Microbiology: ?Bacteria grows in which pH 4.6 7.0 7.2 9.0 :Cold sterilization is Gamma radiation Ice water sterilization How to sterilize operating theatre -water and soap -Fugmentaion with formaldehyde. -carbonic acid gas -ethylene gas What is used to kill bacterial spores Alcohol 90% glutaraldehyde ? ?What treatment in giardiasis causes uveitis Metronidazole Amohotericin B Isonizazid, ridampicin Pharmacology: ?Which is not antihistamine or mast cell stabilizer ✔ Ketorolac Olopatadine Lodoxamide Ketotofen fumarate :Which has longest duration of action Lidocaine ✔ Bupivocaine Procaine ?Which cause follicular conjunctivitis Carbachol Alphagan Timolol :Steroids cause all except Ptosis Cataract ✔Scleral thinning Infection Pilocarpine mechanism of action ?Which is not anitiviral Aciclovir ✔ Flucytosine Vidarabine :Betaxolol is ✔ Beta 1 blocker Beta 2 blocker Alpha agonist Which one is false regarding alphagan ✔ Nonselective alpha agonist Decrease aqueous production Can be given with timolol :Which is not Amohotericin side effect Diabetes Cardiac arrest GI upset Thrombocytopenia CAI can not be given in except : -chronic liver failure -nephrolithiasis -with digoxin -with diuretics Which of those aminoglycosides is more resistant to bacteria? Genta Amikacin Tobra Kanamycin Which of thoses antibiotics is the most lipophilic? Pharmacokinetics, what increase absorbtion of the drop: High lipid solubility High PH Low viscosity After viterectomy: -it is 10% of it is water -antibiotics and vegef can spread between vitrous and AC Anti VEGEF r: -glycoprtiens -has 9 monomers -affect venules Optics: :Lensmeter goes with which rule Gaussian law Badal law Ficks law Another Q about Lensmeter and bifocals ?Which does not have prism Indirect ophthalmoscope Spectacle lens Operating microscope ?D x180 what is the prescription4.00+ & For a power cross of +1.00D x90 x 90 3.00- 4.00+ PCiol with 17D power and lens constant of 118, what will be the equivalent ACiol power ?with lens constant of 116 D15 D19 D20 D18 Blind spot on visual field is ___ degrees vertically and ___ degrees horizontally ( numbers) Child with esotropia, 30 dp at distance and 45 dp at near. With +3.00 he has 30 dp at near With cyclorefraction he is +2.00 What is the prescription? +1.75 OU +2 OU add +1.50 +2 OU add +3 +2 OU add +2 How does accommodation occur ?Which one is false ✔Light rays travel the slowest in vacuum ?What is critical angle ?Which is false regarding indirect ophthalmoscope ✔ Shows real, magnified, upright images :When u correct glasses for a myope Image falls behind lens Image falls in front of retina ✔Image falls on retina Image falls behind retina Visual acuity: Most resolvable Gap in C can be seen with most discernible Anatomy: What lies posterior to grey line: Orbicularis oculi Cilia Mebomian gland Parasympthatic nerves to pupil runs with: Short ciliary nerve Long ciliary nerve ?What synapses in ciliary ganglion Nasociliary nerve ✔Pasrasympathetic fibers of CN3 :What does not form part of aqueous layer of tear film ✔Goblet cells Gland of wolfring Gland of Krause Which one is true regarding optic nerve Covered by CSF throughout its length Carries second order neurons Has longer intraorbital portion What gives eyes their color Melanocytes in iris Stroma Difference btw RPE in macula and in periphery: Thin, long, more melanosomes, large melanosome, more vili Q about EOM: Longest tendon Bigger muscle Muscle with no tendon Longest muscle What is wrong about BM: Collagen 5 Acellular Secreted by endothelium What is true about iris: Parasympthatic to dilator muscle Sympthatic to constricter muscle Q about CB: -circular muscle lies anterior to longitudinal muscle Q about difference in choroidal layers /vessels: Fenestration Leaky Pericytes RPE cells in fovea vs periphery: Thin , long , large melanosomes , many melanosomes, many vili Immunology: What is chemotaxis? ?Which one is true regarding transplant rejection Type 1 hypersensitivity reaction Type 2 hypersensitivity reaction Type 3 hypersensitivity reaction Type 4 hypersensitivity reaction Physiology: When pupil is dilated: Decrease diffraction Increase chromatic abbaration Depth of focus Field of focus Lacrimal reflex pathway :Regarding aqueous There’s no protein in aqueou ?What is not true regarding optical-geniculate pathway Area 1,4,6 carry info from contralateral nasal retina Upper field correspond to lower retina ?Which is true ✔ Refractive error cause fibrillary eye twitching Difference between x and y cells: Larger receptive field Color Parvocellular Sclera is : 50% water Has collagen 1 and 3 Vortex peirce sclera at equator Choriocapilaries: R fenestrated Less pericytes: Cornea is : Longer horizontally than vertical Anterior radius > posterior radius Pathology: Wound repair: Episclera supply the scleral wound after injury Iris stroma and epithelial don’t stimulate healing process CB and choroid don’t regenerate Iris melanoma: Rarely mets Giant cell, which is wrong: FB has haphazard nucli arrangement Totoun has annulus of nucli Langanhans has horseshoe arrangement with surranoded lipid :All true in lattice Degeneration except ✔ILM is continuous Atrophy Of inner retina Vitreous above it is liquified Vitreous attach to edges of Degeneration What is false about amyloid Stain dark blue material in extracellular matrix Dichromat birefringence Stain orange with Congo red :If conjunctiva is salmon colored, most likely ✔Orbital lymphoma Lymphangioma :What is false in diabetic retinopathy ✔Thin basement membrane Outer Retinal hemorrhage Microaneurysm ?Which has least metastasis from outside Choroid Optic nerve Retina Iris :Keratoacanthoma is Squamous cell carcinoma Adenocarcinoma Basal cell carcinoma ?What is not a feature of non-teratoMedulloepithelioma Hyaline cartilage ?In congenital glaucoma, what is false ✔ Iris is inserted posteriorly There’s mesodermal material in TM Scleral spur is more anterior Regarding follicular conjunctivitis, which is false Affect inferior palpebral conjunctiva more Has follicle of lymphocytes Dome-shaped with central vessel Caused by viruses Episcleritis histology question: -same pattern as nodules in Rhematoid arthirits - histocytes around necrotic collagen -necrobiotic granulomatous. Neuroblastoma: Has homer rosette Has ecchymosis Has vascular element Sebaceous cell carcinoma what is true -sudan black stain -pagetoid spread Actinic keratosis Q Pterygium question: -disturb bowmen membrane -elastotic degeneration -actinic damage Pyogenic granuloma Cictricial pemphigoid Q Nodular scleritis Q Retinocytoma: No mitosis No necrosis Has calcification For lymphoproliferative speciemen , how it is processes? -fresh -frozen -formalin Basal cell ca which is true: -has thin cords and strands of tumor cells on fibrotic stroma.