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Week 7 LectureNotes3 (Activity 2,3,4,5)- Hoh Jia Da

(WEEK 7)
The topics included in this lecture notes are:
Analysing the audience
Choosing a topic
- Deciding on a focus
Deciding general and specific purpose of the
Organising ideas and structuring the text
Outlining the content – main points and
supporting points
SEMESTER 2, 2019/2020
Introduction to Presentation Skills
1. Analysing the Audience
Knowing the audience
It is essential for you to know the audience when deciding on a topic and preparing a
presentation. The audience will be more interested in listening and accepting what you say if
the topic is relevant and relatable to them.
There are several aspects that you need to consider in analysing your audience:
1. The audiences’ interests - What does the audience interested to know?
2. The audiences’ knowledge and feelings on the topic - What do the audience know and
feel about this topic?
3. The demographic factors of the audiences - What is the age group, genders and
educational backgrounds of your audience?
4. The objective/goal of the presentation - What do you want to achieve with this
Information gathered from analysing your audience can help you to determine their interest
and prior knowledge, gauge their response, and identify the best way in delivering the
presentation. This will in turn help you to prepare a presentation that caters to the audience’s
There are two ways to analyse the audience:
a) Demographic audience analysis
b) Situational audience analysis
Demographic Audience Analysis
focuses on demographic factors such as age, gender, religion, group
membership, race, ethnic and cultural background
helps the presenter to gauge the audience’s interests, values and beliefs and
give clues on how the audience will respond to the presentation
Situational Audience Analysis
focuses on situational factors such as the size of the audience, the physical
setting for the presentation
helps presenter to analyse audience perception towards the topic and speaker
Activity 1
Interview your classmates to find out about their interests using the following questions.
1. Who are your audience?
2. What are their academic backgrounds?
3. What topic are they interested in?
Based on the responses, how will it affect the choice of your topic?
2. Choosing a topic
After you have decided on the target audience of your presentation, the next step is to choose
a topic. Choosing a topic is an essential step in preparing a presentation.
A presentation topic can be divided into two categories:
Familiar Subject
Unfamiliar Subject
Topics that you have prior knowledge on • Topics that you may already have some
Experience to help you talk about the
knowledge on but not enough for a
Topics that you have learnt in class or in • Topics that you want to explore for the
your field of study
first time
• Topics that you want to do a further
research on
Brainstorming for ideas related to the topics
Brainstorming – a method to generate ideas for presentation topics by freely associating
words and ideas.
There are several brainstorming procedures that you can follow:
You can jot down as you think of the points or words or phrases that related to the topic,
and these items may become the main headings or key words for your presentation.
• Also known as mind mapping or idea mapping
• It is a strategy that allows you to explore the relationships between ideas. Clustering
the ideas let you see them visually in a different way so that you can more readily
understand possible direction your topic may take.
• The cluster begins with a central idea. Then, new ideas are written and connected
to the central idea.
• You then select one branch of the clusters or series related ideas to use a writing
Example of topic: Climate change causes greenhouse effect and global warming
• Free-associating is created by spontaneous response to the trigger word without
any restrictions. This method gets creativity flowing when you do not want to overthink on how words are related.
• It begins with a trigger word and continues with a flow of words that come into your
• Each word triggering the next, ultimately reaching a potentially useful one.
Example of topic: The different types of financial plans
Financial plan – saving accounts – investment – life insurance – dividend - ….
• This technique requires you to list possible topics and then sublist ideas you could
say about each topic.
• It enables you to generate ideas more quickly than clustering as the ideas can be
written in any order.
Example of topic: The negative effects of processed food
artificial ingredients
junk food addiction
added sugar
low in nutrients
risk of cancer
Activity 2
In a group, choose one of the brainstorming methods and brainstorm for ideas for a
presentation topic.
Simple Tips to Make Your Diet Healthier
Eat the right portion
Drink plenty of water
Find alternatives for unhealthy food
Less oil and salt in cooking
Eat the right portion
Have healthy snacks
Consume more protein than carbohydrates, increase protein intake
Have more fibres
Carbohydrate is not that bad
Avoid sugary food and drinks
Choose weight-loss friendly food
Narrowing down ideas
Once you have brainstormed the general ideas, narrow down your ideas and organise them in
logical groups. This will give clear view on how you divide the central ideas into main points.
For example:
Central idea
Main points
Eating breakfast
Three major benefits of eating breakfast to university students
I. Kick start metabolism
II. Perform better in study
III. Maintain a healthy weight
Gathering materials related to the topics
• During the brainstorming process, it is useful to start gathering materials related to the
topic. These materials help you to be clearer on the main points you want to present. It
also helps you to develop and support your points.
• Once you have a topic, you have many options to find information. All the materials can be
gathered from:
▪ library research (books, journal etc.)
▪ the Internet (e-books, online journals etc.)
▪ interviews (interview a professional or paid researcher)
Activity 3
Based on Activity 2, organise your central idea and main points by completing the flow chart
below. Provide sources to support your main points.
Topic: Simple Tips to Make Your Diet Healthier
Central Idea
Simple tips that can make a regular diet healthier.
Main Point 1
Consume protein more than
Main Points (Key Words)
Main Point 2
Eat the right portion
Main Point 3
Drink plenty of water
Sources: i) https://www.healthline.com/nutrition/maintain-weight-loss
ii) https://www.self.com/story/20-ways-to-eat-healthier
iii) https://www.everydayhealth.com/weight/weight-management.aspx
3. Deciding general and specific purpose of the presentation
When choosing a topic, it is important for you to identify the general and specific purpose of
your presentation. This will affect the amount of information you want to share with the
audience and the way the information is shared. For example, if the purpose is to give
exposure, the presenter needs to share as much information as possible with the audience. If
the purpose is to make comparison, the presenter needs to present different point of views on
the same issue to the audience. This is to ensure the message will reach the audience
The general purpose of a presentation refers to the overall objective of the presentation.
The specific purpose of a presentation refers to the focus of the presentation.
For example:
Central idea
General purpose
Specific purpose
: Health
: Breakfast
: Three major benefits of eating breakfast to university students
: To expose the audience to the importance of eating breakfast
: To share with the audience the benefits of eating breakfast for students
Activity 4
Based on the topic that you have chosen, write the general and specific purposes in the blanks
: Consume protein more than carbohydrates
Central idea
: The reason of eating proteins more than carbohydrates
General purpose: Why should we cut down on carbohydrates?
Specific purpose: The benefits of protein when consume in the right amount
4. Organising ideas and structuring the text
Once you have narrowed down your ideas, they need to be organised into one cohesive
structure. This is not only to help you to plan your presentation but also to ensure that your
audience will be able to follow the flow of ideas of the presentation.
The ideas can be organised into main points, supporting points and supporting details.
Main points
The main points are the central features or main focuses of your speech.
Supporting points
Supporting points contains further elaboration and explanation of the main points. This
represents your own voice and point of view.
Supporting details
Supporting details contain evidence that can strengthen the supporting points. It can be in the
form of statistics, examples, illustrations, factual data, quotations and testimony taken from
credible sources.
For example:
: Gardening
Central idea
: Three major benefits of gardening
Main points
: I. Physical fitness
II. Mood enhancer
III. Healthy food
Physical fitness (Main point)
A. Improve ability to do daily activities (Supporting point)
• Encourage the use of all motor skills through walking, reaching, bending and
digging. (Supporting detail)
B. Strengthen bones, muscles and joints (Supporting point)
• Exposure to sunshine increases production of Vitamin D which is important
for strong bones (Supporting detail)
II. Mood enhancer (Main point)
A. Connected with family and community (Supporting point)
• Create a fun and nurturing environment through social activity (Supporting
B. Reduce stress (Supporting point)
• Reduce the hormone related to stress which is cortisol. (Supporting detail)
III. Healthier food (Main point)
A. Get to eat fresh vegetables and fruits (Supporting point)
• Let you control when to harvest your food (Supporting detail)
B. Safer food (Supporting point)
• No harmful additives and preservative are added to the food. (Supporting
Activity 5
Complete the table below with supporting points and supporting details on The Benefits of
Eating Breakfast to University Students. Compare your notes with a partner and then share
your answers.
Central Idea
Main point 1
The benefits of eating breakfast to university
Three major benefits of eating breakfast to university
Kick start metabolism
Increase energy
Supporting Point 1
Supporting Details
(i.e. statistics, examples,
Supporting Point 2
Supporting Details
(i.e. statistics, examples,
Main point 2
Increase cognitive, or thinking, speed and problemsolving skills.
Provides the glucose body needs for energy to get
through the day.
Provides the necessary energy that students need to
perform well in class.
Perform better in study
Better concentration.
Supporting Point 1
Supporting Details
(i.e. statistics, examples,
Focus task on hand better, less distracted.
More positive reaction.
Supporting Point 2
Supporting Details
(i.e. statistics, examples,
Main point 3
Fewer signs of frustrations.
Maintain a healthy weight
Avoid overeating during lunchtime.
Supporting Point 1
Supporting Details
(i.e. statistics, examples,
Consume suitable portion of lunch compared to student
that do not have breakfast.
Supporting Point 2
Supporting Details
(i.e. statistics, examples,
Provide essential nutrients.
Provide essential nutrients that can be stored into energy
to feel productive for the rest of the day.