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Environmental Management Revision Notes

REVISION
NOTES SERIES
Level
IGCSE
Article: 326
Subject Code:.O Level
5014
/
IGCSE
0680
ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT
According to new syllabus
Associated assessment material
Catering needs of O-Level & IGCSE
Graphic organisers
V' Flow charts
•/ Sequentially described
•/ Labelled & annotated diagrams
•/
•/
•/
•/
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(l)eve/ / IGCSE
ENVIRONMENTAL
MANAGEMENT
Revision Notes
Subject Code: 5014/0680
Acritical: 326
Features:







According to new syllabus
Associated assessment material
Catering needs of CAlE & IGCSE
Graphic organisers
Sequentially described
labelled and annotated diagrams
Proper flow charts
Author:
MISS FAIZA ZAFAR KHAN
GreenHall, Beaconhouse, City School
M. Phill Environmental Sciences
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Title
Environmental Management IGCSE Paper-1 (Article# 326)
Editor
Miss Faiza Khan
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Contents
UNIT-1: ROCKS AND MINERALS AND THEIR EXPLOITATION ........................................ 6
1.1: FORMATION OF ROCKS .................................................................................................. 6
1.2: EXTRACTION OF ROCKS AND MINERALS FROM THE EARTH ............................................... 7
1.3: IMPACT OF ROCK AND MINERAL EXTRACTION ................................................................ 10
1.4: MANAGING THE IMPACT OF ROCK AND MINERAL EXTRACTION ......................................... 11
1.5: SUSTAINABLE USE OF ROCKS AND MINERALS ................................................................ 12
UNIT-2: ENERGY AND THE ENVIRONMENT ................................................................... 14
2.1: FOSSIL FUEL FORMATION ............................................................................................ 14
2.2 ENERGY RESOURCES AND THE GENERATION OF ELECTRICITY ......................................... 15
2.3 ENERGY DEMAND ........................................................................................................ 19
2.4 CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF ENERGY SOURCES ............................................. 20
2.5 IMPACT OF OIL POLLUTION ............................................................................................ 23
2.6 MANAGEMENT OF OIL POLLUTION.................................................................................. 24
UNIT-3: AGRICULTURE AND THE ENVIRONMENT......................................................... 28
3.1: SOIL COMPOSITION ..................................................................................................... 28
3.2 SOILS FOR PLANT GROWTH .......................................................................................... 28
3.3: AGRICULTURE TYPES .................................................................................................. 29
3.4: INCREASING AGRICULTURAL YIELDS ............................................................................. 30
3.5 IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE ............................................................................................. 33
3.6 CAUSES AND IMPACTS OF SOIL EROSION ....................................................................... 34
3.7: MANAGING SOIL EROSION............................................................................................ 35
3.8: SUSTAINABLE AGRICULTURE ....................................................................................... 38
UNIT-4: WATER AND ITS MANAGEMENT ....................................................................... 40
4.1: GLOBAL WATER DISTRIBUTION ..................................................................................... 40
4.2: THE W ATER CYCLE .................................................................................................... 40
4.3: W ATER SUPPLY .......................................................................................................... 41
4.4 W ATER USAGE ............................................................................................................ 44
4.5 W ATER QUALITY AND AVAILABILITY ............................................................................... 44
4.6 MULTIPURPOSE DAM PROJECTS.................................................................................... 44
4.7 W ATER POLLUTION AND ITS SOURCES ........................................................................... 46
4.8 IMPACT OF WATER POLLUTION ...................................................................................... 46
4.9 MANAGING POLLUTION OF FRESH WATER ...................................................................... 48
4.10 MANAGING WATER-RELATED DISEASE ......................................................................... 49
UNIT-5: OCEANS AND FISHERIES ................................................................................... 52
5.1: OCEANS AS ARE SOURCE ............................................................................................ 52
5.2 W ORLD FISHERIES ....................................................................................................... 53
5.3 IMPACT OF EXPLOITATION OF THE OCEANS .................................................................... 56
5.4 MANAGEMENT OF THE HARVESTING OF MARINE SPECIES ................................................ 58
UNIT-6: MANAGING NATURALHAZARDS ....................................................................... 62
6.1: EARTHQUAKES AND VOLCANOES ................................................................................. 62
6.2 TROPICAL CYCLONES ................................................................................................... 66
6.3 FLOODING ................................................................................................................... 67
6.4 DROUGHT ................................................................................................................... 67
6.5 THE IMPACTS OF NATURAL HAZARDS ............................................................................. 68
6.6 MANAGING THE IMPACTS OF NATURAL HAZARDS ............................................................ 69
6.7 OPPORTUNITIES PRESENTED BY NATURAL HAZARDS ...................................................... 72
UNIT-7: THE ATMOSPHERE AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES .................................................. 76
7.1: THE ATMOSPHERE ...................................................................................................... 76
7.2 ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION AND ITS CAUSES ................................................................... 78
7.3: IMPACT OF ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION .......................................................................... 81
7.4: MANAGING ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION .......................................................................... 81
UNIT-8: HUMAN POPULATION ......................................................................................... 84
8.1: HUMAN POPULATION DISTRIBUTION AND DENSITY ......................................................... 84
8.2: CHANGES IN POPULATION SIZE .................................................................................... 84
8.3 POPULATION STRUCTURE............................................................................................. 86
8.4 MANAGING HUMAN POPULATION SIZE ............................................................................ 88
UNIT-9: NATURAL ECOSYSTEMS AND HUMAN ACTIVITIES ........................................ 90
9.1: ECOSYSTEMS ............................................................................................................. 90
9.2 ECOSYSTEMS UNDER THREAT ...................................................................................... 93
9.3 DEFORESTATION ......................................................................................................... 94
9.4 MANAGING FORESTS.................................................................................................... 95
9.5 MEASURING AND MANAGING BIODIVERSITY .................................................................... 96
Environmental Management IGCSE Notes
5
U-1: Rocks and Minerals and Their Exploitation
Read & Write Publications
UNIT1
Topics
ROCKS AND
MINERALS
AND THEIR
EXPLOITATION
IGCSE
Environmental management
Topical P-1
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1.1
Formation of Rocks
1.2
Extraction of Rocks And Minerals
From the Earth
1.3
Impact of Rock And Minerals
Extraction
1.4
Managing the Impact of Rock And
Minerals Extraction
1.5
Sustainable Use of Rocks And
Minerals
Environmental Management IGCSE Notes
6
U-1: Rocks and Minerals and Their Exploitation
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UNIT-1: Rocks and Minerals and Their Exploitation
1.1: Formation of rocks
 The rock cycle: a representation of the changes between the three rock types and the
processes causing them.
Magma
Melting
t
Crystallization
/
\
Melting
Metamorphic Rock
Igneous Rock
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Heat & pressure
\
/
Heat & pressure
Weathering, erosion &
deposition
\
Sediment
Weathering, erosion &
deposition
/
\
Sedimentary Rock
Compaction & cementation
 Types of rocks:

Igneous rocks:
o Made when liquid magma cools to form solid rock.
o Molten rock below the surface is called magma, and lava when it reaches the
surface.
o Extrusive igneous rock: if the rock cools quickly, small crystals are formed
e.g.ba salt.
o Intrusive igneous rock: if the rock cools slowly, large crystals are formed e.g.
granite.
 Sedimentary rocks:
o Formed by the weathering of existing rocks at the Earth’s surface.
o Fossils may be present.
o Sediments (small particles of rocks) accumulate into layers and get pressurised
due to the newer deposits above them.
o The sediments are transported by water and wind (erosion).
o Particles like clays, silts, sands, gravels and small boulders are found in
sediments.
o Examples: limestone, sandstone and shale.
 Metamorphic rocks:
o Formed from existing rock when heat and/or pressure causes changes in the
rock crystals without melting it.
o The changes can be physical, chemical or both.
Examples: marble and slate.
Environmental Management IGCSE Notes
7
U-1: Rocks and Minerals and Their Exploitation
Read & Write Publications
1.2: Extraction of rocks and minerals from the Earth
 Exploring for minerals:
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Prospecting: a process of searching for minerals by examining the surface of the
rocks.
Remote sensing: a process in which information is gathered about the Earth’s
surface from above.
o Photographs of the area are taken from air.
o The images are carefully analyzed for mineral presence.
o Aerial photography can cover more ground than a person on the surface.
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Geochemical analysis: analysing the chemical properties of rocks (by taking
samples).
o The samples can be taken from stream sediments, soil or rocks (using shall ow
drilling).
The location of the sample points can be accurately found using the Global
Positioning System (GPS).
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Radiation detection:
o Mineral deposits are weathered at the Earth’s surface, forming mineral oxides.
o They can be detected by their unique radiation pattern (recorded by a satellite
and downloaded to a computer for analysis).
Satellite signals:
o Some satellites send signals to the Earth’s surface and collect the reflected
signals, indicating the presence of minerals.
o The system works in all weather conditions.
Satellite images:
o Computers are used to process the data from
a region of interest to check for mineral
presence.
o Geologists confirm the presence of the mineral
by visiting the location (recorded by the
satellite’s positioning system).
o Geologists can further check the availability of
the mineral in nearby areas.
Using satellites saves time and costs less.
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Environmental Management IGCSE Notes

8
U-1: Rocks and Minerals and Their Exploitation
Read & Write Publications
Geophysics: method to identify mineral ores present in rocks using their physical
properties.
o A series of vibrations (seismic waves) are sent through the Earth’s surface.
o Several sensors are placed at different distances from the source of vibrations
on the surface.
o The vibrations create shock waves that travel down into the rock layers.
o They are reflected back to the sensors on the surface.
o The shock waves record different patterns depending on the mineral present in
the rock layers
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 Methods of extraction
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Surface mining: includes open-cast (open-pit, open- cut) and strip mining.
o Open-pit mining is used when
a valuable deposit is located
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o The vegetation is cleared and
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o The rocks are broken up and
loosened with explosives.
o The loose rock is removed
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o The rock or mineral is tipped
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o Building materials such as
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removed from open pits
called quarries.
o Strip mining is used to mine a seam of mineral.
o The overburden (overlying rock and soil) is removed as a thin strip.
o It is mainly used to mine coal.
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Environmental Management IGCSE Notes
9
U-1: Rocks and Minerals and Their Exploitation
Read & Write Publications
Removing the topsoil and overburden
Excavating the coal
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for rehabilitation
Sub-surface mining: includes deep and shaft mining.
o A vertical shaft is sunk down to the rock layer contain in g minerals.
o A horizontal tunnel is made, following the mineral layer.
o The minerals are extracted by digging (by machines and miners).
o The loose rock is brought from the mine and piled up on waste heaps on the
surface.
o The minerals are brought to the surface and transported in trucks or trains.
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 Factors that affect the decision to extract rocks and minerals:


The costs of exploration and extraction:
o Probable cost of extracting one tone is calculated.
o There are fewer technical difficulties of mining on a large scale using open-pit
mining as there’d be low extraction costs per tonne.
o Shaft mining is costlier to set up and maintain as the cost per tonne will be
higher. So, only deposits of higher value can be mined in this way.
Geology:
o High-grade ores yield more of the required chemical elements than low-grade
ores.
o Small deposits of high-grade ore are worth mining.
o Small deposits of low-grade ore that cannot be mined at a profit are left as
reserves.
Environmental Management IGCSE Notes



10
U-1: Rocks and Minerals and Their Exploitation
Read & Write Publications
Accessibility:
o Transporting the ore from the mine to processing plants can be difficult and
expensive.
o The cost of building road or rail links to the processing plant or to the nearest
port for export has to be considered.
o Carrying out some processing at the mine reduces transport t costs.
o The mining company must be given a licence before extracting a deposit.
o A long-term agreement between the government and mining company must be
reached to avoid rapid rises in the tax, which makes the mining unprofitable.
Environmental impact assessment:
o For a licence application to be approved, the company must have a plan to
keep the loss of habitat minimal, followed by the restoration of land proceeding
the completion of mining.
o The choice of site for mine waste should also be considered.
Supply and demand: the relation between how much of a commodity is available
and how much is needed or wanted by the consumers.
o Increase in world demand for any mineral ore will elevate the prices.
o The profit from a working mine depends on changes in supply and demand.
o If the demand is too high, mines that were not profitable before become worth
mining.
o If the demand falls, working mines may get into a loss due to the transport and
extraction expenses.
1.3: Impact of rock and mineral extraction
 Environmental impacts:



Ecological impacts:
o Loss of habitat as the vegetation is cleared ‫ ؞‬plants do not have a place to grow,
so the animals depending on them for food and shelter are affected.
o After deep mining has been working for several years, more habitats will be
destroyed due to the increased over burden above ground.
Pollution:
o Noise pollution: due to machinery and explosives ‫ ؞‬disturbs the behavior of
animal species and causes hearing problems for people.
o Water pollution: water supplies may also be polluted, making it unsafe for
people to drink.
o The water may become acidic and dissolve toxic metal ions-this combination
kills many aquatic organisms.
o Bioaccumulation: organisms absorb the ions and retain them in their body,
reaching concentration higher than that in water.
o Bio magnification: the concentrations increase higher up in the food chain
and cause the death of top consumers.
o Land pollution: toxic nature of the waste doesn’t allow plant growth even years
after the mining is stopped.
o Air pollution: dust particles settle on the vegetation, not allowing sunlight to
reach the leaves and thus, reducing the rate of photosynthesis.
o Breathing in dust that remains in the lungs can cause serious lung diseases.
o Visual pollution: landscape is damaged.
o Waste management: (refer to section 1.4 Managing the impact of rock and
mineral extraction)
Economic impacts:
o Provides employment for people and taxes for the government.
o Jobs are created directly to extract the mineral;
o Further jobs are created to supply transport and mining equipment;
Environmental Management IGCSE Notes
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11
U-1: Rocks and Minerals and Their Exploitation
Read & Write Publications
More jobs are created when the mineral is refined to make products;
If all these activities occur in the same country, it will generate the most income;
Earn foreign exchange.
The income earned can be used for buying goods and services and investing
in infrastructure projects.
Improvements to transport;
Improvements to services, like healthcare and education;
These services can be helpful for miners and their families too;
Investing in infrastructure projects can help the country in building more welldesigned communities.
1.4: Managing the impact of rock and mineral extraction

Safe disposal of mining waste:
o Mine waste must be stored to prevent collapse.
o Site of the mine must prevent the chances of water pollution.
o The waste must be monitored to detect any movement or further pollution.
 Land restoration:


Soil improvement:
o After (sanitary) landfilling, mine waste can be covered by a layer of soil, that
can be enriched with fertilisers.
Tree planting:
o After improving the soil fertility, plants and trees can be grown in that area,
helping an ecosystem to be reborn.
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Bioremediation: a process of removing pollutants from waste using living
organisms.
o In situ treatment: treatment of contaminated waste where it’s left.
o Ex situ treatment: removal of contaminated waste from a site to a treatment
plant.
o Often happens slowly (can be sped up by providing oxygen and nitrogen).
o Microorganisms, like bacteria, can absorb pollutants and metabolise them into
less harmful substances.
o Some plants have the ability to bio accumulate toxic metals.
o After these plants grows for a while, the parts of the plants aboveground are
removed so the waste in the ground becomes less toxic.
Environmental Management IGCSE Notes
12
U-1: Rocks and Minerals and Their Exploitation
Read & Write Publications
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Making lakes and natural reserves:
o Several tree and herb species are introduced.
o As their populations grow, they create habitats for many species.
o These nature reserves become valuable green spaces for human recreation
and help in maintaining biodiversity.
o If the rock lining the hole (created by the extraction) is non-toxic and impervious
to water, it can be filled with water to form a reservoir or lake.
o It is used for irrigating farmland or processed to provide clean, safe drinking
water for humans.
Using as landfill sites:
o Landfilling: the waste is tipped into a hole; from time to time it is levelled off
and compacted.
o Sanitary landfilling: As in landfilling, the waste is used to fill the hole, but
alternating layers of waste and sand are used.
1.5: Sustainable use of rocks and minerals


Sustainable resource: a resource that can be continuously replenished e.g.
agriculture, forestry, etc.
Sustainable development: development that meets the needs of the present,
without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.
 Strategies for the sustainable use of rocks and minerals:




Increasing the efficiency of the extraction of rocs and minerals:
o Mine wastes must be processed for the second time.
o This allows the valuable minerals to be recovered and reduces the risk of
pollution due to mine waste.
o Chemical treatment of the waste and biological treatment (using
microorganisms) extracts much of the valuable mineral still within it.
o Improvements in the performance of the machines used in mining and
processing.
o Greater use of data analysis by computers (to predict geological conditions).
Increasing the efficiency of the use of rocks and minerals:
o Engineering solutions e.g. design steel beams with same strength but using
less steel.
The need to recycle rocks and minerals:
o Recycling uses less energy than processing the ores.
o Recycling also produces less waste and thus, reduces the risk of pollution.
Legislation:
o The governments pass laws that require manufacturers to become responsible
for recycling and reuse.
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