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This chapter contains the following different related
literatures that served as our basis as the researchers on our
chosen topic related to social media respectively.
This research is about how social media affects the
psychosocial behavior of every individual with the help of some
authors and their researches. First, according to Mayer, 2012,
studies have shown that extensive use of social media can actually
cause addiction to the user. Students tend to focus on cyber games
that block the focus on their studies. A person gets lazy of works
due to over usage of social networking sites and online games.
This laziness leads to mental health illness.
There has been a growing concern over the past couple of
decades regarding social media usage among senior secondary school
students, and its influence on their life and education. Today’s
younger generation is hooked on social media, and this digital
landscape has put increased pressure on teenagers. Formerly,
communicating and free sharing of thoughts between individuals was
limited due to distances, but now even with the barriers of
nationality or religion, the flow of information and knowledge is
still continuing through the new globalization of social media.
Social media refers to the means of interaction among individuals
young and old where they create, share, exchange, and comment
within themselves using different networks at their disposal.
Proving the said research, Kathleen Clarke Pearson (Council
on Communication and Media, states there are frequent online
expressions of offline behaviors such as bullying, clique forming,
and sexual experimentation that have introduced problems such as
cyber bullying, privacy issues and sexting. Other problems that
merit awareness includes internet addiction and concurrent sleep
deprivation, anxiety, severe isolation, and tragically suicide
which is a cause of psychological changes or disorder.
On the other side, according to Gwenn Schurgin O keefe (The
Impact of Social Media on Children, Adolescents, and Families)
states that it is important that parents become aware of the nature
of social media sites, given that not all of them are healthy
environments for children and adolescents and it can cause a
psychological effect and these social medias can cause potential
problems like cyber bullying, Facebook, depression, sexting, and
exposure to inappropriate content. Suhail and Bargees (2012)
conducted a study
on the effect of social networking in Pakistan
using the internet effect scale (IES) to determine the effect of
some factors specifically that which includes behavioral issues,
educational problems, internet abuse, interpersonal problems, and
psychological issues as well as its consequences. The result of
the studies showed that social media networking has both positive
and negative advantages on its users. The connectivism between
spare times spent on the internet showed tremendous impact, that
the time spent on internet has affected students’ interpersonal,
academic, psychological and physical factors.
On the other hand, Amelia C. Strickland the author of the
study, “Exploring the effects of social media use on the mental
health of young adult”, tends to indicate that there is a
connection between increased social media use and deteriorated
mental health. The same as what Meador Rebecca (2013) have said
about her research “The Effect of social media use on the Mental
Health and well-being of the high school students” examined that
the overall effect of frequent social media use on the mental
health and well-being of its users. ”Influence of social media on
social behavior of Students” by Akubugwo, Ijeoma, and Maria Burke
says that the attitude of students towards using social media tools,
measure and estimate the time spent by students on social media,
have either negative or positive in the sense that users are often
times susceptible to the negative aspect of it especially when
users(students) come in contact with a deviant. The author of the
study entitled “Psychological impact of Social Networking Sites”
A Psychological Theory states that the preponderance of social
networking sites such as Facebook, YouTube and others, has altered
the way in which people interact socially in the real world. Having
the same perception as to the first researcher mentioned, according
to Tiffany A. Somerville, in her research “The Effect of Social
Media used on Narcissistic behavior”, studies have shown that
social networking does indeed have an effect on self-esteem. This
study posited that those who use social media more often are more
likely to exhibit narcissistic behavior.
Analyzed by Krasnova and Nowobilska (2012) stated the use of
social networks can satisfy self-esteem as users can present
themselves to friends who think similarly and have common interest.
They conducted a study if their use had any impact on the social
and psychological health of highschool students. The authors
suggest that it has a positive effect on the health of the students
and a positive impact of the user’s confidence. They argued that
using social networking sites increases user happiness and can
reduce depression if envy is controlled. As social media is about
interaction, there is also knowledge management process where
social-learning should be valued. Indicated that users use social
networks in order to support exixting real-world relationships
rather than to look for new virtual social relationship.
Research by Clippinger highlighted that human beings have
always appeared in social classes and always have highly cultured
social signaling and administrative mechanisms which enforce
difficult forms of supportive behaviors. Also, the primates have
been proved, in the history of discovery and evolution to exhibit
group social behavior and it is observed that they carry out
activities in groups. A study carried out about the world’s
population highlighted that over 60% of the world populace will
migrate to the cities by 2030. Man, in need of social context is
one of the reasons behind social media phenomenon.
Young (2011)on his study adds symptoms like being absorbed in
thinking of social media , feeling the need to prolong the social
media time to achieve satisfaction, feeling anxious, moody and
depressed, easily irritated when trying to stop using the social
media, lying to family members and others about the activates the
individual practices, and using the social media as a means to
escape daily life problems. According to Young (2011), there are
many reasons that contribute , namely avoiding daily life problems,
continuous stimulation to feeling and senses, ease of social
interaction, availability of using the internet, provision of
secrecy and freedom of usage. Goldberg (2010) referred that the
most important of which are the lack of social support, family
adaptation problems and the loss of psychological security for
users, along with the nature of the internet-related elements like
privacy and secrecy where the user acts freely without control.
Many previous studies
sought to limit its spread and variance
according to numerous variables. Young (2011) conducted a study
that aimed at exploring Social Media addiction and among a sample
of (496) individuals whose ages ranged between (15-25) years. The
results showed that the rate of addiction reached (80%) of the
sample, and that social media addicts may spend (20-80) hours a
week on Social Media.
Authors Heine, Takemoto and Heinrich (2013) amplified that
the use of social medias enhances adolescents’ self-esteem by
offering organized way of social interaction with the rest of the
society. Use of social media in general might have a beneficial
effect on children and adolescents’ self-esteem by enhancing
communication, social connection an even technical skill.
Furthermore, positive values of social medias in developing
positive self esteem other studies identified that adolescents who
are high in social media usage are generally low in various aspects
of psychosocial development particularly self-esteem. Students
with lower self esteem show a stronger preference for online
communication than those with higher self-esteem, young people
with lower self-esteem showed higher levels of instant online
messaging use than those with higher self esteem and there is
significant negative prediction of self esteem from the time spent
on Facebook per session. Social media enhances social self-esteem,
measured as a perception of one’s body image, close relationship
and romantic appeal, especially when users receive positive
feedback from online social media friends. Also reported that
individuals with low self esteem can improve their condition
through the social opportunities provided by online social media.
In 2012, Rosen, Cheever, and Carrier coin the term “IDISORDER”
defines as a negative relationship between technology usage and
psychological health. This study turned them towards social media,
seeking to determine if it has dexterous effects on mental health.
And in 2013, Rosen et. al. found out that social media like
Facebook cause major depressive disorder, dysthymia, bipolar mania,
narcissism, anti-social person disorder and compulsive behavior.
Ahn (2010) examined the effects of social network sites on
youth social and thinking development. First, the researcher
provides a critical analysis of the extant research literature
surrounding social network sites and youth. Researcher merge
scholarly thought in the areas of Internet studies, digital divides,
development, academic engagement, and educational technology to
understand how researchers might examine new social technologies
and youth. Second, the researcher examines the question of digital
divide, or whether particular teenage populations do not have
access to online social networks.
According to Honor Whiteman on his research entitled “Social
Media. How does it Affect Our Mental Health and Well Being”,
suggests that social media affect our mental health and well-being?
Together with Charita B. Lasala, Regina P. Galigao the authors of
study entitled “Psychological Impact of Social Networking Sites”
A Psychological Theory states that the preponderance of social
networking sites such as Facebook, YouTube and others, has altered
the way in which people interact socially in the real world. A
social psychiatrist of the University of Michigan, Ethan Cross has
found out that using social media make us even miserable.
Supporting this matter, he then said that “On the surface that
social media provides an invaluable resource for fulfilling the
basic human need for social connection. But rather than enhance
well-being, he found that social media usage predicts the opposite
result that undermines it”.
The researches so far have revealed that Social Media might
predict various changes in psychologi-cal well-being and that
social resources might moderate the changes (Bessière et al.,
2013). Mostly, people’s communication, social resources, and
psychosocial variables are closely related, which means more
communicating help have more social resources, and therefore
better psychological functioning, lower levels of stress, and
greater happiness (Baumeister & Leary 2015; Bessière et al., 2015;
Finch & Graziano, 2013). It could inferred that lonely and
depressed people may spend more time alone or have negative
relationship with others. In short, it is possible to say that
those people might tend to use Social Media excessively and tend
to be more active in Online activities.
Nonetheless, the authors find evidence that some dimensions
of personality are associated with Facebook usage. These findings
are consistent with previous studies which support that
extraverted people are more social and hence more involved in using
social networking sites such as Facebook (Kaya & Bicen, 2016; Ross
et al., 2011; Ryan & Xenos, 2011; Tosun & Lajunen, 2010). Another
agreeableness develop motivation among individuals to present
themselves socially and hence they are more likely to engage in
online activities.
Different researchers and researches, but they have one thing
in common, their works have the same perception that the use of
social media sites affects mainly the mental health and
psychosocial behavior of every individual that has been addicted
to any social media sites they are into.