Module 9 student workbook

Module 9: Topic 1
1. Driving at Night:
a. Dirt on the lens of headlights can reduce light by up to _____ percent.
b. How can you check to see if the lights are working properly?
c. How far do high beams let us see?
d. What is the sight distance rule?
e. When driving at night, drivers need to leave more ________than they would in the daytime.
2. Visibility:
a. The distance a driver can see ahead is limited and headlights do not illuminate off-road areas.
b. Visibility is also compromised by the ___________ from other vehicles.
3. Headlights:
a. High beam headlights
● Used when safe and legal at speeds of ___________ mph
b. Low beam headlights
● Used in bad weather or when following or meeting
another car at night - safe at speed of __________ mph
4. Night Driving Skills:
a. Adjust speed to distance illuminated by headlights
b. Keep your eyes ____________ searching ahead and at edges of the roadway
c. Flash lights once quickly if oncoming vehicle is using high beams
5. Night Driving Risks:
a. Reduces ability to see risks
b. Requires eyes to adjust quickly to glare
c. Places limitations on gathering and processing information in time
d. The distance you can see ahead is shorter - especially at higher speeds
e. Headlights provide little illumination of off-road areas
f. Ability to judge distances is compromised
g. The glare from oncoming and following vehicles impairs vision
h. Must drive “blind” while recovering from the glare
6. Driving Tips for Poor Visibility:
a. ________speed to accommodate shortened sight distance
b. Use _______________ flashers when traveling below speed limit
c. Maintain appropriate lane position
d. If stopping distance longer than sight distance, slow down and don’t drive “blindly” into the
7. Safety Tips for Driving at Night:
a. Before passing, the driver passing can flash his/her headlights to warn the other driver.
b. When two vehicles are ______ by _______, the passing driver may switch to high beams and the
driver being passed should switch to low beams.
c. Be alert for pedestrians walking on unlit roadways.
d. If you must walk on a dark roadway due to vehicle breakdown or another reason, carry a white
handkerchief or wear _______-colored clothing or reflective clothing to increase your chances of
being seen.
e. In snow, wear ________ clothing to create a contrast.
Module 9: Topic 2
Severe Weather Conditions
1. Drifting Fog:
a. Reduce speed
b. Turn on ______ beam headlights
c. Turn on windshield wipers
d. Turn on defroster or air conditioner
2. Heavy Fog:
a. Reduce speed
b. Turn on emergency flashers and fog lights
c. _________ stop in a travel lane
d. Look for an exit from the highway
e. If impossible to leave the highway, stop beyond the _____ of guardrail as far to the right of the road as
possible, and turn ______ lights and wait for fog to lift.
3. Visibility Limited by Rain and Snow:
a. Keep headlights clean
b. Turn on the defroster to remove ice and condensation
c. Clear the windshield and rear windows
d. Reduce Speed
e. Turn headlights to low beam
f. Turn on windshield wipers
g. Be alert for vehicles stopped in roadway
h. Be prepared for effects of gusting winds
i. Make adjustments gently and smoothly
4. Sources of Glare
a. Other vehicle headlights
b. Paper on the dashboard
c. Snow covered landscape
d. The sun at dawn or dusk
5. Reducing Glare
a. Look to the ______ edge of roadway
b. Do not place paper on dashboard
c. Wear ____________ during the day
d. Adjust sun visors and mirrors
e. Clean window
6. Describe how the conditions listed below affect a driver’s ability to see and what adjustment a driver should
make to better cope with these conditions:
1. Sun glare:
2. Driving at night:
3. Fog:
4. Rain:
5. Snow:
7. Driving in Snow:
a. In severe snow conditions look for an exit on highway
b. Check weather report
c. If impossible to leave highway, stop beyond outboard end of guard rail
d. Use cell phone to check conditions
e. Snow may require use of windshield washer fluid
8. Strong Winds:
a. Keep a _______ grip on the steering wheel
b. __________ speed
c. Adjust lane position
d. Do not over steer
e. Stay off the brake
f. Prepare to counter steer
g. Make all steering, accelerating, and braking actions gently and smoothly
h. Check for debris in roadway and oncoming traffic
9. Low water crossings:
a. Flash flooding conditions are unpredictable
b. Not specific to a time of year
c. Affects braking, steering and engine systems
10. Flash Flood Dangers:
a. Nearly ______% of flash flood fatalities are vehicle related
b. Search for flood prone areas:
● Highway dips
● Bridges
● Low areas
c. Most vehicles will float
d. Very little water on the road surface can cause loss of control
e. ________ feet of water will “carry” most cars
f. Because visibility is limited at night, driving during flooding conditions is very dangerous
g. Heed all flash flood watches and warnings
h. Monitor road conditions through the news media
11. Hot and Cold Temperatures:
a. Vehicles are designed to operate in a wide range of temperatures, from very hot to extremely cold.
b. Extreme conditions cause stress on vehicle parts sensitive to temperature change
c. Make sure to check tires, fluids, and belts
12. Cold Weather Driving Tips:
a. Check your _______________
b. Check your cooling system
c. Check your windshield wipers
d. Check your tire tread
e. Check your gas
f. Check your windshield washer reservoir
g. Check radiator coolant, hoses, and connections
h. Clean snow off of your entire car
13. Hot weather checks
a. ______________ tires are subject to excessive flexion causing pressure buildup, especially when
driving for extended distances at higher speeds.
b. The air conditioner, radiator coolant hoses, connections, and drive belts need special attention due
to the extra load placed on these cooling systems.
Module 9: Topic 3
Occupant Protection
1. Occupant Protection:
a. Occupant protection refers to safety features designed to protect occupants of motor vehicles in the
event of a crash. These systems can be 'active' or ‘passive.’
b. Wearing a safety belt is your best defense for preventing severe life-altering injuries:
● Slows occupant’s rate of deceleration in a frontal crash and keeps occupants securely in place
2. Airbags:
a. The driver side airbag is located in the center of the steering wheel and the passenger side airbag is
located inside the dashboard.
b. Side airbags that inflate during side collisions are usually located within the seat.
c. Curtain airbags are installed above the side windows, in the headliner, on both sides.
d. Knee airbags are located in front of the legs of the driver and front seat passenger.
● They are concealed within the steering column or the lower part of the dashboard and deploy during
frontal impacts.
e. Driver and front passenger air bags are designed to inflate in a frontal impact.
● Drivers should sit at least ______inches from the air bag because it inflates to six or seven inches
in size at speeds up to _______ mph.
● If you can, tilt the steering wheel to point the air bags at your _______, not your face.
f. Always wear a safety belt and secure children in the rear seat.
g. To reduce forearm and hand injuries, place hands on the _______ half of the steering wheel, with
knuckles on the outside and thumbs along the inside of the rim of the wheel.
h. Side impact air bags are designed to protect the ______ and ______ in side impact collisions.
● Care should be taken not to sit too close to the door or to lean towards the air bag.
3. How do you adjust your seat and steering wheel hand position to protect you from the airbag?
4. We learned in Module 2 that adjusting the head restraints protects us from whiplash.
Module 9: Topic 4
Highway Safety Design
1. Roadway Safety Design:
a. ____________ sign support posts
b. ________________ with ends angled away from roadway and buried
c. _______ attenuators - such as
vinyl liquid or sand
filled drums
d. Protected left and right turn bays
e. Collector/distributor lanes on high speed, high density highways
Variable message signs alerting drivers to weather conditions, construction, and traffic problems
Module 9: Topic 5
Vehicle Design and Technology
1. How do you think vehicle design and technology make a vehicle safer?
2. New Advances:
a. All-wheel drive
b. Antilock braking systems
c. Electronic stability control
d. Telematics (i.e. OnStar)
e. Tire pressure monitoring
f. Active head restraints
g. Adaptive cruise control
h. Adaptive headlights
i. Advanced airbags
j. Advanced seat belt pre tensioner
k. Fatigue warning
l. Forward collision warning systems
m. Lane departure warning systems
n. Side view assist
o. Park assist and back over prevention
3. In Module 3 we learned about anti lock braking systems (ABS).
a. What is the primary task of ABS?
b. What are the ABS rules?
c. What may you notice when using ABS brakes?
4. Electronic Stability System (ESP):
a. What is the electronic stability program designed to do?
b. During an over-steering or skidding condition (rear-wheel lock-up), the ESP system applies the brake to
which wheel?
c. During an under-steering or sliding condition (front-wheel lock-up), the ESP system applies the brake to
which wheel?
5. Functions of Tires:
a. Tires are air-filled cushions designed to reduce the effect of road hazards and irregularities on the
vehicle and are designed to flex and give as they meet the road surface.
b. Absorb shocks caused by road hazards
c. Provide Traction — enables drivers to accelerate, brake and steer
d. Tires ratings are indicated on the sidewall of the tire
6. Traction:
a. Measured by the ability to stop a car in straight-ahead motion on a wet surface - tires graded A
have the best traction performance, B grading is an above average rating and C indicates the tire
meets government standards.
b. Temperature —tire’s ability to withstand heat. Tires graded A are the most heat-resistant and less
likely to suffer a blowout under the same conditions as tires with grades of B or C.
c. Tread wear rating — the higher the tread wear rating, the greater the mileage – a tire with a tread
wear rating of 150 is expected to last 50 percent longer than one graded at 100.
7. After watching the tire safety video, list 3 things you learned about tires.
Module 9: Topic 6
Dangerous Road Conditions
1. Dangerous Road Conditions:
a. Ice, snow, or frost/sleet
b. Wet--particularly the first 15 minutes of rain after a long dry period when oil and rubber particles have
collected on the road surface and mix with water
c. Heavy rain or standing water
d. Mud near farm entrances, construction sites, and truck crossings
e. Wet leaves
f. Broken or uneven road surface
g. Sand or gravel - frequently found on curves in rural areas
2. Slippery Conditions:
a. Ice on the road
b. Dangerous curves and turns
c. Roads with slippery when wet warning signs
d. Most dangerous when the temperature is near freezing
e. Just after a rain has fallen on a hot day
f. Heavily traveled intersections when raining
3. Controlling Consequences:
a. _______ off road rather than skid off the road
b. Hit something ______ rather than something hard
c. Hit something going your way rather than something stationary
d. Hit stationary objects with a glancing blow
e. Hit a stationary object rather than an approaching object
f. Steer to avoid oncoming traffic and head on collision
4. Preventing Loss of Traction:
a. __________ speed
b. ___________space
c. Make gradual changes to speed
d. Avoid abrupt changes in direction
e. Find the best path
5. Causes of Traction Loss
a. Road surface conditions
b. The condition of the vehicle
c. Actions of the driver
6. Signs of Hydroplaning:
a. Standing water
b. Raindrops that bubble when they hit the road
c. Slushing sound
d. Sensation that the steering wheel is loose or disconnected from the vehicle
e. A vehicle ahead that is not leaving a track
7. Preventing Hydroplaning:
a. _________down when there is water standing on the surface of the pavement.
b. Tires should be properly __________ and have adequate tread.
c. ___________ following distance, particularly when behind a large truck.
d. Drive in the tracks left by any vehicle ahead.
8. If Hydroplaning Occurs:
a. Ease off the ______________ gradually
b. ______________ speed until your tires regain traction.
c. Do not ___________ until traction has been restored.
d. Steer no more than necessary, continue to ______ and steer where you want to go.
9. What do you know about skids?
a. When do most skids occur?
b. What are the steps to recover from a skid?
c. What is the best way to handle skids?
10. Causes of Skids
a. Slippery surfaces
b. ____________ too hard
c. ____________ too hard
d. Steering too much or too quickly
e. Entering a curve with too much speed
11. Preventing skids:
a. Apply the brakes in a __________ and progressive manner
b. Make smooth, precise steering wheel movements
c. Slowing down well in advance of curves
d. Maintaining speeds appropriate for conditions
12. Types of skids:
a. There are two main types of skidding:
● ________-steering (fishtailing)
● ________-steering (plowing)
13. Front wheel loss of traction:
a. Called “Understeer” and is when the vehicle moves straight ahead in spite of steering input
● Look and steer toward intended path
● Smoothly ease up on accelerator
● Smoothly apply brakes to regain traction
● Do not steer more than necessary
14. When Brakes Are Applied Too Hard or Too Quickly:
a. Vehicle weight shifts to the front causing:
● A noticeable drop of the hood
● A noticeable rise of the rear
● Forward movement of driver, passengers and items in vehicle
15. Correcting Front Traction Loss:
a. Direct vision to targeted path of travel (look where you want to go)
b. Activate ________ (if vehicle equipped)
● Ease off conventional brake system
● Reestablish rolling traction (wheels rolling/not sliding)
c. Ease off steering inputs
● Abrupt steering can create traction loss
● Steer toward intended path of travel
d. Jab/Stab brake to move weight forward if no ABS
● (ABS performs this function automatically)
16. Rear-Wheel Loss of Traction:
a. This is called an “over steer” when vehicle moves sideways without any additional steering input
• Look and __________ toward intended path
• Ease off the accelerator and avoid using the brakes
• Continue to steer and counter-steer until the vehicle is traveling straight
• Use a light and progressive acceleration if the vehicle does not recover
17. Acceleration and Traction Loss:
a. When acceleration is applied too hard or too quickly weight moves to the rear of the car causing:
• A noticeable rise of the hood
• A noticeable drop of the rear
• Rearward movement of driver and passengers
18. Causes of Traction Loss:
a. Brakes __________ adjusted - Brakes pulling in one direction or the other can cause a skid - as can
wheels that are out of alignment when brakes are applied
b. Unevenly worn tire __________
● The size of the front and rear tires do not match.
● The tread depth or the front and rear tire type are not the same.
19. Driver Actions that Cause Loss of Traction:
a. Sudden steering movements on a slippery surface
b. Abrupt and sudden changes in vehicle speed
c. Panic stop or applying the brakes too hard on a hill, curve or slippery surface
d. Suddenly engaging the clutch on a slippery surface
20. Traction Loss – Shifts in Vehicle Weight:
a. Sudden shifts of vehicle weight (left, right, forward or backward) will cause loss of traction.
b. Simultaneous steering, braking and/or acceleration creates sudden shifts in vehicle balance.
21. When Steering is Applied Too Hard or Quickly Weight Moves to the Opposite Side of the Car:
a. Vehicle weight shift causes:
• A noticeable ______ and tilt of the hood
• A noticeable rise and tilt of the rear
• Driver, passenger, items in car move towards the car’s corner
22. Managing Rear Traction Loss:
a. Look at desired/targeted path of travel
b. Activate traction control system or
c. Ease off brake or accelerator
d. Reestablish rolling traction to rear wheels
e. Steer toward targeted path of travel
f. Apply light progressive acceleration (2 mph is goal) to shift weight to the Rear
g. Traction control system will adjust the speed/braking automatically when activated)
Module 9: Topic 7
Emergency Recovery & Controlling Consequences
1. What do you think causes run off the road crashes?
2. Run-Off the Road Crashes: Recognize, React, And Recover
a. What are some reasons run-off the road crashes occur?
b. What increases the risk of being in a run-off the road crash?
c. What is the #1 tip from America’s best drivers when it comes to run-off the road crashes?
d. What steps should you take if you run-off the road?
3. Causes of Run Off the Road Crashes:
a. _________ or distractions
b. Drowsiness
c. Steers onto the shoulder to avoid a collision and tries to return to the roadway
d. Vehicle may collide with a vehicle in the next lane, or drive off the far side of the road
4. Off road recovery
a. To return to the pavement safely:
● Keep a firm grip on the steering wheel
● Slow down, ease off the accelerator and allow the vehicle to slow ________ - avoid braking
● ________ the edge of the pavement, after speed is reduced and there is a gap in traffic .
● Steer back to the road with _______inputs, do not over steer
● Return to the pavement ________ wheels at a time, as soon as the front tire is back on the
roadway, counter-steer quickly left or right as necessary to stay in the correct lane
b. Blocked Roadside: If an object beside the road such as a tree, bridge abutment or pedestrian forces
the driver to return to the road quickly, he/she has little time to slow down, to do this the driver should:
● Steer left or right so the off-road wheels are about 12 inches away from the edge of the pavement
● Remove his/her foot from the accelerator and stay off the brakes. Turn the steering wheel quickly
about one-eighth turn toward the roadway
● Immediately, as the outer wheel makes contact with the edge of the pavement, counter-steer about
a quarter turn and make steering corrections to straighten vehicle
5. Reminders:
a. Do not panic and steer abruptly
b. Ease off accelerator
c. DO ______ BRAKE
d. Get both wheels off the pavement
e. Steer the vehicle parallel to the roadway
f. If clear, ease back on to the roadway one wheel at a time
g. _______ steering inputs to less than 1/8 of a turn of the wheel
h. Use even less input when edge of road is high
i. Target the center of the adjacent lane to avoid a “Slingshot” maneuver into oncoming traffic
6. Evasive Maneuvers:
a. With ABS brakes, how can you stop quickly?
b. What is the safest maneuver if there is enough room?
c. What are the steps for making quick turns?
d. If there is a car beside you in the left lane and you need to avoid a car ahead, what should you do?
7. When do you use Evasive Steering?
a. When there is __________ to the side
b. When stopping distance is questionable
c. When there are cars close behind
8. Procedures for Evasive Steering:
a. Turn the wheel __________ degrees
b. Counter-steer immediately
c. Turn the wheel back to the original straight-ahead position
9. Evasive Braking:
a. If the vehicle has ABS:
● __________ press brake pedal until the vehicle stops
● May feel pedal pulse back against foot
b. If the vehicle does not have ABS:
• Apply firm, steady pressure just short of lockup
• Ease up on brakes if wheels lock, then apply the brakes again
10. Evasive Acceleration:
a. Used less frequently
b. Can be used to avoid crashes at intersections and in merging situations
c. May move point of impact to rear of vehicle if you can’t get out of the way
11. Controlling Consequences
a. Avoid __________collisions
b. Drive off the road rather than skid off the road
c. Hit something __________
d. Hit something going in the __________ direction
e. Hit stationary object with glancing blow
f. Hit stationary object rather than approaching object
Module 9: Topic 8
Reporting Crashes
1. What are the four things that need to be done in the event of a crash?
a. What should you do to protect the scene?
b. What should you do to take care of anyone who is injured?
c. What information should you get from the other driver if involved in a crash?
2. What should you do?
a. __________ immediately
b. Aid the injured
c. Prevent further damage
d. Send for __________
e. Exchange __________
f. Record witnesses’ names and addresses
g. Notify __________ agent