDI (or magneto CDI) condenser is charged by an exciter coil (charge coil). NOTE: Some motorcycles (enduro etc.) have a battery for electric start purposes, but the ignition system is not dependent on the battery for power. The condenser, trigger circuit, diode and discharge switch (SCR / thyristor) are usually combined into one single unit called the Ignition Control Module (ICM) or CDI control module. AC-CDI (Magneto CDI) : simplified layout The main components are shown together with measurement positions for the IgnitionMate. kV = 10, 20, 40kV scales SPARK = SPARK current scale Vpk = 10, 40, 400 Vpk scales Typical readings Secondary kV = at least 4kV when cranking & 10 to 16kV when running normally Secondary & primary SPARK current = varies. A consistent & stable current is important. Primary coil voltage = 100Vpk when cranking, 150 to 300Vpk when running Pulse coil / sensor voltage = 0,7Vpk to 5Vpk during cranking & low RPM, growing to 20 – 30V at high RPM. Exciter / Charge coil = 100Vpk when cranking, 150 to 300Vpk when running NOTE: Some ignition systems may have lower exciter coil voltages. E.G. Honda CR models have lower exciter coil voltages CR80 CR125 CR250 CR500 52 V 50V 33V Don’t attach ground clip for SPARK current Exciter SPARK current EXCITER / CHARGE COIL ICM Primary SPARK current IGNITION COIL Secondary kV & SPARK current Attach caliper ground clip to measure kV Vpk Trigger circuit PULSE COIL / SENSOR Vpk Don’t attach ground clip for SPARK current Primary Vpk SPARK PLUG 5-2. Ignition Systems – Capacitive Discharge Ignition (CDI) : DC-CDI Mainly found in mid- and small size electric start motorcycles, outboards and stationary engines. A condenser (capacitor) is charged at 300 – 400V and discharged through the primary winding of the ignition coil. At that time a high voltage is generated at the secondary side. In a DC-CDI (battery CDI) system the condenser is charged by a static converter with power supplied by the battery. The condenser, trigger circuit, converter and discharge switch (SCR / thyristor) are usually combined into one single unit called the Ignition Control Module (ICM) or CDI control module. DC-CDI (Battery CDI) : simplified layout The main components are shown together with measurement positions for the IgnitionMate. kV = 10, 20, 40kV scales SPARK = SPARK current scale Vpk = 10, 40, 400 Vpk scales Typical readings Secondary kV = at least 4kV when cranking & 10 to 16kV when running normally Secondary & primary SPARK current = varies. A consistent & stable current is important. Primary coil voltage = 100Vpk when cranking, 150 to 300Vpk when running Pulse coil / sensor voltage = 0,7Vpk to 5Vpk during cranking & low RPM, growing to 20 – 30V at high RPM. Battery voltage = not less than 10V when cranking, 13 to 14,5V when running. Vpk ICM Primary SPARK current IGNITION COIL Static converter circuit Secondary kV & SPARK current Attach caliper ground clip to measure kV BATTERY Trigger circuit Don’t attach ground clip for SPARK current 5-3. Ignition Systems – Battery Coil ignition : transistor, breaker points The battery coil ignition is used where powerful batteries are available : cars, mid to large sized motorcycles and marine engines. The power of the battery is used to generate a high voltage in the ignition coil each time the primary coil current is interrupted. Variations are : a) Breaker point (& condenser) ignition where the switch is opened mechanically. In multi-cylinder vehicles the ‘points’ are usually incorporated in the distributor. In modern cars the distributor ‘points’ have been replaced by transistor control. b) Transistor controlled ignition : The ignition control module incorporates a trigger circuit and transistor switch that is opened & closed electronically. Battery power is supplied to the positive input of the ignition coil whilst the negative input is switched to ground via the transistor. Current flows from the battery to ground creating a magnetic field in the ignition coil. The pulse sensor will send the signal to switch the transistor off, current flow is interrupted and the collapsing magnetic field generates a high reverse voltage (100 to 300V) across the primary winding. This voltage is magnified in the secondary winding (4 to 20kV) resulting in the spark across the plug electrodes. Transistorized ignition: simplified layout The main components are shown together with measurement positions for the IgnitionMate. (kV = 10, 20, 40kV scales; SPARK = SPARK current scale; Vpk = 10, 40, 400 Vpk scales). NOTE: In multi-cylinder powersport engines each cylinder will have an ignition coil and transistor control unit. On some modern fuel injected vehicles ignition and fuel injection control are incorporated in a single control module. Typical readings Secondary kV = at least 4kV when cranking & 10 to 16kV when running normally Secondary & primary SPARK current = A consistent & stable current is important. Primary coil voltage = 100Vpk when cranking, 200 to 300Vpk when running Pulse coil / sensor voltage = 0,7Vpk to 5Vpk during cranking & low RPM, growing to 20 – 30V at high RPM. Battery voltage = not less than 10V when cranking, 13 to 14,5V when running. Vpk SPARK PLUG IGNITION COIL PULSE COIL / SENSOR Vpk Primary Vpk ICM BATTERY Trigger circuit Secondary kV & SPARK current Attach caliper ground clip to measure kV Primary Vpk SPARK PLUG PULSE COIL / SENSOR Vpk Don’t attach ground clip for SPARK current Primary SPARK current 6-1. Troubleshooting Procedure – How to start 5-4. Ignition Systems –Variations Stick coil (coil on plug cap) & Dual output coil Stick coil / Ignition Coil integrated with sparkplug cap The ignition coil is in the sparkplug cap, supplying power directly to the plug and eliminating the sparkplug cable. To measure secondary High tension voltage, separate the stickcoil from the plug and insert a stickcoil adapter mount (Section 1 #18) between the plug and stickcoil. Fit the IgnitionMate caliper over the stickcoil adapter mount cable for High Tension (kV) &SPARK current measurements. Caliper fitted over stickcoil adapter Preparation 1. 2. 3 stickcoil adapters fitted to a 4 in line motorcycle engine 3. Dual output coil (i.e. coil with two spark plugs) A dual output coil fires two spark plugs simultaneously. Some classic in-line 4 cylinder motorcycle engines are fitted with 2 dual coils. On modern hi performance engines a dual output coil fires two sparkplugs per cylinder for improved combustion. The ignition coil delivers negative voltage to one sparkplug and positive voltage to the other. If no reading is seen on the kV scales of the IgnitionMate, move the polarity switch to the opposite position. The primary supply is the same as for a standard coil firing a single sparkplug. Primary SPARK current (-) negative polarity Secondary – (neg) kV & SPARK current IGNITION COIL Determine the ignition system type from the vehicle manufacturer’s documentation. See section 5 for a general overview of different ignition systems and expected values. Gather data on what values you should expect to see. Use the Service Data sheet (in the centre of this manual) to record data that can be used to troubleshoot ignition problems on similar vehicles in the future. Determine the symptoms of the fault. E.G. Can the vehicle start, can it idle, does the engine misfire under load etc. Troubleshooting Recommendation: For electric start vehicles, first check the battery and cable connections at the battery posts. The battery & charging system affects ignition system operation. See section 4-5 how to perform DC voltage measurements & a battery cranking test. General troubleshooting sequence: Attach caliper ground clip to measure kV Secondary + (pos) kV & SPARK current Don’t attach ground clip for SPARK current (+) positive polarity Primary Vpk 1. SPARK PLUG Attach caliper ground clip to measure kV SPARK PLUG 2. 3. Start your ignition troubleshooting at the spark plug. This is the “end of the line” for all ignition systems and the easiest part to access on modern motorcycles, ATV’s and scooters. Test the plug firing voltage & current. How? Section 4-1. See section 6-2 and 6-3 for more details. Test the coil output to confirm maximum voltage available by performing a voltage reserve (ignition reserve) test. How? See section 4-4. NOTE: As spark voltage is influenced by many factors, the voltage reserve will decrease in some conditions. The spark voltage rises with: ♦ Increased eng♦ne load / h♦gher rpm ♦ Retarded ♦gn♦t♦on t♦m♦ng ♦ Leaner m♦xture (fuel/a♦r) ♦ More o♦l ♦n m♦xture (two stroke) ♦ B♦gger spark gap ♦ On mult♦-cyl♦nder eng♦nes w♦th two plugs connected to each co♦l the voltage on the pos♦t♦ve polar♦ty plug ♦s h♦gher than on the negat♦ve plug. See sect♦ons 6-2, 6-3 & 6-4 for further ass♦stance w♦th secondary troubleshoot♦ng. 4. 5. 6. Test the pr♦mary c♦rcu♦t voltage between the ♦gn♦t♦on control module (ICM) and the ♦gn♦t♦on co♦l. How? See sect♦on 4-3. Test the pulse generator co♦l output. How? See sect♦on 4-3. If the pulse generator tests bad, d♦sconnect and retest separately. Test the power from the exc♦ter co♦l or battery. How? See sect♦ons 4-3 & 4-5. If the exc♦ter co♦l tests bad, d♦sconnect and retest separately. See sect♦ons 7-1, 7-2 or 7-3 for deta♦led pr♦mary troubleshoot♦ng sequences. 7-1 : AC-CDI / Magneto CDI 7-2 : DC-CDI / Battery CDI 7-3 : FTI : full trans♦stor ♦gn♦t♦on 6-2. Troubleshooting Procedure – 6-3. Troubleshooting Procedure – Table of symptoms, secondary (HT) side Zooming in with SPARK current NOTE: Cranking the engine is the minimum requirement for this test sequence. NOTE: Voltage & current up to the primary winding of the ignition coil should be normal to use this table. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Spark current Spark current Spark current VERY LOW NORMAL VERY HIGH Spark voltage VOLTAGE TOO LOAD TOO HIGH NO SPARK HIGH 2 FOR SYSTEM 3 VERY HIGH OPEN CIRCUIT 1 Spark voltage CURRENT TOO ALL OK! HIGH PRIMARY VOLTAGE 5 NORMAL LOW 4 Spark voltage WEAK IGNITION VOLTAGE TOO SHORTED VERY LOW SYSTEM 6 LOW 7 CIRCUIT 8 Current cannot flow : open circuit (no spark) cable interupted (break in cable) cable not connected to plug cap or at coil Current flows, but with high energy lean mixture spark plug gap too big break in cable or between cable and plug cap with spark still jumping across Current flows, but with too high energy High combustion pressure lean mixture spark plug gap too big break in cable or between cable and plug cap with spark still jumping across spark jumping to ground : inside cable, from cable to ground or plug cap Weak ignition system (insufficient reserve voltage) High current boost booster system on secondary or primary? High DC voltage to primary of coil : unregulated charging system Low current & voltage low DC voltage from battery : charging system not operating low exciter coil voltage damaged ignition coil : (partly) shorted secondary winding Spark plug gap too small, wet plug, carbon deposit on plug, mixture too rich Shorted circuit : in coil, between cable and cap and ground or damaged plug START : set SPARK current parameters for troubleshooting. ( S 4-2) Check ignition coil secondary SPARK current stable current Unstable current Measure ma•. coil secondary voltage (determine reserve voltage) (S4-4). No current Check ignition coil primary current (S 4-2) No/unstable current DC-CDI FTI AC-CDI Check e•citer / charge coil current (see *2) (S 4-2) no current Disconnect charge coil from CDI unit and measure charge coil voltage No, low or unstable voltage Replace e•citer / charge coil, verify coil resistance and START again. Stable / unstable current Voltage Normal Check for other faults e.g. fuel supply Not OK / too low Go to HT test (S6.4) stable current OK Voltage present Measure secondary voltage closest where spark cable enters ignition coil Verify all connections (See *1) to CDI / ICM unit, then go to Primary Test for S7-1: AC-CDI S7-2: DC-CDI S7-3: FTI No Voltage No or low Voltage Check for break in spark cable & connection to coil. Go to HT test (S6.4) Check ignition coil primary voltage Voltage normal Replace ignition coil and START again. NOTES: *1) Connections to ICM or CDI unit include ignition primary coil, charge coil(s) in case of AC-CDI or battery in case of DC-CDI & FTI, pulse coil or sensor, kill-switch and/or ignition switch , neutral switch (there may be more switches / sensors affecting ICM operation). For AC-CDI check that kill-switch and/or ignition switch is not shorted to ground / body. *2) In some systems two charge coils are used : low speed & high speed coil. Check both coils. 6-4. Troubleshooting Procedure – 7-1. Troubleshooting Procedure – HT test – ignition secondary circuits Primary – AC-CDI (Magneto-CDI) Typically in use on light machines with no or very small battery. The ignition is independent from the battery. The battery is primarily used to crank the engine. This test is common for all power sport ignition types. Cranking the engine is the minimum requirement for this test. (A) START : Disconnect plug lead & measure coil secondary voltage (Vo=open circuit voltage : See S4-4) START here if the tests in section 6-3 & 6-4 were unsuccessful No reading or too low Too low or unstable Check primary components, go to S7-1 : AC-CDI S7-2 : DC-CDI S7-3 : FTI High reading (>20kV) Reconnect plug lead and measure plug firing voltage at - Cranking speed - Idle speed - Mid & high speed & acceleration Too High Too Low Poor power delivery Return to HT test S6-4 To low or unstable Normal & stable Calculate reserve voltage (see S4.4) Too big plug gap, HT cable broken or loose. Mixture too lean : fuel or carburetor problem or manifold air leak Too small plug gap; Bridged or foul plug; HT lead insulation defect; Too rich mixture Too low compression; Wrong timing Normal OK After repair Check coil primary voltage Disconnect the coil from the CDI unit and connect resistor (*1) instead & check voltage across resistor at cranking speed. Check charge coil (exciter coil) output voltage, connected to the CDI unit. (*2) After repair Disconnect charge coil (exciter coil) from CDI unit and measure charge coil voltage once more Unstable Stable Too low or unstable Ignition system = OK ! Replace charge coil TIP: Verify by checking coil resistance. Check ignition timing Return to HT test S6-4 Still Unstable Replace ignition coil, go back to (A) START Still too low or unstable Normal Check pulse coil output, connected to CDI unit (S4-3). Too low or unstable Disconnect pulse coil from CDI unit and check output again Normal Too low or unstable Stable Replace sparkplug(s), check plug firing voltage again Replace pulse coil TIP: Verify by checking coil resistance. Too low or unstable Very unstable (*1) Intermittent (*2) Normal Check primary coil voltage (S4-3) Replace ignition coil TIP: Verify primary & secondary coil resistance. Normal Normal Replace CDI unit TIP: Before replacement, verify the connections to/from CDI unit & check if switches that inhibit operation are not shorted – “killswitch”; “ignition switch”, neutral switch. (*1) Use 100 Ohm resistor instead of ignition coil – the internal capacitor has to discharge, resistor replaces the coil impedance. (*2) Some systems have two charge coils, low speed & high speed. Check both. 7-2. Troubleshooting Procedure – 7-3. Troubleshooting Procedure – Primary – DC-CDI ( Battery CDI) Primary – FTI ( Full transistor ignition) Advanced CDI system requiring a battery instead of the charge coil (for easier starting). The battery is also used to crank the engine. Typically used on big engines, using a powerful battery. Modern engines have an ICM – ignition control unit that controls spark ignition to multiple cylinders. Fuel injected engines may have a combination ignition & fuel injection control unit. START here if the tests in section 6-3 & 6-4 were unsuccessful START here if the tests in section 6-3 & 6-4 were unsuccessful Normal Replace ignition coil TIP: Verify primary & secondary coil resistance. Replace ignition coil TIP: Verify primary & secondary coil resistance. Normal Check primary coil voltage (S4-3) Check primary coil voltage (S4-3) To low or unstable Normal Disconnect the coil from the CDI unit and connect resistor (*1) instead & check voltage across resistor at cranking speed. Check the battery voltage at the CDI unit TIP: Should be: cranking:10V or higher running: 12 to 14.5V Return to HT test S6-4 Normal Too low Check pulse coil output, connected to CDI unit (S4-3). Light fluctuation can be noticed +/- 12V Too low or unstable Replace pulse coil TIP: Verify by checking coil resistance. Replace CDI unit TIP: Before replacement, verify the connections to/from CDI unit & check if switches that inhibit operation are not shorted – “killswitch”; “ignition switch”, neutral switch. Too low (*2) or unstable Still too low or unstable Disconnect the coil from the transistor control unit / ICM . Measure voltage at unit output connection with ignition on, but engine static. Normal 12V-13V Normal Disconnect pulse coil from CDI unit and check output again Too low or unstable Check battery voltage at supply input of unit TIP: Static: 12V-13V cranking:10V or higher running: 12 to 14.5V Crank the engine and monitor output voltage (*1) Stable reading +/- 12V (battery voltage) Low, less than 12V Normal Too low Check pulse coil or sensor (*2) output, connected to ICM (S4-3). (crank engine for this check) Too high, see (*1) Too low unstable Normal Check the battery voltage at the battery Too low Charge & test the battery. Check vehicle charge system. Return to HT test S6-4 Normal (12V+) Bad power line. Check : Connections, wiring, fuse. Switches that inhibit operation Ignition, kill, neutral etc. Return to HT test S6-4 Replace pulse coil or sensor. TIP: For pulse coil - verify coil resistance. Too low or unstable Disconnect pulse coil or sensor (*2) from ICM and check output again Normal Check the voltage at the battery (*1) Use a 100 Ohm resistor instead of ignition coil – the internal capacitor has to discharge, resistor replaces the coil impedance. (*2) If the ignition system under test is not a DC-CDI system, but a transistor ignition, the voltage at this point will be 12V. Go to S7-3. Too low Charge & test the battery. Check vehicle charge system. Normal (12V+) Bad power line. Check : Connections, wiring, fuse. Switches that inhibit operation Ignition, kill, neutral etc. Return to HT test S6-4 Replace the transistor ignition unit / ICM (*3). (*1) If the reading is much higher than battery voltage, it is probably a DC-CDI ignition, not a transistor ignition. Go to S7-2. (*2) A ‘HALL’ sensor is used in place of a pulse coil. The sensor will generate a pulse when the magnet on the rotating engine shaft passes by the sensor pickup position. *3) Before replacing, check all switches / sensors that may inhibit ignition operation. 8. Websites, Publications, TecMate contact details, Warranty Websites: Warranty: The warranty period for the IgnitionMate – www.ignitionmate.com View or download: the video, vehicle electrical diagrams with markers where to measure signals with IgnitionMate,use the message board to to communicate with other IgnitionMate owners about ignition problems. Repair manuals : www.haynes.com publish manuals for cars & motorcycles. www.clymer.com manuals for cars, motorcycles, ATVs, snowmobiles, personal watercraft, small engines www.repairmanuals.com list manuals for motorcycles, ATVs, automotives, marine IgnitionMate is 24 months from date of purchase. This limited warranty becomes invalid if damage to the IgnitionMate results from failure to follow instructions in this manual during use of the instrument or recharging of the internal batteries. This warranty specifically excludes replacement of cables or connectors that have suffered physical abuse or corrosion. The excluded parts include cable & connectors of HT pick-up caliper #10, cables and all connectors of #16 & 17, as listed in Section 1. Repairs to the IgnitionMate will be made free of charge during the 24 months’ period for defects in material and workmanship. Misuse and abuse is not covered. Transport costs are to be paid by the owner. This warranty is offered by the division of TecMate that covers the territory in which you reside. TecMate contact details & territories covered: TecMate (International) S.A., St. Truidensesteenweg 252, 3300-Tienen, Belgium – Europe (West & East), United Kingdom, Japan, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, South America, Middle East & North Africa www.tecmate-int.com TecMate North America, Unit 22, 1100 Invicta Dr., Oakville, ON, L6H 2K9, Canada – Canada, United States of America, Central America www.tecmate.com TecMate (South Africa), A6 Pinelands Buss’ Park, Pinelands, 7405, Western Cape, South Africa – Sub Saharan Africa, Indian Ocean Islands www.tecmate.co.za How to facilitate a warranty claim or out of warranty repair: Proof of purchase is required if a claim under warranty is being considered. Contact the dealer or distributor from whom the product was originally purchased. If this is not possible, then locate the national distributor on the TecMate website or contact TecMate for details. Do not ship your product direct to TecMate without our prior knowledge. We cannot accept responsibility if a product is lost without being consulted on where it should be sent and safest way to send it.