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Atelectasis - A Medical Dictionary, Bibliography, and Annotated Research Guide to Internet References

ICON Health Publications
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Copyright 2004 by ICON Group International, Inc.
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Publisher, Health Care: Philip Parker, Ph.D.
Editor(s): James Parker, M.D., Philip Parker, Ph.D.
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Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Parker, James N., 1961Parker, Philip M., 1960Atelectasis: A Medical Dictionary, Bibliography, and Annotated Research Guide to Internet References / James N.
Parker and Philip M. Parker, editors
Includes bibliographical references, glossary, and index.
ISBN: 0-497-00109-8
1. Atelectasis-Popular works.
I. Title.
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The collective knowledge generated from academic and applied research summarized in
various references has been critical in the creation of this book which is best viewed as a
comprehensive compilation and collection of information prepared by various official
agencies which produce publications on atelectasis. Books in this series draw from various
agencies and institutions associated with the United States Department of Health and
Human Services, and in particular, the Office of the Secretary of Health and Human Services
(OS), the Administration for Children and Families (ACF), the Administration on Aging
(AOA), the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the Agency for Toxic
Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
(CDC), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Healthcare Financing Administration
(HCFA), the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), the Indian Health
Service (IHS), the institutions of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Program
Support Center (PSC), and the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
(SAMHSA). In addition to these sources, information gathered from the National Library of
Medicine, the United States Patent Office, the European Union, and their related
organizations has been invaluable in the creation of this book. Some of the work represented
was financially supported by the Research and Development Committee at INSEAD. This
support is gratefully acknowledged. Finally, special thanks are owed to Tiffany Freeman for
her excellent editorial support.
About the Editors
James N. Parker, M.D.
Dr. James N. Parker received his Bachelor of Science degree in Psychobiology from the
University of California, Riverside and his M.D. from the University of California, San
Diego. In addition to authoring numerous research publications, he has lectured at various
academic institutions. Dr. Parker is the medical editor for health books by ICON Health
Philip M. Parker, Ph.D.
Philip M. Parker is the Eli Lilly Chair Professor of Innovation, Business and Society at
INSEAD (Fontainebleau, France and Singapore). Dr. Parker has also been Professor at the
University of California, San Diego and has taught courses at Harvard University, the Hong
Kong University of Science and Technology, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Stanford University, and UCLA. Dr. Parker is the associate editor for ICON Health
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Table of Contents
FORWARD .......................................................................................................................................... 1
CHAPTER 1. STUDIES ON ATELECTASIS............................................................................................. 3
Overview........................................................................................................................................ 3
The Combined Health Information Database................................................................................. 3
Federally Funded Research on Atelectasis ..................................................................................... 5
E-Journals: PubMed Central ......................................................................................................... 9
The National Library of Medicine: PubMed .................................................................................. 9
CHAPTER 2. NUTRITION AND ATELECTASIS ................................................................................... 53
Overview...................................................................................................................................... 53
Finding Nutrition Studies on Atelectasis .................................................................................... 53
Federal Resources on Nutrition ................................................................................................... 54
Additional Web Resources ........................................................................................................... 55
CHAPTER 3. ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE AND ATELECTASIS ............................................................ 57
Overview...................................................................................................................................... 57
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine.................................................. 57
Additional Web Resources ........................................................................................................... 60
General References ....................................................................................................................... 60
CHAPTER 4. PATENTS ON ATELECTASIS ......................................................................................... 61
Overview...................................................................................................................................... 61
Patents on Atelectasis .................................................................................................................. 61
Patent Applications on Atelectasis .............................................................................................. 63
Keeping Current .......................................................................................................................... 63
CHAPTER 5. BOOKS ON ATELECTASIS ............................................................................................. 65
Overview...................................................................................................................................... 65
Book Summaries: Online Booksellers........................................................................................... 65
Chapters on Atelectasis ................................................................................................................ 65
CHAPTER 6. PERIODICALS AND NEWS ON ATELECTASIS ............................................................... 67
Overview...................................................................................................................................... 67
News Services and Press Releases................................................................................................ 67
Academic Periodicals covering Atelectasis .................................................................................. 68
APPENDIX A. PHYSICIAN RESOURCES ............................................................................................ 73
Overview...................................................................................................................................... 73
NIH Guidelines............................................................................................................................ 73
NIH Databases............................................................................................................................. 75
Other Commercial Databases....................................................................................................... 77
APPENDIX B. PATIENT RESOURCES ................................................................................................. 79
Overview...................................................................................................................................... 79
Patient Guideline Sources............................................................................................................ 79
Finding Associations.................................................................................................................... 81
APPENDIX C. FINDING MEDICAL LIBRARIES .................................................................................. 83
Overview...................................................................................................................................... 83
Preparation................................................................................................................................... 83
Finding a Local Medical Library.................................................................................................. 83
Medical Libraries in the U.S. and Canada ................................................................................... 83
ONLINE GLOSSARIES.................................................................................................................. 89
Online Dictionary Directories ..................................................................................................... 91
ATELECTASIS DICTIONARY ..................................................................................................... 93
INDEX .............................................................................................................................................. 125
viii Contents
In March 2001, the National Institutes of Health issued the following warning: "The number
of Web sites offering health-related resources grows every day. Many sites provide valuable
information, while others may have information that is unreliable or misleading."1
Furthermore, because of the rapid increase in Internet-based information, many hours can
be wasted searching, selecting, and printing. Since only the smallest fraction of information
dealing with atelectasis is indexed in search engines, such as www.google.com or others, a
non-systematic approach to Internet research can be not only time consuming, but also
incomplete. This book was created for medical professionals, students, and members of the
general public who want to know as much as possible about atelectasis, using the most
advanced research tools available and spending the least amount of time doing so.
In addition to offering a structured and comprehensive bibliography, the pages that follow
will tell you where and how to find reliable information covering virtually all topics related
to atelectasis, from the essentials to the most advanced areas of research. Public, academic,
government, and peer-reviewed research studies are emphasized. Various abstracts are
reproduced to give you some of the latest official information available to date on atelectasis.
Abundant guidance is given on how to obtain free-of-charge primary research results via the
Internet. While this book focuses on the field of medicine, when some sources provide
access to non-medical information relating to atelectasis, these are noted in the text.
E-book and electronic versions of this book are fully interactive with each of the Internet
sites mentioned (clicking on a hyperlink automatically opens your browser to the site
indicated). If you are using the hard copy version of this book, you can access a cited Web
site by typing the provided Web address directly into your Internet browser. You may find
it useful to refer to synonyms or related terms when accessing these Internet databases.
NOTE: At the time of publication, the Web addresses were functional. However, some links
may fail due to URL address changes, which is a common occurrence on the Internet.
For readers unfamiliar with the Internet, detailed instructions are offered on how to access
electronic resources. For readers unfamiliar with medical terminology, a comprehensive
glossary is provided. For readers without access to Internet resources, a directory of medical
libraries, that have or can locate references cited here, is given. We hope these resources will
prove useful to the widest possible audience seeking information on atelectasis.
The Editors
From the NIH, National Cancer Institute (NCI): http://www.cancer.gov/cancerinfo/ten-things-to-know.
In this chapter, we will show you how to locate peer-reviewed references and studies on
The Combined Health Information Database
The Combined Health Information Database summarizes studies across numerous federal
agencies. To limit your investigation to research studies and atelectasis, you will need to use
the advanced search options. First, go to http://chid.nih.gov/index.html. From there, select
the “Detailed Search” option (or go directly to that page with the following hyperlink:
http://chid.nih.gov/detail/detail.html). The trick in extracting studies is found in the drop
boxes at the bottom of the search page where “You may refine your search by.” Select the
dates and language you prefer, and the format option “Journal Article.” At the top of the
search form, select the number of records you would like to see (we recommend 100) and
check the box to display “whole records.” We recommend that you type “atelectasis” (or
synonyms) into the “For these words:” box. Consider using the option “anywhere in record”
to make your search as broad as possible. If you want to limit the search to only a particular
field, such as the title of the journal, then select this option in the “Search in these fields”
drop box. The following is what you can expect from this type of search:
Pros and Cons of Surgical and Non-Surgical Therapy for Gallstones
Source: Endoscopy Review. 7(6): 36, 38. July-August 1990.
Summary: This article addresses the advantages and disadvantages of cholecystectomy,
as well as nonsurgical therapy including oral medication and lithotripsy.
Cholecystectomy not only eliminates symptoms, but eliminates any possibility of
recurrent stones forming. Its disadvantages include mortality, estimated at one in 1,000
for persons under 50 years, and one in 1,500 for those over 50 years. Nonsurgical
techniques are recommended for those over age 60. Other disadvantages include such
complications as thrombophlebitis, pneumonia, atelectasis, or transient ileus. Another
complication is postcholecystectomy syndrome, in which the patient returns
complaining of the same symptoms as before the gallbladder and stones were removed.
Nonsurgical therapy eliminates incisional pain, hospitalization, and home recovery
time. Lithotripsy requires ursodiol therapy and follow-up care, which amount to
additional costs. Based on economics, it is concluded that cholecystectomy may be more
cost-effective over a longer period of time. This potential benefit, however, must be
balanced against the potential decrease of mortality and morbidity with lithotripsy
versus surgery, as well as savings in time lost from work.
Simplified Technique of Upper Pole Heminephrectomy for Duplex Kidney
Source: Journal of Urology. 164(4): 1326-1328. October 2000.
Contact: Available from Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 12107 Insurance Way,
Hagerstown, MD 21740. (800) 638-3030 or (301) 714-2334. Fax (301) 824-7290.
Summary: This article describes a simplified technique of upper pole heminephrectomy
(removal of part of the kidney) in cases of duplex kidney. In this technique, the upper
pole collecting system is entered and the upper pole is excised. The vascular supply to
the upper pole is then easily identified and divided. The upper pole ureter is dissected
below the lower pole vessels and distal ureteral dissection is completed. The authors
report on their experience with performing this technique in 11 girls and 3 boys with a
mean age of 1.8 years who had poor or nonfunctioning upper moieties of duplicated
kidneys. The diagnosis was ectopic ureter in 11 cases and ureterocele with duplication
in 3 cases. Mean surgical time was 95 minutes. Blood loss was not clinically significant
in any patient and mean hospitalization was 2.7 days. The only postoperative
complication was atelectasis, which resolved promptly with medical treatment. There
was no injury to the lower pole ureter or vascular pedicle. The authors conclude that
this technique enables reliable and safe excision of upper pole renal tissue with the
maximal preservation of functioning lower pole parenchyma. This technique may be
performed rapidly and requires only brief hospitalization postoperatively. 5 figures. 23
Eustachian Tube Dysfunction
Source: Otolaryngologic Clinics of North America. 29(3): 437-444. June 1996.
Summary: This article explores the current understanding of eustachian tube
dysfunction. Eustachian tube dysfunction causes or contributes to the development of
acute and chronic serous and suppurative otitis media, cholesteatoma, tympanic
membrane atelectasis, and the syndrome of patulous eustachian tube. The authors
discuss surfactants, or surface-acting agents, in the eustachian tube and middle ear
space; problems with eustachian tube obstruction, including in cleft palate and
tympanic membrane atelectasis; abnormal eustachian tube patency; tests of eustachian
tube function; and long-term middle ear ventilation. 5 figures. 1 table. 23 references.
Atelectatic Ear
Source: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery. 8(5): 369-374.
October 2000.
Contact: Available from Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 12107 Insurance Way,
Hagerstown, MD 21740. (800) 637-3030. Fax (301) 824-7390. Website: www.lww.com.
Summary: This article reviews atelectasis of the tympanic membrane (eardrum), a
problem that occurs as a sequela of chronic otitis media with effusion (OME, middle ear
infection with fluid drainage). Atelactasis is defined as the state in which parts or all of
the tympanic membrane are found to retract medially. Abnormal pressure regulation
and destruction of the fibrous layer of the tympanic membrane tend to contribute to the
progression of this disease process. Atelectasis appears to be a fluctuating problem that
sometimes resolves spontaneously. For patients in whom atelectasis progresses,
treatment modalities include politzerization, insertion of ventilation tubes, and
tympanoplasty with or without mastoidectomy. Treatment is reserved for patients with
symptoms (e.g., aural pressure), conductive hearing loss, or intractably pathologic
conditions such as cholesteatoma. The authors describe an approach to tympanoplasty
with enlargement and reconstruction of the middle ear and placement of ventilation
tubes. This treatment addresses the pathogenesis that contributes to this disease,
provides for expansion of the middle ear space, provides rigid support of the tympanic
membrane, and equalizes pressure in the middle ear with atmospheric pressure. 2
figures. 39 references.
Chronic Otitis Media with Effusion
Source: Pediatrics in Review. 20(3): 85-93. March 1999.
Contact: Available from American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). 141 Northwest Point
Boulevard, Elk Grove Village, IL 60007-1098. (800) 433-9016 (members) or (888) 227-1773
(nonmembers). Fax (847) 434-8000. Website: www.aap.org.
Summary: This continuing education article for pediatricians reviews chronic otitis
media with effusion (OME). The authors break down the percent of cases of chronic
OME that yield bacterial growth on culture and discuss which bacteria they yield. The
authors then describe the effects of antibiotic treatment for acute OM on the long term
resolution of middle ear effusion (MEE). The authors also list the risk factors that
increase the duration of OME and the risk of chronic OME, as well as detail the
percentage of children who experience hearing loss following chronic OME. The authors
conclude by reviewing the care of the child who requires referral to an otolaryngologist
for myringotomy with insertion of ventilation tubes. The authors caution that antibiotic
treatment of acute otitis media and OME has only a minimal effect on the long term
resolution of MEE. If the child has hearing impairment, referral to an otolaryngologist
for myringotomy and tympanostomy tube insertion is a treatment option that is
recommended after 4 months of effusion with hearing loss. Sequelae of chronic OME
include deficient expressive language and poorer attention skills due to the temporary
hearing loss associated with OME, high frequency sensorineural hearing loss, tympanic
membrane atrophy, perforation, retraction, atelectasis, and cholesteatoma. 9 figures. 2
tables. 13 references.
Federally Funded Research on Atelectasis
The U.S. Government supports a variety of research studies relating to atelectasis. These
studies are tracked by the Office of Extramural Research at the National Institutes of
Health.2 CRISP (Computerized Retrieval of Information on Scientific Projects) is a searchable
database of federally funded biomedical research projects conducted at universities,
hospitals, and other institutions.
Healthcare projects are funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Substance Abuse and Mental Health
Services (SAMHSA), Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Food and Drug Administration
(FDA), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDCP), Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ),
and Office of Assistant Secretary of Health (OASH).
Search the CRISP Web site at http://crisp.cit.nih.gov/crisp/crisp_query.generate_screen.
You will have the option to perform targeted searches by various criteria, including
geography, date, and topics related to atelectasis.
For most of the studies, the agencies reporting into CRISP provide summaries or abstracts.
As opposed to clinical trial research using patients, many federally funded studies use
animals or simulated models to explore atelectasis. The following is typical of the type of
information found when searching the CRISP database for atelectasis:
Principal Investigator & Institution: Harris, R S.; Massachusetts General Hospital 55
Fruit St Boston, Ma 02114
Timing: Fiscal Year 2002; Project Start 01-MAR-2001; Project End 31-JAN-2006
Summary: (Adapted from applicant's abstract) The candidate has a background in
engineering whose goal is to used those skills to help solve clinical problems in an
academic critical care environment. The broad, long term objective is to develop
improved strategies of mechanical ventilation in the acute respiratory distress syndrome
(ARDS) to maximize gas exchange and minimize further lung injury. The hypotheses
are: 1) the process of alveolar recruitment depends on the transmission of an air-liquid
interface down the airway to the alveoli and therefore, for the same peak pressure, a
sustained inflation will recruit more than tidal breaths, 2A) the population of opening
and closing pressures can be uniquely determined from a mathematical model of the
lung quasi-static pressure-volume (PV) curve, 2B) nitric oxide gas uptake kinetics,
because of its rapid reaction time with hemoglobin, should not be significantly affected
by pulmonary capillary blood volume and therefore should track changes in alveolar
recruitment, and 3) ARDS is a heterogeneous syndrome, therefore, global measurements
of recruitment may not correspond to local measurements of recruitment. The specific
aims are: 1) to define the parameters of an effective sustained inflation recruitment
maneuver and compare this maneuver to a PEEP increase alone, 2) to determine the
correlation between changes in NO uptake kinetics and the predicted population of
opened alveoli derived from the PV curve in the mechanically ventilated ARDS lung,
and 3) to compare the global measurements of recruitment, such as ARDS lung, and 3)
to compare the global measurements of recruitment, such as lung mechanics and NO
uptake kinetics, with local measurements using positron emission tomography (PET)
including regional gas trapping, atelectasis and shunt. The health relatedness of the
project is in its potential to provide tools and knowledge for clinicians to understand the
role of alveolar recruitment in ARDS and begin to answer the question of the relative
importance of recruitment versus low tidal volumes in protecting the lung from further
injury. The research design and methods utilize both animal experiments and clinical
studies for each of the three specific aims. Recruitment will be assessed by distributions
of opening or closing pressures from the PV curve, NO uptake kinetics, oxygenation,
and helium dilution lung volume. For SA1, different sustained inflation maneuvers will
be tested in lung lavage-injured sheep to identify the characteristics of a maneuver that
will become the standard for the subsequent protocols. Clinical studies will compare the
successful maneuvers from the animal experiments to PEEP increases alone. SA2 will
compare the time course of derecruitment depending on the PEEP level set according to
alveolar closing pressure distributions from the subject's PV curve in both animals and
patients. SA3 will compare local measurements of recruitment by PET with the global
measures of recruitment by NO uptake kinetics and lung mechanics.
Website: http://crisp.cit.nih.gov/crisp/Crisp_Query.Generate_Screen
Principal Investigator & Institution: Gaver, Donald P.; Professor & Assistant Chair;
Tulane University of Louisiana New Orleans, La New Orleans, La 70112
Timing: Fiscal Year 2003; Project Start 01-MAY-2003; Project End 30-APR-2006
Website: http://crisp.cit.nih.gov/crisp/Crisp_Query.Generate_Screen
Principal Investigator & Institution: Pilon, Aprile L.; Claragen, Inc. 12300 Washington
Ave, Ste 200 Rockville, Md 20852
Timing: Fiscal Year 2003; Project Start 30-SEP-2003; Project End 30-SEP-2004
Summary: (provided by applicant): Recombinant human CC 10 is a novel therapeutic
agent that is currently in clinical development for prevention of bronchopulmonary
dysplasia (BPD) in preterm infants. CC10 is also known as clara cell secretory protein
(CCSP) or uteroglobin and is produced primarily by tracheal and bronchial epithelia.
The protein appears to have potent anti-inflammatory properties, one of which is
inhibition of secretory phospholipase-2 (sPLA2). Several studies in CC10-deficient mice
indicate that CC10 is very important in developing and maintaining normal lung
function. Endogenous CC 10 is deficient in the lungs of preterm infants such that rhCC
10 is currently being administered as a replacement, analogous to exogenous surfactant
in premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Other lung pathology
may also be ameliorated by the introduction of rhCC10 into the lung. In term infants, the
aspiration of meconium into the airway (either in utero or immediately after birth)
causes acute lung injury, characterized by surfactant inactivation, atelectasis and
pulmonary inflammation, sPLA2 is present in meconium and is thought to play a
significant role in the pathogenesis of the injury process. While surfactant replacement
therapy has been used in the treatment of meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), often
the pulmonary inflammatory response is so fulminant that this therapy is ineffective in
treating the acute lung injury (possibly due to inactivation of the exogenous surfactant).
Since rhCC 10 is an anti-inflammatory agent with known ability to inhibit sPLA2, we
propose to verify the ability of rhCC 10 to inhibit sPLA2 activity in meconium (in vitro)
and to test its efficacy in an animal model of MAS in newborn piglets (in vivo).
Website: http://crisp.cit.nih.gov/crisp/Crisp_Query.Generate_Screen
Principal Investigator & Institution: Ingenito, Edward P.; Associate Professor; Brigham
and Women's Hospital 75 Francis Street Boston, Ma 02115
Timing: Fiscal Year 2002; Project Start 01-MAY-1999; Project End 30-NOV-2006
Summary: (provided by applicant): Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) is an
effective adjunct to medical treatment for end stage emphysema. Clinical results suggest
that LVRS works by eliminating areas of severely diseased and dysfunctional lung. We
previously hypothesized that effective volume reduction might be possible using a nonsurgical approach to cause permanent atelectasis of specific target regions. By
collapsing these regions and applying a fibrin-based sealant, we have shown that it is
possible to achieve lung volume reduction without surgery in a sheep model of
emphysema. While these studies confirmed our initial hypothesis, they have also
demonstrated several important shortcomings. BVR achieved solely by mechanical
collapse and application of fibrin sealant is frequently incomplete. Only 1/2 to 1/3 of
the target regions remained collapsed at 2month follow-up. Furthermore, several target
regions developed tissue necrosis. To address these limitations, we have modified our
approach to BVR. A new generation of reagents has been developed which modulates
local cellular responses, and promotes fibroblast in-growth and scar formation without
necrosis. Preliminary studies indicate that these modifications address the limitations
identified in our original study. We now hypothesize that: improved BVR can be
achieved using washout solution + glue reagents which cause site-specific collapse, and
modulation of fibroblast and epithelial cell biology to generate controlled, efficient scar
formation. The objectives of this proposal are to: 1) characterize physiological and
biological responses using these improved reagents in a sheep model of emphysema,
and 2) compare results to those obtained using conventional surgical therapy. We
believe that by accomplishing these objectives, we can help advance this technology into
the clinical arena.
Website: http://crisp.cit.nih.gov/crisp/Crisp_Query.Generate_Screen
Principal Investigator & Institution: Frank, James A.; Cardiovascular Research Inst;
University of California San Francisco 500 Parnassus Ave San Francisco, Ca 941222747
Timing: Fiscal Year 2002; Project Start 01-JUL-2002; Project End 30-JUN-2007
Summary: (provided by applicant): Recent clinical studies have found that low tidal
volume ventilation dramatically decreases mortality from the acute respiratory distress
syndrome; however, the mechanism of the protective effect is not completely
understood. The overall hypothesis of the proposed studies is that high tidal volumes
injure the alveolar epithelium by inducing stretch-responsive changes in lung
macrophages and alveolar epithelial cells that promote inflammation and impair
alveolar epithelial sodium and fluid transport. Preservation of alveolar fluid transport is
both a marker of epithelial injury and a mechanism by which ventilator-associated lung
injury is attenuated because 1) flooding of the alveolar airspace contributes to the
overdistention and injury of other, air-filled alveoli, and 2) airspace edema inactivates
surfactant promoting atelectasis and lung volume loss. Aim 1 will determine whether
mechanical ventilation activates alveolar and interstitial macropha-es in normal lungs
and if macrophages are important in the amplification of alveolar epithelial and lung
endothelial injury in a clinically relevant rat model of ventilator-associated lung injury.
Preliminary data indicate that higher tidal volumes within a clinically- applicable range
induce a greater increase in plasma IL-113 in this model. Alveolar epithelial injury as
measured by biochemical markers, functional markers, and histology is incrementally
reduced as tidal volume is decreased from 12 ml/kg to 3 ml/kg, at similar levels of endexpiratory pressure. Aim 2 will determine whether products of macrophage activation
inhibit alveolar epithelial fluid transport and whether impaired alveolar epithelial
sodium and fluid transport is important in the pathogenesis of VALI in murine models.
Preliminary data show that alveolar epithelial sodium and fluid transport decrease as
tidal volume is increased. Aim 3 will determine whether the activation of macrophagederived TGF-beta2 by the epithelial integrin alpha1beta2 is important to alveolar
epithelial and lung endothelial injury in ventilator-associated lung injury. Preliminary
data show that the absence of beta2 integrin confers protection from acute lung injury.
The environment at the Cardiovascular Research Institute, including mentoring,
laboratory facilities, scientific conferences, and formal coursework will provide me with
an ideal setting to further advance my skills as an investigator. This research and
comprehensive career development plan will prepare me to become an independent
investigator in the mechanisms of alveolar epithelial injury and ventilator-associated
lung injury.
Website: http://crisp.cit.nih.gov/crisp/Crisp_Query.Generate_Screen
E-Journals: PubMed Central3
PubMed Central (PMC) is a digital archive of life sciences journal literature developed and
managed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the U.S. National
Library of Medicine (NLM).4 Access to this growing archive of e-journals is free and
unrestricted.5 To search, go to http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?db=Pmc,
and type “atelectasis” (or synonyms) into the search box. This search gives you access to
full-text articles. The following is a sample of items found for atelectasis in the PubMed
Central database:
The Acute Effects of Atelectasis on the Pulmonary Circulation. by Niden AH.; 1964
The National Library of Medicine: PubMed
One of the quickest and most comprehensive ways to find academic studies in both English
and other languages is to use PubMed, maintained by the National Library of Medicine.6
The advantage of PubMed over previously mentioned sources is that it covers a greater
number of domestic and foreign references. It is also free to use. If the publisher has a Web
site that offers full text of its journals, PubMed will provide links to that site, as well as to
sites offering other related data. User registration, a subscription fee, or some other type of
fee may be required to access the full text of articles in some journals.
To generate your own bibliography of studies dealing with atelectasis, simply go to the
PubMed Web site at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed. Type “atelectasis” (or
synonyms) into the search box, and click “Go.” The following is the type of output you can
expect from PubMed for atelectasis (hyperlinks lead to article summaries):
Adapted from the National Library of Medicine: http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/about/intro.html.
With PubMed Central, NCBI is taking the lead in preservation and maintenance of open access to electronic
literature, just as NLM has done for decades with printed biomedical literature. PubMed Central aims to become a
world-class library of the digital age.
5 The value of PubMed Central, in addition to its role as an archive, lies in the availability of data from diverse
sources stored in a common format in a single repository. Many journals already have online publishing operations,
and there is a growing tendency to publish material online only, to the exclusion of print.
6 PubMed was developed by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) at the National Library of
Medicine (NLM) at the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The PubMed database was developed in conjunction
with publishers of biomedical literature as a search tool for accessing literature citations and linking to full-text
journal articles at Web sites of participating publishers. Publishers that participate in PubMed supply NLM with
their citations electronically prior to or at the time of publication.
A breathing tape: a non-invasive prophylaxis/preventative measure for post-surgical
atelectasis which supplies, rather than requires, patient motivation.
Author(s): Altschuler E.
Source: Medical Hypotheses. 1999 July; 53(1): 78-9.
A case of angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia (AILD)
together with total atelectasis of a lung caused by lymphadenopathy and pleural
Author(s): Yoshii C, Kurita Y, Noda Y, Kido M.
Source: J Uoeh. 2000 March 1; 22(1): 7-12.
A comparative study of IPPB, the incentive spirometer, and blow bottles: the
prevention of atelectasis following cardiac surgery.
Author(s): Iverson LI, Ecker RR, Fox HE, May IA.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 1978 March; 25(3): 197-200.
A comparison of intrapulmonary percussive ventilation and conventional chest
physiotherapy for the treatment of atelectasis in the pediatric patient.
Author(s): Deakins K, Chatburn RL.
Source: Respiratory Care. 2002 October; 47(10): 1162-7.
Acute lobar atelectasis: a prospective comparison of fiberoptic bronchoscopy and
respiratory therapy.
Author(s): Marini JJ, Pierson DJ, Hudson LD.
Source: Am Rev Respir Dis. 1979 June; 119(6): 971-8.
Adenosine-deaminase-deficient mice die perinatally and exhibit liver-cell
degeneration, atelectasis and small intestinal cell death.
Author(s): Migchielsen AA, Breuer ML, van Roon MA, te Riele H, Zurcher C, Ossendorp
F, Toutain S, Hershfield MS, Berns A, Valerio D.
Source: Nature Genetics. 1995 July; 10(3): 279-87.
Airway burns and atelectasis in an adolescent following aspiration of molten wax.
Author(s): Einav S, Braverman I, Yatsiv I, Avital A, Rothschild M.
Source: The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology. 2000 July; 109(7): 687-9.
Airway closure, atelectasis and gas exchange during anaesthesia.
Author(s): Hedenstierna G.
Source: Minerva Anestesiol. 2002 May; 68(5): 332-6. Review.
Airway closure, atelectasis and gas exchange during general anaesthesia.
Author(s): Rothen HU, Sporre B, Engberg G, Wegenius G, Hedenstierna G.
Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia. 1998 November; 81(5): 681-6.
An infrequent cause of pulmonary atelectasis during mechanical ventilation.
Author(s): Casanueva J, Gilsanz FJ, Hernando P, Navarro E, Avello F.
Source: British Journal of Anaesthesia. 1981 March; 53(3): 319.
Analysis of frequency of pulmonary atelectasis in patients undergoing pectoralis
major musculocutaneous flap reconstruction.
Author(s): Manni JJ.
Source: Head & Neck. 1995 July-August; 17(4): 359.
Asbestos-related rounded atelectasis. Radiologic and mineralogic data in 23 cases.
Author(s): Voisin C, Fisekci F, Voisin-Saltiel S, Ameille J, Brochard P, Pairon JC.
Source: Chest. 1995 February; 107(2): 477-81.
Aspergillus bronchitis causing atelectasis and acute respiratory failure in an
immunocompromised patient.
Author(s): Routsi C, Platsouka E, Prekates A, Rontogianni D, Paniara O, Roussos C.
Source: Infection. 2001 August; 29(4): 243-4.
Atelectasis after abdominal surgery.
Author(s): Platell C, Hall JC.
Source: Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 1997 December; 185(6): 584-92.
Atelectasis and chest wall shape during halothane anesthesia.
Author(s): Warner DO, Warner MA, Ritman EL.
Source: Anesthesiology. 1996 July; 85(1): 49-59.
Atelectasis and chronic suppurative otitis media.
Author(s): Pulec JL, Deguine C.
Source: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal. 1997 May; 76(5): 290.
Atelectasis and gas exchange after cardiac surgery.
Author(s): Tenling A, Hachenberg T, Tyden H, Wegenius G, Hedenstierna G.
Source: Anesthesiology. 1998 August; 89(2): 371-8.
Atelectasis and its prevention during anaesthesia.
Author(s): Hedenstierna G.
Source: European Journal of Anaesthesiology. 1998 July; 15(4): 387-90.
Atelectasis and mucus plugging in spinal cord injury: case report and therapeutic
Author(s): Slonimski M, Aguilera EJ.
Source: J Spinal Cord Med. 2001 Winter; 24(4): 284-8.
Atelectasis and pulmonary shunting during induction of general anaesthesia--can
they be avoided?
Author(s): Rothen HU, Sporre B, Engberg G, Wegenius G, Reber A, Hedenstierna G.
Source: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 1996 May; 40(5): 524-9.
Atelectasis associated with mechanical ventilation for hyaline membrane disease.
Author(s): Whitfield JM, Jones MD Jr.
Source: Critical Care Medicine. 1980 December; 8(12): 729-31.
Atelectasis formation during anesthesia: causes and measures to prevent it.
Author(s): Hedenstierna G, Rothen HU.
Source: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing. 2000; 16(5-6): 329-35. Review.
Atelectasis in children.
Author(s): Raman TS, Mathew S, Ravikumar, Garcha PS.
Source: Indian Pediatrics. 1998 May; 35(5): 429-35.
Atelectasis of the lung: bronchoscopic lavage with acetylcysteine. Experience in 51
Author(s): Perruchoud A, Ehrsam R, Heitz M, Kopp C, Tschan M, Herzog H.
Source: Eur J Respir Dis Suppl. 1980; 111: 163-8. No Abstract Available.
Atelectasis on pediatric chest CT: comparison of sedation techniques.
Author(s): Sargent MA, McEachern AM, Jamieson DH, Kahwaji R.
Source: Pediatric Radiology. 1999 July; 29(7): 509-13.
Atelectasis or collapse? Do those who use the former imply a neonatal aetiology?
Author(s): Wright FW.
Source: The British Journal of Radiology. 2001 September; 74(885): 874-5.
Atelectasis, retraction pockets and cholesteatoma.
Author(s): Sade J, Avraham S, Brown M.
Source: Acta Oto-Laryngologica. 1981 November-December; 92(5-6): 501-12.
Atelectasis--an unusual and late complication of lung transplant.
Author(s): Zhao Y, Al-Kaade S, Keller CA, deMello DE.
Source: Clinical Transplantation. 2002 June; 16(3): 233-9.
Attic cholesteatoma with atelectasis.
Author(s): Deguine C, Pulec JL.
Source: Ear, Nose, & Throat Journal. 1998 February; 77(2): 84.
Atypical manifestations of pulmonary atelectasis.
Author(s): Gurney JW.
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging. 1996 Summer; 11(3): 165-75. Review.
Bedside bronchofiberscopy for atelectasis and lung abscess.
Author(s): Wanner A, Landa JF, Nieman RE Jr, Vevaina J, Delgado I.
Source: Jama : the Journal of the American Medical Association. 1973 May 28; 224(9):
Bilateral intraoperative atelectasis in a child with latex allergy.
Author(s): Gebhard R, Pivalizza EG, Nasri S, Chelly JE.
Source: Anesthesiology. 2000 October; 93(4): 1147-9.
Bilobar atelectasis after difficult tracheal intubation.
Author(s): Sprung J, Lozada LJ, Zanettin G, Banoub M.
Source: Anaesthesia. 1997 December; 52(12): 1207-11.
Bronchial artery aneurysm as a cause of atelectasis.
Author(s): Oka M, Fukuda M, Terashi K, Takatani H, Narasaki F, Nakano R, Tsurutani J,
Nakamura Y, Kasai T, Nagashima S, Noguchi Y, Soda H, Kohno S.
Source: Intern Med. 1997 December; 36(12): 917-9.
Bronchial leiomyoma with atelectasis in the left lower lobe.
Author(s): Hamatake M, Ishida T, Fukuyama Y, Yamazaki K, Sugio K, Sugimachi K.
Source: Jpn J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2002 February; 50(2): 77-80.
Bronchial stenting and high-frequency percussive ventilation treatment of
descending aortic aneurysm-induced atelectasis of the left lung.
Author(s): Heringlake M, Schumacher J, Sedemund-Adib B, Bahlmann L, Eleftheriadis
S, Sievers HH, Dalhoff K, Schmucker P.
Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2002 November; 95(5): 1189-91, Table of Contents.
Bronchiolitis obliterans. Unilateral fibrous obliteration of the lumen of bronchi with
Author(s): Kargi HA, Kuhn C 3rd.
Source: Chest. 1988 May; 93(5): 1107-8.
Bronchogenic cyst causing repeated left lung atelectasis in an adult.
Author(s): Ikard RW.
Source: The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 1972 October; 14(4): 434-9.
Bronchoscopic insufflation in lobar atelectasis.
Author(s): Ntoumenopoulos G.
Source: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 1996 December; 24(6): 730-1.
Bronchoscopic insufflation of room air for the treatment of lobar atelectasis in
mechanically ventilated patients.
Author(s): van Heerden PV, Jacob W, Cameron PD, Webb S.
Source: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 1995 April; 23(2): 175-7.
Bronchoscopically administered recombinant human DNase for lobar atelectasis in
cystic fibrosis.
Author(s): Slattery DM, Waltz DA, Denham B, O'Mahony M, Greally P.
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology. 2001 May; 31(5): 383-8.
Bronchoscopy for atelectasis in the ICU: a case report and review of the literature.
Author(s): Kreider ME, Lipson DA.
Source: Chest. 2003 July; 124(1): 344-50. Review.
Bronchospasm and "reflex right upper lobe atelectasis".
Author(s): Sprung J, Schoenwald PK, Hayden J.
Source: Anesthesiology. 1998 September; 89(3): 803.
Bronchostenosis due to sarcoidosis: a cause of atelectasis and airway obstruction
simulating pulmonary neoplasm and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Author(s): Olsson T, Bjornstad-Pettersen H, Stjernberg NL.
Source: Chest. 1979 June; 75(6): 663-6.
Can fiberoptic bronchoscopy reverse acute lobar atelectasis?
Author(s): Myers DJ.
Source: Indiana Med. 1986 July; 79(7): 593-5. No Abstract Available.
Canalplasty for chronic tympanic membrane atelectasis.
Author(s): Garside JA, Antonelli PJ, Singleton GT.
Source: American Journal of Otolaryngology. 1999 January-February; 20(1): 2-6.
Case of the season. Lobar atelectasis due to sarcoidosis.
Author(s): Fisher MS.
Source: Semin Roentgenol. 1992 April; 27(2): 82-4. No Abstract Available.
Chest physical therapy for acute atelectasis. A report on its effectiveness.
Author(s): Hammon WE, Martin RJ.
Source: Physical Therapy. 1981 February; 61(2): 217-20.
Chest physiotherapy and post-extubation atelectasis in infants.
Author(s): Al-Alaiyan S, Dyer D, Khan B.
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology. 1996 April; 21(4): 227-30.
Chest physiotherapy fails to prevent postoperative atelectasis in children after cardiac
Author(s): Reines HD, Sade RM, Bradford BF, Marshall J.
Source: Annals of Surgery. 1982 April; 195(4): 451-5.
Chest X-ray quiz. Atelectasis of the left lung.
Author(s): Reading M.
Source: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing : the Official Journal of the British Association
of Critical Care Nurses. 2002 February; 18(1): 67-8.
Chest x-ray quiz. Atelectasis.
Author(s): Reading M.
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Chest X-ray quiz. Complete left lung atelectasis.
Author(s): Reading M.
Source: Aust Crit Care. 1997 September; 10(3): 88, 106. No Abstract Available.
Chest X-ray quiz. Hilar shadow and left upper lobe atelectasis.
Author(s): Reading M.
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of Critical Care Nurses. 2003 June; 19(3): 169-70.
Chest X-ray quiz. Right middle lobe consolidation/atelectasis from pneumonia.
Author(s): Reading M.
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of Critical Care Nurses. 2003 February; 19(1): 41, 42.
Chest x-ray quiz. The likely problem is a light middle lobe consolidation/atelectasis
from pneumonia.
Author(s): Reading M.
Source: Aust Crit Care. 2002 November; 15(4): 146, 152. No Abstract Available.
Chest-wall collapse as a complication of atelectasis.
Author(s): Gurney JW, Schroeder BA.
Source: Journal of Thoracic Imaging. 1989 April; 4(2): 87-9.
Chronic bronchial collapse and lower lobe atelectasis. Computed tomographicbronchoscopic correlation.
Author(s): Barone M, Gaeta M, Romeo P.
Source: Chest. 1993 August; 104(2): 651-2.
Chronic maxillary atelectasis in a child.
Author(s): Kass ES, Salman S, Montgomery WW.
Source: The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology. 1998 July; 107(7): 623-5.
Chronic maxillary atelectasis.
Author(s): Kass ES, Salman S, Rubin PA, Weber AL, Montgomery WW.
Source: The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology. 1997 February; 106(2): 10916.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and anaesthesia: formation of atelectasis and
gas exchange impairment.
Author(s): Gunnarsson L, Tokics L, Lundquist H, Brismar B, Strandberg A, Berg B,
Hedenstierna G.
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Clinical Respiratory Physiology. 1991 October; 4(9): 1106-16.
Clinical findings in middle lobe syndrome and other processes of pulmonary
shrinkage in children (atelectasis syndrome).
Author(s): Ring-Mrozik E, Hecker WC, Nerlich A, Krandick G.
Source: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery : Official Journal of Austrian Association
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Combined atelectasis of right upper and middle lobes: a clinical study of 15 cases.
Author(s): Chiang CS, Chiang CD.
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Combined lobar atelectasis of the right lung: imaging findings.
Author(s): Lee KS, Logan PM, Primack SL, Muller NL.
Source: Ajr. American Journal of Roentgenology. 1994 July; 163(1): 43-7.
Comparable postoperative pulmonary atelectasis in patients given 30% or 80%
oxygen during and 2 hours after colon resection.
Author(s): Akca O, Podolsky A, Eisenhuber E, Panzer O, Hetz H, Lampl K, Lackner FX,
Wittmann K, Grabenwoeger F, Kurz A, Schultz AM, Negishi C, Sessler DI.
Source: Anesthesiology. 1999 October; 91(4): 991-8.
Computed tomography diagnosis of post-obstructive atelectasis by an endobronchial
Author(s): Liu KL, Chang YC, Lee YC, Chen SJ, Lee WJ.
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Computed tomography of rounded atelectasis.
Author(s): Ren H, Hruban RH, Kuhlman JE, Fishman EK, Wheeler PS, Zerhouni EA,
Hutchins GM.
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Constitutional factors promoting development of atelectasis during anaesthesia.
Author(s): Strandberg A, Tokics L, Brismar B, Lundquist H, Hedenstierna G.
Source: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 1987 January; 31(1): 21-4.
Controlled operative atelectasis in non-pulmonary intrathoracic surgery with
endobronchial anaesthesia.
Author(s): Das PB, Phansopkar AJ.
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Correlation of gas exchange impairment to development of atelectasis during
anaesthesia and muscle paralysis.
Author(s): Hedenstierna G, Tokics L, Strandberg A, Lundquist H, Brismar B.
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CT appearances of rounded atelectasis.
Author(s): Stephenson N, Price J.
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CT features of rounded atelectasis.
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CT of subpulmonic pleural effusions and atelectasis: criteria for differentiation from
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Densities in dependent lung regions during anaesthesia: atelectasis or fluid
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Detection of massive atelectasis in cholangiograms during surgery.
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Determining the cause of pulmonary atelectasis: a comparison of plain radiography
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Developmental changes in the antrum of a child with chronic maxillary atelectasis.
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Diagnostic implications and treatment of massive spontaneous atelectasis in
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Differential lung physiotherapy using a double lumen tube in flail chest and
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Differential lung ventilation with a double-lumen tracheostomy tube in unilateral
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Direct tracheobronchial suction for massive post-extubation atelectasis in premature
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DNase treatment for atelectasis in infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus
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Dynamics of re-expansion of atelectasis during general anaesthesia.
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Effect of cardiac output on gas exchange in one-lung atelectasis.
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Effect of chest physical therapy on the prevention of atelectasis in children following
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Effect of combined kinetic therapy and percussion therapy on the resolution of
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Effect of maxillomandibular fixation on the incidence of postoperative pulmonary
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Effects of electrical surface stimulation on control of acute postoperative pain and
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Effects of lobar atelectasis on the distribution of pleural effusion and pneumothorax.
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Effects of recruitment maneuver on atelectasis in anesthetized children.
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Electrical surface stimulation for treatment and prevention of ileus and atelectasis.
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Endobronchial eosinophilic granuloma: a rare cause of total lung atelectasis.
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Endobronchial fibroma: An unusual case of segmental atelectasis.
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Etiology and prevention of topical cardiac hypothermia-induced phrenic nerve injury
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Evaluation of a rebreathing tube for preventing atelectasis.
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Evaluation of chronic atelectasis in children using chest computed tomography and
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Evaluation of the reliability of computed tomographic criteria used in the diagnosis
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Exaggerated atelectasis of prematurity. A complication of recovery from the
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Exogenous particles in lymph nodes in patients with shrinking pleuritis with
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Exogenous particles in lymph nodes in patients with shrinking pleuritis with
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False-positive technetium 99m depreotide scintigraphy resulting from round
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Fascia and perichondrium atrophy in tympanoplasty and recurrent middle ear
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Fiberoptic bronchoscopic balloon occlusion and reexpansion of refractory unilateral
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Focal uptake of sulfur colloid in an area of atelectasis.
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Gas uptake from an unventilated area of lung: computer model of absorption
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Identification of rounded atelectasis in workers exposed to asbestos by contrast
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Images in clinical medicine. Mucous plug in the bronchus causing lung collapse.
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Imaging evaluation of obstructive atelectasis.
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Immunological abnormalities in shrinking pleuritis with atelectasis.
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Importance of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction with atelectasis.
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Improvement in right lung atelectasis (middle lobe syndrome) following
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Improvement of 'dynamic analgesia' does not decrease atelectasis after thoracotomy.
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Incidence and significance of lobar atelectasis in thoracic surgical patients.
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Incidence of contralateral pulmonary atelectasis after thoracotomy; an evaluation of
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Incidental detection of atelectasis on Tc-99m MDP bone scans.
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Increased inspiratory pressure for reduction of atelectasis in children anesthetized for
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Induced atelectasis of the middle ear and its clinical behavior.
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Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of the lung manifesting as progressive
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Influence of age on atelectasis formation and gas exchange impairment during
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New aspects on atelectasis formation and gas exchange impairment during
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Primary bronchopulmonary leiomyosarcoma of the left main bronchus in a child
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Prognosis of patients with rounded atelectasis undergoing long-term hemodialysis.
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Pulmonary atelectasis after anaesthesia: pathophysiology and management.
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Pulmonary atelectasis during paediatric anaesthesia: CT scan evaluation and effect of
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Pulmonary atelectasis following upper urinary tract surgery on patients in the 25
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Pulmonary circulatory adaptation to acute atelectasis in man.
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Pulmonary vascular response to atelectasis.
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Radiology quiz case 2. Silent sinus syndrome: maxillary sinus atelectasis with
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Recurrent lobar atelectasis due to acquired bronchial stenosis in neonates.
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Reducing atelectasis attenuates bacterial growth and translocation in experimental
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Right hilar pseudomass due to partial right lower lobe atelectasis.
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Right middle lobe atelectasis associated with endobronchial silicotic lesions.
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Round (helical) atelectasis.
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Round atelectasis.
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Round atelectasis: another pulmonary pseudotumor.
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Rounded atelectasis and its association with asbestos-induced pleural disease.
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Rounded pulmonary atelectasis.
Author(s): Nass PC, Breuking FA, van Heesewijk JP.
Source: J Belge Radiol. 1997 December; 80(6): 304. No Abstract Available.
Safety of endotracheal rh DNAse (Pulmozyme) for treatment of pulmonary atelectasis
in mechanically ventilated children.
Author(s): Boeuf B, Prouix F, Morneau S, Marton D, Lacroix J.
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology. 1998 August; 26(2): 147.
Scoliosis as cause of pulmonary atelectasis.
Author(s): ter Wee PM, Luth WJ, van der Schee AC, Stam J.
Source: The European Respiratory Journal : Official Journal of the European Society for
Clinical Respiratory Physiology. 1991 March; 4(3): 371-3.
Segmental atelectasis and pulmonary shunting in acute bronchial asthma and status
Author(s): Lecks HI, Wood DW, Downes J.
Source: Ann Allergy. 1965 December; 23(12): 636-40. No Abstract Available.
Selective bronchial intubation for acute post-operative atelectasis in neonates and
Author(s): Rode H, Millar AJ, Stunden RJ, Cywes S.
Source: Pediatric Radiology. 1988; 18(6): 494-6.
Shrinking pleuritis with atelectasis.
Author(s): Dernevik L, Gatzinsky P, Hultman E, Selin K, William-Olsson G, Zettergren
Source: Thorax. 1982 April; 37(4): 252-8.
Shrinking pleuritis with atelectasis.
Author(s): Dernevik L.
Source: American Journal of Industrial Medicine. 1989; 16(4): 451-4.
Shrinking pleuritis with atelectasis. Specificity of abnormalities present at
conventional radiography of the lung.
Author(s): Dernevik L, Brolin I, Larsson S, Selin K, Tylen U, William-Olsson G.
Source: Acta Radiol Diagn (Stockh). 1985 March-April; 26(2): 181-5.
Shrinking pleuritis with lobar atelectasis, a morphologic variant of "round
Author(s): Chung-Park M, Tomashefski JF Jr, Cohen AM, el-Gazzar M, Cotes EE.
Source: Human Pathology. 1989 April; 20(4): 382-7.
Simulated paraspinal tumor or abscess by rounded atelectasis of the lower lobe.
Author(s): Melamed M, Langston HT, Reynes C, Barker WL.
Source: Chest. 1975 April; 67(4): 497-500.
Spontaneous resolution of multilobar atelectasis secondary to fibrinous mediastinitis.
Author(s): Chipps BE, Shinnar S, Pickard LR, Garfinkel DJ, Haller JA Jr.
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics. 1982 June; 100(6): 935-7.
Squamous cell carcinoma coexisting in rounded atelectasis: diagnostic pitfalls.
Author(s): Nakazono T, Nakamura Y, Satoh T, Sakuragi T, Sakao Y, Kudo S.
Source: Ajr. American Journal of Roentgenology. 2004 January; 182(1): 79-80.
Status asthmaticus complicated by atelectasis in a child.
Author(s): Kita Y, Sahara H, Yoshita Y, Shibata K, Ishise J, Kobayashi T.
Source: The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. 1995 March; 13(2): 164-7.
Stress, deformation, and atelectasis of the lung.
Author(s): Fung YC.
Source: Circulation Research. 1975 October; 37(4): 481-96.
Successful treatment of acute atelectasis with acetylcysteine.
Author(s): Weiner AA, Steinvurzel B.
Source: N Y State J Med. 1966 June 1; 66(11): 1355-7. No Abstract Available.
Sudden infant death from atelectasis due to amniotic fluid aspiration.
Author(s): Ikeda N, Yamakawa M, Imai Y, Suzuki T.
Source: The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology : Official Publication
of the National Association of Medical Examiners. 1989 December; 10(4): 340-3.
Surfactant displacement by meconium free fatty acids: an alternative explanation for
atelectasis in meconium aspiration syndrome.
Author(s): Clark DA, Nieman GF, Thompson JE, Paskanik AM, Rokhar JE, Bredenberg
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics. 1987 May; 110(5): 765-70.
Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion in neonates with
pneumothorax or atelectasis.
Author(s): Paxson CL Jr, Stoerner JW, Denson SE, Adcock EW 3rd, Morriss FH Jr.
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics. 1977 September; 91(3): 459-63.
Thallium and FDG uptake by atelectasis with bronchogenic carcinoma.
Author(s): Kawabe J, Okamura T, Shakudo M, Koyama K, Wanibuchi H, Shimonishi Y,
Ochi H, Yamada R.
Source: Ann Nucl Med. 1999 August; 13(4): 273-6.
The "lung pulse": an early ultrasound sign of complete atelectasis.
Author(s): Lichtenstein DA, Lascols N, Prin S, Meziere G.
Source: Intensive Care Medicine. 2003 December; 29(12): 2187-92. Epub 2003 October 14.
The alveolar lining layer: a review of studies on its role in pulmonary mechanics and
in the pathogenesis of atelectasis, by Mary Ellen Avery, MD, Pediatrics, 1962:30:324330.
Author(s): Jobe CA.
Source: Pediatrics. 1998 July; 102(1 Pt 2): 234-6.
The association of asbestos-induced pleural disease and rounded atelectasis.
Author(s): Mintzer RA, Cugell DW.
Source: Chest. 1982 April; 81(4): 457-60.
The Bartlett-Edwards incentive spirometer: a preliminary assessment of its use in the
prevention of atelectasis after cardio-pulmonary bypass.
Author(s): Gale GD, Sanders DE.
Source: Can Anaesth Soc J. 1977 May; 24(3): 408-16.
The case of the round atelectasis.
Author(s): Seaman WB.
Source: Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 1982 September; 17(9): 96S-96X. No Abstract Available.
The effect of increased FIO(2) before tracheal extubation on postoperative atelectasis.
Author(s): Benoit Z, Wicky S, Fischer JF, Frascarolo P, Chapuis C, Spahn DR,
Magnusson L.
Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia. 2002 December; 95(6): 1777-81, Table of Contents.
The effect of intraoperative ventilation strategies on perioperative atelectasis.
Author(s): Clarke JP, Schuitemaker MN, Sleigh JW.
Source: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 1998 June; 26(3): 262-6.
The effect of mechanical vibration physiotherapy on arterial oxygenation in acutely
ill patients with atelectasis or pneumonia.
Author(s): Holody B, Goldberg HS.
Source: Am Rev Respir Dis. 1981 October; 124(4): 372-5.
The effect of nasal continuous positive airway pressure on normal ears and on ears
with atelectasis.
Author(s): Yung MW.
Source: The American Journal of Otology. 1999 September; 20(5): 568-72.
The effects of obesity, smoking, age, and pulmonary disease on atelectasis.
Author(s): Schweiger JF.
Source: Nurs Care. 1977 November; 10(11): 26-8. No Abstract Available.
The image of the round atelectasis in the transverse plane: a CT study.
Author(s): Bozon LA.
Source: Diagn Imaging. 1982; 51(6): 301-10.
The role of neonatal chest physiotherapy in preventing postextubation atelectasis.
Author(s): Bloomfield FH, Teele RL, Voss M, Knight DB, Harding JE.
Source: The Journal of Pediatrics. 1998 August; 133(2): 269-71.
The use of selective bronchography in predicting reversal of neoplastic obstructive
Author(s): Downie GH, Childs CJ, Landucci DL, Khurshid I, Vos P, Whatley R.
Source: Chest. 2003 March; 123(3): 828-34.
Thymus simulating left upper lobe atelectasis.
Author(s): Lanning P, Heikkinen E.
Source: Pediatric Radiology. 1980 April; 9(3): 177-8.
Tracheal diverticulum with recurrent apnea and segmental pulmonary atelectasis.
Author(s): Danis RK.
Source: Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 1982 April; 17(2): 182-3.
Transient marked atelectasis: an unusual complication of asthma in pregnancy.
Author(s): Onyeije CI, Sherer DM, Ham L, Weiss N, Sylvester G.
Source: American Journal of Perinatology. 1999; 16(10): 521-4.
Treatment and prognosis of lobar and segmental atelectasis in cystic fibrosis.
Author(s): Stern RC, Boat TF, Orenstein DM, Wood RE, Matthews LW, Doershuk CF.
Source: Am Rev Respir Dis. 1978 November; 118(5): 821-6.
Treatment of refractory lobar atelectasis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis with PEEP.
Author(s): Kiss GT, Rao K.
Source: Chest. 1980 August; 78(2): 353-4.
Ultrathin fiberoptic bronchoscopy for airway toilet in neonatal pulmonary atelectasis.
Author(s): Shinwell ES.
Source: Pediatric Pulmonology. 1992 May; 13(1): 48-9.
Unilateral atelectasis in asthma.
Author(s): Brashear RE, Meyer SC, Manion MW.
Source: Chest. 1973 May; 63(5): 847-9.
Unilateral pulmonary oedema/atelectasis in the lateral decubitus position.
Author(s): Baraka A, Moghrabi R, Yazigi A.
Source: Anaesthesia. 1987 February; 42(2): 171-4.
Unusual pattern of left lower lobe atelectasis.
Author(s): Glay J, Palayew MJ.
Source: Radiology. 1981 November; 141(2): 331-3.
Urban variation in infant mortality from birth injury and atelectasis in England and
Wales in 1958-67.
Author(s): Stocks P.
Source: J Hyg (Lond). 1972 March; 70(1): 181-96. No Abstract Available.
Use of a double-lumen endotracheal tube with independent lung ventilation for
treatment of refractory atelectasis.
Author(s): Bochenek KJ, Brown M, Skupin A.
Source: Anesthesia and Analgesia. 1987 October; 66(10): 1014-7.
Use of a nasal continuous positive airway pressure mask in the treatment of
postoperative atelectasis in aortocoronary bypass surgery.
Author(s): Pinilla JC, Oleniuk FH, Tan L, Rebeyka I, Tanna N, Wilkinson A, Bharadwaj
Source: Critical Care Medicine. 1990 August; 18(8): 836-40.
Utility of immediate postlobectomy fiberoptic bronchoscopy in preventing
Author(s): Jaworski A, Goldberg SK, Walkenstein MD, Wilson B, Lippmann ML.
Source: Chest. 1988 July; 94(1): 38-43.
V/Q distribution and correlation to atelectasis in anesthetized paralyzed humans.
Author(s): Tokics L, Hedenstierna G, Svensson L, Brismar B, Cederlund T, Lundquist H,
Strandberg A.
Source: Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). 1996 October; 81(4): 182233.
Ventilation-perfusion relationships and atelectasis formation in the supine and
lateral positions during conventional mechanical and differential ventilation.
Author(s): Klingstedt C, Hedenstierna G, Baehrendtz S, Lundqvist H, Strandberg A,
Tokics L, Brismar B.
Source: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 1990 August; 34(6): 421-9.
Ventilator-associated pneumonia and atelectasis: evaluation through bronchoalveolar
lavage fluid analysis.
Author(s): Nakos G, Tsangaris H, Liokatis S, Kitsiouli E, Lekka ME.
Source: Intensive Care Medicine. 2003 April; 29(4): 555-63. Epub 2003 February 21.
Vestibular atelectasis.
Author(s): Merchant SN, Schuknecht HF.
Source: The Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology. 1988 NovemberDecember; 97(6 Pt 1): 565-76.
Ways of reducing atelectasis and improving oxygen uptake form the lungs.
Author(s): Voss TJ.
Source: South African Medical Journal. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde. 1973
May 12; 47(18): 761-3.
What is the role of absorption atelectasis in the genesis of perioperative pulmonary
Author(s): Joyce CJ, Baker AB.
Source: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care. 1995 December; 23(6): 691-6. Review.
When fiberoptic bronchoscopy is indicated in the management of postoperative
Author(s): Tabboush ZS, Ayash RH, Badran HM.
Source: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica. 1998 March; 42(3): 384.
Yawn maneuver to prevent atelectasis.
Author(s): Cahill CA.
Source: Aorn Journal. 1978 April; 27(5): 1000-4.
In this chapter, we will show you how to find studies dedicated specifically to nutrition and
Finding Nutrition Studies on Atelectasis
The National Institutes of Health’s Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) offers a searchable
bibliographic database called the IBIDS (International Bibliographic Information on Dietary
Supplements; National Institutes of Health, Building 31, Room 1B29, 31 Center Drive, MSC
2086, Bethesda, Maryland 20892-2086, Tel: 301-435-2920, Fax: 301-480-1845, E-mail:
[email protected]). The IBIDS contains over 460,000 scientific citations and summaries about
dietary supplements and nutrition as well as references to published international, scientific
literature on dietary supplements such as vitamins, minerals, and botanicals.7 The IBIDS
includes references and citations to both human and animal research studies.
As a service of the ODS, access to the IBIDS database is available free of charge at the
following Web address: http://ods.od.nih.gov/databases/ibids.html. After entering the
search area, you have three choices: (1) IBIDS Consumer Database, (2) Full IBIDS Database,
or (3) Peer Reviewed Citations Only.
Now that you have selected a database, click on the “Advanced” tab. An advanced search
allows you to retrieve up to 100 fully explained references in a comprehensive format. Type
“atelectasis” (or synonyms) into the search box, and click “Go.” To narrow the search, you
can also select the “Title” field.
Adapted from http://ods.od.nih.gov. IBIDS is produced by the Office of Dietary Supplements (ODS) at the
National Institutes of Health to assist the public, healthcare providers, educators, and researchers in locating
credible, scientific information on dietary supplements. IBIDS was developed and will be maintained through an
interagency partnership with the Food and Nutrition Information Center of the National Agricultural Library, U.S.
Department of Agriculture.
The following information is typical of that found when using the “Full IBIDS Database” to
search for “atelectasis” (or a synonym):
Dynamics of lung collapse and recruitment during prolonged breathing in porcine
lung injury.
Author(s): Department of Clinical Physiology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala 75185,
Source: Neumann, P Berglund, J E Mondejar, E F Magnusson, A Hedenstierna, G JAppl-Physiol. 1998 October; 85(4): 1533-43 8750-7587
Effect of different pressure levels on the dynamics of lung collapse and recruitment
in oleic-acid-induced lung injury.
Author(s): Department of Clinical Physiology, Department of Anesthesiology, and
Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Uppsala, Uppsala, Sweden.
Source: Neumann, P Berglund, J E Mondejar, E F Magnusson, A Hedenstierna, G Am-JRespir-Crit-Care-Med. 1998 November; 158(5 Pt 1): 1636-43 1073-449X
Recurrent pulmonary atelectasis as a manifestation of familial Mediterranean fever.
Source: Brauman, A Gilboa, Y Arch-Intern-Med. 1987 February; 147(2): 378-9 0003-9926
Federal Resources on Nutrition
In addition to the IBIDS, the United States Department of Health and Human Services
(HHS) and the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) provide many sources of
information on general nutrition and health. Recommended resources include:
healthfinder®, HHS’s gateway to health information, including diet and nutrition:
The United States Department of Agriculture’s Web site dedicated to nutrition
information: www.nutrition.gov
The Food and Drug Administration’s Web site for federal food safety information:
The National Action Plan on Overweight and Obesity sponsored by the United States
Surgeon General: http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/obesity/
The Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition has an Internet site sponsored by the
Food and Drug Administration and the Department of Health and Human Services:
Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion sponsored by the United States Department
of Agriculture: http://www.usda.gov/cnpp/
Food and Nutrition Information Center, National Agricultural Library sponsored by the
United States Department of Agriculture: http://www.nal.usda.gov/fnic/
Food and Nutrition Service sponsored by the United States Department of Agriculture:
Additional Web Resources
A number of additional Web sites offer encyclopedic information covering food and
nutrition. The following is a representative sample:
AOL: http://search.aol.com/cat.adp?id=174&layer=&from=subcats
Family Village: http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/med_nutrition.html
Google: http://directory.google.com/Top/Health/Nutrition/
Healthnotes: http://www.healthnotes.com/
Open Directory Project: http://dmoz.org/Health/Nutrition/
Yahoo.com: http://dir.yahoo.com/Health/Nutrition/
WebMDHealth: http://my.webmd.com/nutrition
WholeHealthMD.com: http://www.wholehealthmd.com/reflib/0,1529,00.html
In this chapter, we will begin by introducing you to official information sources on
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) relating to atelectasis. At the conclusion of
this chapter, we will provide additional sources.
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) of the
National Institutes of Health (http://nccam.nih.gov/) has created a link to the National
Library of Medicine’s databases to facilitate research for articles that specifically relate to
atelectasis and complementary medicine. To search the database, go to the following Web
site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/nccam/camonpubmed.html. Select “CAM on PubMed.” Enter
“atelectasis” (or synonyms) into the search box. Click “Go.” The following references
provide information on particular aspects of complementary and alternative medicine that
are related to atelectasis:
A case of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the bronchus producing cancer-associated
antigen, CA19-9.
Author(s): Tamura S, Nakano T, Yamaguchi K, Terada M, Maeda J, Iwahashi N, Hada T,
Higashino K.
Source: Intern Med. 1992 March; 31(3): 363-7.
A case-control study of postoperative pulmonary complications after laparoscopic and
open cholecystectomy.
Author(s): Hall JC, Tarala RA, Hall JL.
Source: J Laparoendosc Surg. 1996 April; 6(2): 87-92.
A solitary bronchial papilloma with malignant changes.
Author(s): Inoue Y, Oka M, Ishii H, Kimino K, Kishikawa M, Ito M, Ito T, Nakashima M,
Kohno S.
Source: Intern Med. 2001 January; 40(1): 56-60. Review.
Acute lobar atelectasis. A comparison of two chest physiotherapy regimens.
Author(s): Stiller K, Geake T, Taylor J, Grant R, Hall B.
Source: Chest. 1990 December; 98(6): 1336-40.
Adult respiratory distress in pregnancy: critical care issues.
Author(s): Surratt N, Troiano NH.
Source: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing : Jognn / Naacog. 1994
November-December; 23(9): 773-80. Review.
Alveolar-arterial O2 differences in man at 0.2, 1.0, 2.0, and 3.5 Ata inspired PO2.
Author(s): Clark JM, Lambertsen CJ.
Source: Journal of Applied Physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985). 1971 May; 30(5): 753-63.
Anesthetic management of infants having surgery on the heart or great vessels: report
on 33 cases under one year of age.
Author(s): Caldwell TB 3rd, Almond A.
Source: Southern Medical Journal. 1973 September; 66(9): 1003-110.
Atelectasis/pneumonia: prevention for the abdominal surgical patient.
Author(s): Dexeus R.
Source: Dimens Oncol Nurs. 1989 Winter; 3(4): 26-8. No Abstract Available.
Bronchiectasis in indigenous children in remote Australian communities.
Author(s): Chang AB, Grimwood K, Mulholland EK, Torzillo PJ; Working Group on
Indigenous Paediatric Respiratory Health.
Source: The Medical Journal of Australia. 2002 August 19; 177(4): 200-4. Review.
Cardiac arrest in 20 infants and children: causes and results of resuscitation.
Author(s): GREENBERG HB.
Alternative Medicine 59
Source: Dis Chest. 1965 January; 47: 42-6. No Abstract Available.
Chest physical therapy for patients in the intensive care unit.
Author(s): Ciesla ND.
Source: Physical Therapy. 1996 June; 76(6): 609-25. Review.
Chest physical therapy: comparative efficacy of preoperative and postoperative in the
Author(s): Castillo R, Haas A.
Source: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. 1985 June; 66(6): 376-9.
Chest physiotherapy--the mechanical approach to antiinfective therapy in cystic
Author(s): Zach MS, Oberwaldner B.
Source: Infection. 1987; 15(5): 381-4. Review.
cis-Platinum (DDP) and VP 16-213 (etoposide) combination chemotherapy for
advanced non-small cell lung cancer. A phase II clinical trial.
Author(s): Mitrou PS, Graubner M, Berdel WE, Mende S, Gropp C, Diehl V, Klippstein
Source: Eur J Cancer Clin Oncol. 1984 March; 20(3): 347-51.
Comparison of thoracic manipulation with incentive spirometry in preventing
postoperative atelectasis.
Author(s): Sleszynski SL, Kelso AF.
Source: J Am Osteopath Assoc. 1993 August; 93(8): 834-8, 843-5.
Postoperative atelectasis and pneumonia.
Author(s): Brooks-Brunn JA.
Source: Heart & Lung : the Journal of Critical Care. 1995 March-April; 24(2): 94-115.
Preventing postoperative atelectasis.
Author(s): Collart ME, Brenneman JK.
Source: The American Journal of Nursing. 1971 October; 71(10): 1982-7.
The immediate effects of deep breathing exercises on atelectasis and oxygenation
after cardiac surgery.
Author(s): Westerdahl E, Lindmark B, Eriksson T, Hedenstierna G, Tenling A.
Source: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal : Scj. 2003 December; 37(6): 363-7.
Additional Web Resources
A number of additional Web sites offer encyclopedic information covering CAM and related
topics. The following is a representative sample:
Alternative Medicine Foundation, Inc.: http://www.herbmed.org/
AOL: http://search.aol.com/cat.adp?id=169&layer=&from=subcats
Chinese Medicine: http://www.newcenturynutrition.com/
drkoop.com: http://www.drkoop.com/InteractiveMedicine/IndexC.html
Family Village: http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/med_altn.htm
Google: http://directory.google.com/Top/Health/Alternative/
Healthnotes: http://www.healthnotes.com/
Open Directory Project: http://dmoz.org/Health/Alternative/
HealthGate: http://www.tnp.com/
WebMDHealth: http://my.webmd.com/drugs_and_herbs
WholeHealthMD.com: http://www.wholehealthmd.com/reflib/0,1529,00.html
Yahoo.com: http://dir.yahoo.com/Health/Alternative_Medicine/
General References
A good place to find general background information on CAM is the National Library of
Medicine. It has prepared within the MEDLINEplus system an information topic page
dedicated to complementary and alternative medicine. To access this page, go to the
MEDLINEplus site at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/alternativemedicine.html.
This Web site provides a general overview of various topics and can lead to a number of
general sources.
Patents can be physical innovations (e.g. chemicals, pharmaceuticals, medical equipment) or
processes (e.g. treatments or diagnostic procedures). The United States Patent and
Trademark Office defines a patent as a grant of a property right to the inventor, issued by
the Patent and Trademark Office.8 Patents, therefore, are intellectual property. For the
United States, the term of a new patent is 20 years from the date when the patent application
was filed. If the inventor wishes to receive economic benefits, it is likely that the invention
will become commercially available within 20 years of the initial filing. It is important to
understand, therefore, that an inventor’s patent does not indicate that a product or service is
or will be commercially available. The patent implies only that the inventor has “the right to
exclude others from making, using, offering for sale, or selling” the invention in the United
States. While this relates to U.S. patents, similar rules govern foreign patents.
In this chapter, we show you how to locate information on patents and their inventors. If
you find a patent that is particularly interesting to you, contact the inventor or the assignee
for further information. IMPORTANT NOTE: When following the search strategy
described below, you may discover non-medical patents that use the generic term
“atelectasis” (or a synonym) in their titles. To accurately reflect the results that you might
find while conducting research on atelectasis, we have not necessarily excluded non-medical
patents in this bibliography.
Patents on Atelectasis
By performing a patent search focusing on atelectasis, you can obtain information such as
the title of the invention, the names of the inventor(s), the assignee(s) or the company that
owns or controls the patent, a short abstract that summarizes the patent, and a few excerpts
from the description of the patent. The abstract of a patent tends to be more technical in
nature, while the description is often written for the public. Full patent descriptions contain
much more information than is presented here (e.g. claims, references, figures, diagrams,
etc.). We will tell you how to obtain this information later in the chapter. The following is an
from the United States Patent and Trademark Office:
example of the type of information that you can expect to obtain from a patent search on
Endotracheal suction catheter
Inventor(s): Dodson; Marian L. (4500 15th St., Gulfport, MS 39501)
Assignee(s): none reported
Patent Number: 4,795,447
Date filed: July 6, 1987
Abstract: An improved endotracheal suction catheter significantly reduces the
probability of segmental atelectasis or mucosal ingestion, by providing a number of
spacing blades proximal the inserted tip of the catheter, of a size sufficient to prevent the
tubular surface of the catheter from mucosal contact and to prevent bronchial collapse
under suction. The tip of the catheter is closed and suction is applied through a plurality
of openings located between and distal of the spacing blades. The blades insure
continued suction flow throughout the bronchial structure, while preventing mechanical
collapse of the bronchial structure or mucosal ingestion into the suction opening. The
blades further serve to prevent excessive insertion of the catheter into the bronchial tree
during intubation.
Excerpt(s): This invention relates generally to catheters, specifically to endotracheal
suction catheters, particularly of that class that are sterile, self-contained, and lubricated.
The specific invention is of a form of such a catheter that, in use, significantly reduces
the risk of segmental atelectasis distal to the catheter, and thus, significantly reduces the
risk of trauma induced pneumonia in a patient. In general, such a catheter is used on a
postoperative, respiratory compromised, comatose, or anesthetized patient for
suctioning liquid secretions which may occur within the bronchial system of the lungs.
Such an application is usually a procedure performed in conjunction with other actions
to maintain and restore proper breathing and oxygenation within this type patient. The
application of suction through a catheter within the bronchial system poses a constant
risk of suction clamping of the catheter to the mucosa, with resulting trauma to the
bronchial mucosal structure and the probability of swelling and/or bleeding occurring,
increasing the risk of pneumonia. A more serious danger occurs because of the swelling
of the mucosa and consequent restriction in the bronchial passageways incident to those
medical conditions requiring the use of catheter suction to clear liquid from the lungs.
The restricted bronchial passages raise a constant risk that an excessive insertion of the
catheter will block the bronchia; and the suction will then collapse entirely that portion
of the bronchial tree sealed off by the over-insertion of the catheter. Such a collapse is
generally irreversible; the resulting segmental atelectasis results in reduction of the
breathing capacity of the lung, subsequent pneumonia, and creates a high risk of
mortality in the compromised patient.
Web site: http://www.delphion.com/details?pn=US04795447__
Patents 63
Patent Applications on Atelectasis
As of December 2000, U.S. patent applications are open to public viewing.9 Applications are
patent requests which have yet to be granted. (The process to achieve a patent can take
several years.) The following patent applications have been filed since December 2000
relating to atelectasis:
Bronchiopulmonary occulsion devices and lung volume reduction methods
Inventor(s): Shaw, David Peter; (Christchurch, NZ)
Correspondence: Stephanie Seidman; Heller Ehrman White & Mcauliffe; 7th Floor; 4350
LA Jolla Village Drive; San Diego; CA; 92122-1246; US
Patent Application Number: 20030164168
Date filed: April 7, 2003
Abstract: Lung volume reduction is performed by the placement of a device (2) into a
branch of the airway (34) to prevent air from entering that portion of lung. This will
result in adsorption atelectasis of the distal portion of lung. The physiological response
in this portion of lung is hypoxic vaso-constriction. The net effect is for a portion of lung
to be functionally removed, i.e. a selected portion of lung is removed from both the
circulation and ventilation. The build up of secretions is accommodated by using a valve
(5, 15, 29) in the obstructive device, the valve opening upon coughing etc.
Excerpt(s): The present invention relates to devices for bronchiopulmonary occlusion,
inter alia for inducing lung volume reduction, and surgical procedures using such
devices, including methods of lung volume reduction. Emphysematous lungs are
characterised by abnormally large air spaces. Lung compliance characteristics are such
that the lung is `too large` for its pleural cavity. Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS)
was developed as an intervention procedure to alleviate respiratory distress in a patient
with a minimal reserve. In this procedure, a portion of less efficient lung is removed
under general anaesthetic, allowing the remaining lung to expand. The net effect is,
paradoxically to improve respiratory function by excising a section of lung. LVRS is
associated with moderate mortality, approximately 5% and frequently high morbidity
such as prolonged air leakage. To optimiise patient outcome, selection criteria are strict
and an extensive pre- and postoperative physiotherapy programme is undertaken. The
length of hospitalisation for the surgery and initial postoperative care can be in the order
of threemonths. The intervention, as a whole, is a very expensive procedure and
generally is7 not covered by insurance schemes. In the USA, this high cost has resulted
in the procedure being substantially funded within FDA approved trials.
Web site: http://appft1.uspto.gov/netahtml/PTO/search-bool.html
Keeping Current
In order to stay informed about patents and patent applications dealing with atelectasis, you
can access the U.S. Patent Office archive via the Internet at the following Web address:
http://www.uspto.gov/patft/index.html. You will see two broad options: (1) Issued Patent,
and (2) Published Applications. To see a list of issued patents, perform the following steps:
Under “Issued Patents,” click “Quick Search.” Then, type “atelectasis” (or synonyms) into
This has been a common practice outside the United States prior to December 2000.
the “Term 1” box. After clicking on the search button, scroll down to see the various patents
which have been granted to date on atelectasis.
You can also use this procedure to view pending patent applications concerning atelectasis.
Simply go back to http://www.uspto.gov/patft/index.html. Select “Quick Search” under
“Published Applications.” Then proceed with the steps listed above.
This chapter provides bibliographic book references relating to atelectasis. In addition to
online booksellers such as www.amazon.com and www.bn.com, excellent sources for book
titles on atelectasis include the Combined Health Information Database and the National
Library of Medicine. Your local medical library also may have these titles available for loan.
Book Summaries: Online Booksellers
Commercial Internet-based booksellers, such as Amazon.com and Barnes&Noble.com, offer
summaries which have been supplied by each title’s publisher. Some summaries also
include customer reviews. Your local bookseller may have access to in-house and
commercial databases that index all published books (e.g. Books in Print). IMPORTANT
NOTE: Online booksellers typically produce search results for medical and non-medical
books. When searching for “atelectasis” at online booksellers’ Web sites, you may discover
non-medical books that use the generic term “atelectasis” (or a synonym) in their titles. The
following is indicative of the results you might find when searching for “atelectasis” (sorted
alphabetically by title; follow the hyperlink to view more details at Amazon.com):
Lung Function After Cardiac Surgery: With Special Reference to Atelectasis and
Ventilation-Perfusion Relationships by Arne Tenling; ISBN: 915544475X;
Chapters on Atelectasis
In order to find chapters that specifically relate to atelectasis, an excellent source of abstracts
is the Combined Health Information Database. You will need to limit your search to book
chapters and atelectasis using the “Detailed Search” option. Go to the following hyperlink:
http://chid.nih.gov/detail/detail.html. To find book chapters, use the drop boxes at the
bottom of the search page where “You may refine your search by.” Select the dates and
language you prefer, and the format option “Book Chapter.” Type “atelectasis” (or
synonyms) into the “For these words:” box. The following is a typical result when searching
for book chapters on atelectasis:
Source: in Graham, S.D., Jr., et al., eds. Glenn's Urologic Surgery. 5th ed. Philadelphia,
PA: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 1998. p. 147-153.
Contact: Available from Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. P.O. Box 1600, Hagerstown,
MD 21741. (800) 638-3030 or (301) 714-2300. Fax (301) 824-7390. Website: lww.com.
PRICE: $199.00 plus shipping and handling. ISBN: 0397587376.
Summary: Nephroureterectomy with excision of a cuff of bladder is the classic surgical
procedure for carcinoma of the renal pelvis or ureter. This chapter on
nephroureterectomy is from an exhaustive textbook on urologic surgery. The author
notes that malignant tumors of the upper urinary tract are uncommon; most of these
upper tract tumors are transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Approximately 80 percent of
patients with TCC present with hematuria (blood in the urine). Intravenous
pyelography (IVP) is the initial study of choice in the evaluation of a patient suspected
of having a renal pelvic or ureteral tumor. The author reviews indications for surgery,
alternative therapy, and the surgical techniques used, focusing on the two incision
approach. Early complications include hemorrhage, wound infection, pneumothorax,
atelectasis, and pneumonia. Meticulous dissection around the renal vessels, aorta, and
vena cava will aid in decreasing intraoperative blood loss. The author cautions that
patients treated with a conservative approach (distal ureterectomy and
ureteroneocystostomy) are at increased risk of local recurrence and require frequent and
careful followup including IVPs, retrograde pyelograms, and endoscopies. The survival
rate after nephroureterectomy is dependent on the stage and grade of the tumor.
Superficial low grade tumors rarely metastasize and, when adequately treated, rarely
decrease life expectancy. Invasive lesions have a higher metastatic rate and are
associated with a poorer prognosis. Patients with low grade and high grade tumors
have approximately 80 percent and 20 percent survival at 5 years, respectively. 8 figures.
6 references.
In this chapter, we suggest a number of news sources and present various periodicals that
cover atelectasis.
News Services and Press Releases
One of the simplest ways of tracking press releases on atelectasis is to search the news wires.
In the following sample of sources, we will briefly describe how to access each service. These
services only post recent news intended for public viewing.
PR Newswire
To access the PR Newswire archive, simply go to http://www.prnewswire.com/. Select your
country. Type “atelectasis” (or synonyms) into the search box. You will automatically
receive information on relevant news releases posted within the last 30 days. The search
results are shown by order of relevance.
Reuters Health
The Reuters’ Medical News and Health eLine databases can be very useful in exploring
news archives relating to atelectasis. While some of the listed articles are free to view, others
are available for purchase for a nominal fee. To access this archive, go to
http://www.reutershealth.com/en/index.html and search by “atelectasis” (or synonyms).
The following was recently listed in this archive for atelectasis:
Obstructive Atelectasis Occurs Frequently In Small-Cell Lung Cancer Cases
Source: Reuters Medical News
Date: February 11, 1997
Within MEDLINEplus, the NIH has made an agreement with the New York Times
Syndicate, the AP News Service, and Reuters to deliver news that can be browsed by the
public. Search news releases at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/alphanews_a.html.
MEDLINEplus allows you to browse across an alphabetical index. Or you can search by date
at the following Web page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/newsbydate.html. Often,
news items are indexed by MEDLINEplus within its search engine.
Business Wire
Business Wire is similar to PR Newswire. To access this archive, simply go to
http://www.businesswire.com/. You can scan the news by industry category or company
Market Wire
Market Wire is more focused on technology than the other wires. To browse the latest press
releases by topic, such as alternative medicine, biotechnology, fitness, healthcare, legal,
nutrition, and pharmaceuticals, access Market Wire’s Medical/Health channel at
http://www.marketwire.com/mw/release_index?channel=MedicalHealth. Or simply go to
Market Wire’s home page at http://www.marketwire.com/mw/home, type “atelectasis” (or
synonyms) into the search box, and click on “Search News.” As this service is technology
oriented, you may wish to use it when searching for press releases covering diagnostic
procedures or tests.
Search Engines
Medical news is also available in the news sections of commercial Internet search engines.
See the health news page at Yahoo (http://dir.yahoo.com/Health/News_and_Media/), or
you can use this Web site’s general news search page at http://news.yahoo.com/. Type in
“atelectasis” (or synonyms). If you know the name of a company that is relevant to
atelectasis, you can go to any stock trading Web site (such as http://www.etrade.com/) and
search for the company name there. News items across various news sources are reported
on indicated hyperlinks. Google offers a similar service at http://news.google.com/.
Covering news from a more European perspective, the British Broadcasting Corporation
(BBC) allows the public free access to their news archive located at http://www.bbc.co.uk/.
Search by “atelectasis” (or synonyms).
Academic Periodicals covering Atelectasis
Numerous periodicals are currently indexed within the National Library of Medicine’s
PubMed database that are known to publish articles relating to atelectasis. In addition to
Periodicals and News
these sources, you can search for articles covering atelectasis that have been published by
any of the periodicals listed in previous chapters. To find the latest studies published, go to
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed, type the name of the periodical into the search box,
and click “Go.”
If you want complete details about the historical contents of a journal, you can also visit the
following Web site: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/jrbrowser.cgi. Here, type in the
name of the journal or its abbreviation, and you will receive an index of published articles.
At http://locatorplus.gov/, you can retrieve more indexing information on medical
periodicals (e.g. the name of the publisher). Select the button “Search LOCATORplus.” Then
type in the name of the journal and select the advanced search option “Journal Title Search.”
In this chapter, we focus on databases and Internet-based guidelines and information
resources created or written for a professional audience.
NIH Guidelines
Commonly referred to as “clinical” or “professional” guidelines, the National Institutes of
Health publish physician guidelines for the most common diseases. Publications are
available at the following by relevant Institute10:
Office of the Director (OD); guidelines consolidated across agencies available at
National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS); fact sheets available at
National Library of Medicine (NLM); extensive encyclopedia (A.D.A.M., Inc.) with
guidelines: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/healthtopics.html
National Cancer Institute (NCI); guidelines available at
National Eye Institute (NEI); guidelines available at
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI); guidelines available at
National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI); research available at
National Institute on Aging (NIA); guidelines available at
These publications are typically written by one or more of the various NIH Institutes.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA); guidelines available at
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID); guidelines available at
National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS); fact
sheets and guidelines available at http://www.niams.nih.gov/hi/index.htm
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD); guidelines
available at http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/pubskey.cfm
National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (NIDCD); fact
sheets and guidelines at http://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/
National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR); guidelines available at
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK); guidelines
available at http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health/health.htm
National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA); guidelines available at
National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS); environmental health
information available at http://www.niehs.nih.gov/external/facts.htm
National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH); guidelines available at
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS); neurological disorder
information pages available at
National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR); publications on selected illnesses at
National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; general information at
Center for Information Technology (CIT); referrals to other agencies based on keyword
searches available at http://kb.nih.gov/www_query_main.asp
National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM); health
information available at http://nccam.nih.gov/health/
National Center for Research Resources (NCRR); various information directories
available at http://www.ncrr.nih.gov/publications.asp
Office of Rare Diseases; various fact sheets available at
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; various fact sheets on infectious diseases
available at http://www.cdc.gov/publications.htm
Physician Resources
NIH Databases
In addition to the various Institutes of Health that publish professional guidelines, the NIH
has designed a number of databases for professionals.11 Physician-oriented resources
provide a wide variety of information related to the biomedical and health sciences, both
past and present. The format of these resources varies. Searchable databases, bibliographic
citations, full-text articles (when available), archival collections, and images are all available.
The following are referenced by the National Library of Medicine:12
Bioethics: Access to published literature on the ethical, legal, and public policy issues
surrounding healthcare and biomedical research. This information is provided in
conjunction with the Kennedy Institute of Ethics located at Georgetown University,
Washington, D.C.: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/databases/databases_bioethics.html
HIV/AIDS Resources: Describes various links and databases dedicated to HIV/AIDS
research: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/factsheets/aidsinfs.html
NLM Online Exhibitions: Describes “Exhibitions in the History of Medicine”:
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/exhibition.html. Additional resources for historical
scholarship in medicine: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/hmd/hmd.html
Biotechnology Information: Access to public databases. The National Center for
Biotechnology Information conducts research in computational biology, develops
software tools for analyzing genome data, and disseminates biomedical information for
the better understanding of molecular processes affecting human health and disease:
Population Information: The National Library of Medicine provides access to
worldwide coverage of population, family planning, and related health issues, including
family planning technology and programs, fertility, and population law and policy:
Cancer Information: Access to cancer-oriented databases:
Profiles in Science: Offering the archival collections of prominent twentieth-century
biomedical scientists to the public through modern digital technology:
Chemical Information: Provides links to various chemical databases and references:
Clinical Alerts: Reports the release of findings from the NIH-funded clinical trials
where such release could significantly affect morbidity and mortality:
Space Life Sciences: Provides links and information to space-based research (including
NASA): http://www.nlm.nih.gov/databases/databases_space.html
MEDLINE: Bibliographic database covering the fields of medicine, nursing, dentistry,
veterinary medicine, the healthcare system, and the pre-clinical sciences:
Remember, for the general public, the National Library of Medicine recommends the databases referenced in
MEDLINEplus (http://medlineplus.gov/ or http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/databases.html).
12 See http://www.nlm.nih.gov/databases/databases.html.
Toxicology and Environmental Health Information (TOXNET): Databases covering
toxicology and environmental health: http://sis.nlm.nih.gov/Tox/ToxMain.html
Visible Human Interface: Anatomically detailed, three-dimensional representations of
normal male and female human bodies:
The NLM Gateway13
The NLM (National Library of Medicine) Gateway is a Web-based system that lets users
search simultaneously in multiple retrieval systems at the U.S. National Library of Medicine
(NLM). It allows users of NLM services to initiate searches from one Web interface,
providing one-stop searching for many of NLM’s information resources or databases.14 To
use the NLM Gateway, simply go to the search site at http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov/gw/Cmd.
Type “atelectasis” (or synonyms) into the search box and click “Search.” The results will be
presented in a tabular form, indicating the number of references in each database category.
Results Summary
Journal Articles
Books / Periodicals / Audio Visual
Consumer Health
Meeting Abstracts
Other Collections
Items Found
HSTAT is a free, Web-based resource that provides access to full-text documents used in
healthcare decision-making.16 These documents include clinical practice guidelines, quickreference guides for clinicians, consumer health brochures, evidence reports and technology
assessments from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), as well as
AHRQ’s Put Prevention Into Practice.17 Simply search by “atelectasis” (or synonyms) at the
following Web site: http://text.nlm.nih.gov.
Adapted from NLM: http://gateway.nlm.nih.gov/gw/Cmd?Overview.x.
The NLM Gateway is currently being developed by the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical
Communications (LHNCBC) at the National Library of Medicine (NLM) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
15 Adapted from HSTAT: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/pubs/factsheets/hstat.html.
The HSTAT URL is http://hstat.nlm.nih.gov/.
Other important documents in HSTAT include: the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Consensus Conference
Reports and Technology Assessment Reports; the HIV/AIDS Treatment Information Service (ATIS) resource
documents; the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Center for Substance Abuse
Treatment (SAMHSA/CSAT) Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIP) and Center for Substance Abuse Prevention
(SAMHSA/CSAP) Prevention Enhancement Protocols System (PEPS); the Public Health Service (PHS) Preventive
Services Task Force's Guide to Clinical Preventive Services; the independent, nonfederal Task Force on Community
Services’ Guide to Community Preventive Services; and the Health Technology Advisory Committee (HTAC) of the
Minnesota Health Care Commission (MHCC) health technology evaluations.
Physician Resources
Coffee Break: Tutorials for Biologists18
Coffee Break is a general healthcare site that takes a scientific view of the news and covers
recent breakthroughs in biology that may one day assist physicians in developing
treatments. Here you will find a collection of short reports on recent biological discoveries.
Each report incorporates interactive tutorials that demonstrate how bioinformatics tools are
used as a part of the research process. Currently, all Coffee Breaks are written by NCBI
staff.19 Each report is about 400 words and is usually based on a discovery reported in one or
more articles from recently published, peer-reviewed literature.20 This site has new articles
every few weeks, so it can be considered an online magazine of sorts. It is intended for
general background information. You can access the Coffee Break Web site at the following
hyperlink: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Coffeebreak/.
Other Commercial Databases
In addition to resources maintained by official agencies, other databases exist that are
commercial ventures addressing medical professionals. Here are some examples that may
interest you:
CliniWeb International: Index and table of contents to selected clinical information on
the Internet; see http://www.ohsu.edu/cliniweb/.
Medical World Search: Searches full text from thousands of selected medical sites on
the Internet; see http://www.mwsearch.com/.
18 Adapted
from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Coffeebreak/Archive/FAQ.html.
The figure that accompanies each article is frequently supplied by an expert external to NCBI, in which case the
source of the figure is cited. The result is an interactive tutorial that tells a biological story.
20 After a brief introduction that sets the work described into a broader context, the report focuses on how a
molecular understanding can provide explanations of observed biology and lead to therapies for diseases. Each
vignette is accompanied by a figure and hypertext links that lead to a series of pages that interactively show how
NCBI tools and resources are used in the research process.
Official agencies, as well as federally funded institutions supported by national grants,
frequently publish a variety of guidelines written with the patient in mind. These are
typically called “Fact Sheets” or “Guidelines.” They can take the form of a brochure,
information kit, pamphlet, or flyer. Often they are only a few pages in length. Since new
guidelines on atelectasis can appear at any moment and be published by a number of
sources, the best approach to finding guidelines is to systematically scan the Internet-based
services that post them.
Patient Guideline Sources
The remainder of this chapter directs you to sources which either publish or can help you
find additional guidelines on topics related to atelectasis. Due to space limitations, these
sources are listed in a concise manner. Do not hesitate to consult the following sources by
either using the Internet hyperlink provided, or, in cases where the contact information is
provided, contacting the publisher or author directly.
The National Institutes of Health
The NIH gateway to patients is located at http://health.nih.gov/. From this site, you can
search across various sources and institutes, a number of which are summarized below.
Topic Pages: MEDLINEplus
The National Library of Medicine has created a vast and patient-oriented healthcare
information portal called MEDLINEplus. Within this Internet-based system are “health topic
pages” which list links to available materials relevant to atelectasis. To access this system,
log on to http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/healthtopics.html. From there you can
either search using the alphabetical index or browse by broad topic areas. Recently,
MEDLINEplus listed the following when searched for “atelectasis”:
Breathing Problems
Carcinoid Tumors
Lung Cancer
Pulmonary Embolism
Pulmonary Fibrosis
Pulmonary Hypertension
Respiratory Diseases
You may also choose to use the search utility provided by MEDLINEplus at the following
Web address: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/. Simply type a keyword into the
search box and click “Search.” This utility is similar to the NIH search utility, with the
exception that it only includes materials that are linked within the MEDLINEplus system
(mostly patient-oriented information). It also has the disadvantage of generating
unstructured results. We recommend, therefore, that you use this method only if you have a
very targeted search.
The NIH Search Utility
The NIH search utility allows you to search for documents on over 100 selected Web sites
that comprise the NIH-WEB-SPACE. Each of these servers is “crawled” and indexed on an
ongoing basis. Your search will produce a list of various documents, all of which will relate
in some way to atelectasis. The drawbacks of this approach are that the information is not
organized by theme and that the references are often a mix of information for professionals
and patients. Nevertheless, a large number of the listed Web sites provide useful
background information. We can only recommend this route, therefore, for relatively rare or
specific disorders, or when using highly targeted searches. To use the NIH search utility,
visit the following Web page: http://search.nih.gov/index.html.
Patient Resources
Additional Web Sources
A number of Web sites are available to the public that often link to government sites. These
can also point you in the direction of essential information. The following is a representative
AOL: http://search.aol.com/cat.adp?id=168&layer=&from=subcats
Family Village: http://www.familyvillage.wisc.edu/specific.htm
Google: http://directory.google.com/Top/Health/Conditions_and_Diseases/
Med Help International: http://www.medhelp.org/HealthTopics/A.html
Open Directory Project: http://dmoz.org/Health/Conditions_and_Diseases/
Yahoo.com: http://dir.yahoo.com/Health/Diseases_and_Conditions/
WebMDHealth: http://my.webmd.com/health_topics
Finding Associations
There are several Internet directories that provide lists of medical associations with
information on or resources relating to atelectasis. By consulting all of associations listed in
this chapter, you will have nearly exhausted all sources for patient associations concerned
with atelectasis.
The National Health Information Center (NHIC)
The National Health Information Center (NHIC) offers a free referral service to help people
find organizations that provide information about atelectasis. For more information, see the
NHIC’s Web site at http://www.health.gov/NHIC/ or contact an information specialist by
calling 1-800-336-4797.
Directory of Health Organizations
The Directory of Health Organizations, provided by the National Library of Medicine
Specialized Information Services, is a comprehensive source of information on associations.
The Directory of Health Organizations database can be accessed via the Internet at
http://www.sis.nlm.nih.gov/Dir/DirMain.html. It is composed of two parts: DIRLINE and
Health Hotlines.
The DIRLINE database comprises some 10,000 records of organizations, research centers,
and government institutes and associations that primarily focus on health and biomedicine.
To access DIRLINE directly, go to the following Web site: http://dirline.nlm.nih.gov/.
Simply type in “atelectasis” (or a synonym), and you will receive information on all relevant
organizations listed in the database.
Health Hotlines directs you to toll-free numbers to over 300 organizations. You can access
this database directly at http://www.sis.nlm.nih.gov/hotlines/. On this page, you are given
the option to search by keyword or by browsing the subject list. When you have received
your search results, click on the name of the organization for its description and contact
The Combined Health Information Database
Another comprehensive source of information on healthcare associations is the Combined
Health Information Database. Using the “Detailed Search” option, you will need to limit
your search to “Organizations” and “atelectasis”. Type the following hyperlink into your
Web browser: http://chid.nih.gov/detail/detail.html. To find associations, use the drop
boxes at the bottom of the search page where “You may refine your search by.” For
publication date, select “All Years.” Then, select your preferred language and the format
option “Organization Resource Sheet.” Type “atelectasis” (or synonyms) into the “For these
words:” box. You should check back periodically with this database since it is updated every
three months.
The National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc.
The National Organization for Rare Disorders, Inc. has prepared a Web site that provides, at
no charge, lists of associations organized by health topic. You can access this database at the
following Web site: http://www.rarediseases.org/search/orgsearch.html. Type “atelectasis”
(or a synonym) into the search box, and click “Submit Query.”
In this Appendix, we show you how to quickly find a medical library in your area.
Your local public library and medical libraries have interlibrary loan programs with the
National Library of Medicine (NLM), one of the largest medical collections in the world.
According to the NLM, most of the literature in the general and historical collections of the
National Library of Medicine is available on interlibrary loan to any library. If you would
like to access NLM medical literature, then visit a library in your area that can request the
publications for you.21
Finding a Local Medical Library
The quickest method to locate medical libraries is to use the Internet-based directory
published by the National Network of Libraries of Medicine (NN/LM). This network
includes 4626 members and affiliates that provide many services to librarians, health
professionals, and the public. To find a library in your area, simply visit
http://nnlm.gov/members/adv.html or call 1-800-338-7657.
Medical Libraries in the U.S. and Canada
In addition to the NN/LM, the National Library of Medicine (NLM) lists a number of
libraries with reference facilities that are open to the public. The following is the NLM’s list
and includes hyperlinks to each library’s Web site. These Web pages can provide
information on hours of operation and other restrictions. The list below is a small sample of
Adapted from the NLM: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/psd/cas/interlibrary.html.
libraries recommended by the National Library of Medicine (sorted alphabetically by name
of the U.S. state or Canadian province where the library is located)22:
Alabama: Health InfoNet of Jefferson County (Jefferson County Library Cooperative,
Lister Hill Library of the Health Sciences), http://www.uab.edu/infonet/
Alabama: Richard M. Scrushy Library (American Sports Medicine Institute)
Arizona: Samaritan Regional Medical Center: The Learning Center (Samaritan Health
System, Phoenix, Arizona), http://www.samaritan.edu/library/bannerlibs.htm
California: Kris Kelly Health Information Center (St. Joseph Health System, Humboldt),
California: Community Health Library of Los Gatos,
California: Consumer Health Program and Services (CHIPS) (County of Los Angeles
Public Library, Los Angeles County Harbor-UCLA Medical Center Library) - Carson,
CA, http://www.colapublib.org/services/chips.html
California: Gateway Health Library (Sutter Gould Medical Foundation)
California: Health Library (Stanford University Medical Center), http://wwwmed.stanford.edu/healthlibrary/
California: Patient Education Resource Center - Health Information and Resources
(University of California, San Francisco),
California: Redwood Health Library (Petaluma Health Care District),
California: Los Gatos PlaneTree Health Library, http://planetreesanjose.org/
California: Sutter Resource Library (Sutter Hospitals Foundation, Sacramento),
California: Health Sciences Libraries (University of California, Davis),
California: ValleyCare Health Library & Ryan Comer Cancer Resource Center
(ValleyCare Health System, Pleasanton), http://gaelnet.stmarysca.edu/other.libs/gbal/east/vchl.html
California: Washington Community Health Resource Library (Fremont),
Colorado: William V. Gervasini Memorial Library (Exempla Healthcare),
Connecticut: Hartford Hospital Health Science Libraries (Hartford Hospital),
Connecticut: Healthnet: Connecticut Consumer Health Information Center (University
of Connecticut Health Center, Lyman Maynard Stowe Library),
Abstracted from http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/libraries.html.
Finding Medical Libraries
Connecticut: Waterbury Hospital Health Center Library (Waterbury Hospital,
Waterbury), http://www.waterburyhospital.com/library/consumer.shtml
Delaware: Consumer Health Library (Christiana Care Health System, Eugene du Pont
Preventive Medicine & Rehabilitation Institute, Wilmington),
Delaware: Lewis B. Flinn Library (Delaware Academy of Medicine, Wilmington),
Georgia: Family Resource Library (Medical College of Georgia, Augusta),
Georgia: Health Resource Center (Medical Center of Central Georgia, Macon),
Hawaii: Hawaii Medical Library: Consumer Health Information Service (Hawaii
Medical Library, Honolulu), http://hml.org/CHIS/
Idaho: DeArmond Consumer Health Library (Kootenai Medical Center, Coeur d’Alene),
Illinois: Health Learning Center of Northwestern Memorial Hospital (Chicago),
Illinois: Medical Library (OSF Saint Francis Medical Center, Peoria),
Kentucky: Medical Library - Services for Patients, Families, Students & the Public
(Central Baptist Hospital, Lexington),
Kentucky: University of Kentucky - Health Information Library (Chandler Medical
Center, Lexington), http://www.mc.uky.edu/PatientEd/
Louisiana: Alton Ochsner Medical Foundation Library (Alton Ochsner Medical
Foundation, New Orleans), http://www.ochsner.org/library/
Louisiana: Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center Medical LibraryShreveport, http://lib-sh.lsuhsc.edu/
Maine: Franklin Memorial Hospital Medical Library (Franklin Memorial Hospital,
Farmington), http://www.fchn.org/fmh/lib.htm
Maine: Gerrish-True Health Sciences Library (Central Maine Medical Center, Lewiston),
Maine: Hadley Parrot Health Science Library (Eastern Maine Healthcare, Bangor),
Maine: Maine Medical Center Library (Maine Medical Center, Portland),
Maine: Parkview Hospital (Brunswick), http://www.parkviewhospital.org/
Maine: Southern Maine Medical Center Health Sciences Library (Southern Maine
Medical Center, Biddeford), http://www.smmc.org/services/service.php3?choice=10
Maine: Stephens Memorial Hospital’s Health Information Library (Western Maine
Health, Norway), http://www.wmhcc.org/Library/
Manitoba, Canada: Consumer & Patient Health Information Service (University of
Manitoba Libraries),
Manitoba, Canada: J.W. Crane Memorial Library (Deer Lodge Centre, Winnipeg),
Maryland: Health Information Center at the Wheaton Regional Library (Montgomery
County, Dept. of Public Libraries, Wheaton Regional Library),
Massachusetts: Baystate Medical Center Library (Baystate Health System),
Massachusetts: Boston University Medical Center Alumni Medical Library (Boston
University Medical Center), http://med-libwww.bu.edu/library/lib.html
Massachusetts: Lowell General Hospital Health Sciences Library (Lowell General
Hospital, Lowell), http://www.lowellgeneral.org/library/HomePageLinks/WWW.htm
Massachusetts: Paul E. Woodard Health Sciences Library (New England Baptist
Hospital, Boston), http://www.nebh.org/health_lib.asp
Massachusetts: St. Luke’s Hospital Health Sciences Library (St. Luke’s Hospital,
Southcoast Health System, New Bedford), http://www.southcoast.org/library/
Massachusetts: Treadwell Library Consumer Health Reference Center (Massachusetts
General Hospital), http://www.mgh.harvard.edu/library/chrcindex.html
Massachusetts: UMass HealthNet (University of Massachusetts Medical School,
Worchester), http://healthnet.umassmed.edu/
Michigan: Botsford General Hospital Library - Consumer Health (Botsford General
Hospital, Library & Internet Services), http://www.botsfordlibrary.org/consumer.htm
Michigan: Helen DeRoy Medical Library (Providence Hospital and Medical Centers),
Michigan: Marquette General Hospital - Consumer Health Library (Marquette General
Hospital, Health Information Center), http://www.mgh.org/center.html
Michigan: Patient Education Resouce Center - University of Michigan Cancer Center
(University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center, Ann Arbor),
Michigan: Sladen Library & Center for Health Information Resources - Consumer
Health Information (Detroit), http://www.henryford.com/body.cfm?id=39330
Montana: Center for Health Information (St. Patrick Hospital and Health Sciences
Center, Missoula)
National: Consumer Health Library Directory (Medical Library Association, Consumer
and Patient Health Information Section), http://caphis.mlanet.org/directory/index.html
National: National Network of Libraries of Medicine (National Library of Medicine) provides library services for health professionals in the United States who do not have
access to a medical library, http://nnlm.gov/
National: NN/LM List of Libraries Serving the Public (National Network of Libraries of
Medicine), http://nnlm.gov/members/
Finding Medical Libraries
Nevada: Health Science Library, West Charleston Library (Las Vegas-Clark County
Library District, Las Vegas),
New Hampshire: Dartmouth Biomedical Libraries (Dartmouth College Library,
Hanover), http://www.dartmouth.edu/~biomed/resources.htmld/conshealth.htmld/
New Jersey: Consumer Health Library (Rahway Hospital, Rahway),
New Jersey: Dr. Walter Phillips Health Sciences Library (Englewood Hospital and
Medical Center, Englewood), http://www.englewoodhospital.com/links/index.htm
New Jersey: Meland Foundation (Englewood Hospital and Medical Center,
Englewood), http://www.geocities.com/ResearchTriangle/9360/
New York: Choices in Health Information (New York Public Library) - NLM Consumer
Pilot Project participant, http://www.nypl.org/branch/health/links.html
New York: Health Information Center (Upstate Medical University, State University of
New York, Syracuse), http://www.upstate.edu/library/hic/
New York: Health Sciences Library (Long Island Jewish Medical Center, New Hyde
Park), http://www.lij.edu/library/library.html
New York: ViaHealth Medical Library (Rochester General Hospital),
Ohio: Consumer Health Library (Akron General Medical Center, Medical & Consumer
Health Library), http://www.akrongeneral.org/hwlibrary.htm
Oklahoma: The Health Information Center at Saint Francis Hospital (Saint Francis
Health System, Tulsa), http://www.sfh-tulsa.com/services/healthinfo.asp
Oregon: Planetree Health Resource Center (Mid-Columbia Medical Center, The Dalles),
Pennsylvania: Community Health Information Library (Milton S. Hershey Medical
Center, Hershey), http://www.hmc.psu.edu/commhealth/
Pennsylvania: Community Health Resource Library (Geisinger Medical Center,
Danville), http://www.geisinger.edu/education/commlib.shtml
Pennsylvania: HealthInfo Library (Moses Taylor Hospital, Scranton),
Pennsylvania: Hopwood Library (University of Pittsburgh, Health Sciences Library
System, Pittsburgh), http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/guides/chi/hopwood/index_html
Pennsylvania: Koop Community Health Information Center (College of Physicians of
Philadelphia), http://www.collphyphil.org/kooppg1.shtml
Pennsylvania: Learning Resources Center - Medical Library (Susquehanna Health
System, Williamsport), http://www.shscares.org/services/lrc/index.asp
Pennsylvania: Medical Library (UPMC Health System, Pittsburgh),
Quebec, Canada: Medical Library (Montreal General Hospital),
South Dakota: Rapid City Regional Hospital Medical Library (Rapid City Regional
Hospital), http://www.rcrh.org/Services/Library/Default.asp
Texas: Houston HealthWays (Houston Academy of Medicine-Texas Medical Center
Library), http://hhw.library.tmc.edu/
Washington: Community Health Library (Kittitas Valley Community Hospital),
Washington: Southwest Washington Medical Center Library (Southwest Washington
Medical Center, Vancouver), http://www.swmedicalcenter.com/body.cfm?id=72
The Internet provides access to a number of free-to-use medical dictionaries. The National
Library of Medicine has compiled the following list of online dictionaries:
ADAM Medical Encyclopedia (A.D.A.M., Inc.), comprehensive medical reference:
MedicineNet.com Medical Dictionary (MedicineNet, Inc.):
Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary (Inteli-Health, Inc.):
Multilingual Glossary of Technical and Popular Medical Terms in Eight European
Languages (European Commission) - Danish, Dutch, English, French, German, Italian,
Portuguese, and Spanish: http://allserv.rug.ac.be/~rvdstich/eugloss/welcome.html
On-line Medical Dictionary (CancerWEB): http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/
Rare Diseases Terms (Office of Rare Diseases):
Technology Glossary (National Library of Medicine) - Health Care Technology:
Beyond these, MEDLINEplus contains a very patient-friendly encyclopedia covering every
aspect of medicine (licensed from A.D.A.M., Inc.). The ADAM Medical Encyclopedia can be
accessed at http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/encyclopedia.html. ADAM is also
available on commercial Web sites such as drkoop.com (http://www.drkoop.com/) and Web
MD (http://my.webmd.com/adam/asset/adam_disease_articles/a_to_z/a). The NIH suggests
the following Web sites in the ADAM Medical Encyclopedia when searching for information
on atelectasis:
Basic Guidelines for Atelectasis
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000065.htm
Pleural effusion
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000086.htm
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000077.htm
Signs & Symptoms for Atelectasis
Breath sounds
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003323.htm
Breathing difficulty
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003075.htm
Chest pain
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003079.htm
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003072.htm
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003075.htm
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003103.htm
Lung diseases
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000066.htm
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003077.htm
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003071.htm
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003211.htm
Diagnostics and Tests for Atelectasis
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003857.htm
Chest X-ray
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003804.htm
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003330.htm
Fiberoptic bronchoscopy
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003857.htm
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003335.htm
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003337.htm
Background Topics for Atelectasis
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002215.htm
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002232.htm
Online Glossaries 91
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002312.htm
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002281.htm
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002290.htm
Shallow breathing
Web site: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000007.htm
Online Dictionary Directories
The following are additional online directories compiled by the National Library of
Medicine, including a number of specialized medical dictionaries:
Medical Dictionaries: Medical & Biological (World Health Organization):
MEL-Michigan Electronic Library List of Online Health and Medical Dictionaries
(Michigan Electronic Library): http://mel.lib.mi.us/health/health-dictionaries.html
Patient Education: Glossaries (DMOZ Open Directory Project):
Web of Online Dictionaries (Bucknell University):
The definitions below are derived from official public sources, including the National
Institutes of Health [NIH] and the European Union [EU].
Abdominal: Having to do with the abdomen, which is the part of the body between the
chest and the hips that contains the pancreas, stomach, intestines, liver, gallbladder, and
other organs. [NIH]
Abscess: A localized, circumscribed collection of pus. [NIH]
Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter. Acetylcholine in vertebrates is the major transmitter at
neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of
sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system. It is
generally not used as an administered drug because it is broken down very rapidly by
cholinesterases, but it is useful in some ophthalmological applications. [NIH]
Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of cysteine. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce
the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients
with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates. [NIH]
Adaptability: Ability to develop some form of tolerance to conditions extremely different
from those under which a living organism evolved. [NIH]
Adaptation: 1. The adjustment of an organism to its environment, or the process by which it
enhances such fitness. 2. The normal ability of the eye to adjust itself to variations in the
intensity of light; the adjustment to such variations. 3. The decline in the frequency of firing
of a neuron, particularly of a receptor, under conditions of constant stimulation. 4. In
dentistry, (a) the proper fitting of a denture, (b) the degree of proximity and interlocking of
restorative material to a tooth preparation, (c) the exact adjustment of bands to teeth. 5. In
microbiology, the adjustment of bacterial physiology to a new environment. [EU]
Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization. [NIH]
Adjustment: The dynamic process wherein the thoughts, feelings, behavior, and
biophysiological mechanisms of the individual continually change to adjust to the
environment. [NIH]
Adrenal Cortex: The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It secretes mineralocorticoids,
androgens, and glucocorticoids. [NIH]
Adsorption: The condensation of gases, liquids, or dissolved substances on the surfaces of
solids. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses as well as of tissues treated
with exogenous drugs and chemicals. [NIH]
Adsorptive: It captures volatile compounds by binding them to agents such as activated
carbon or adsorptive resins. [NIH]
Adverse Effect: An unwanted side effect of treatment. [NIH]
Aerosols: Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke)
dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellent agents.
Aetiology: Study of the causes of disease. [EU]
Affinity: 1. Inherent likeness or relationship. 2. A special attraction for a specific element,
organ, or structure. 3. Chemical affinity; the force that binds atoms in molecules; the
tendency of substances to combine by chemical reaction. 4. The strength of noncovalent
chemical binding between two substances as measured by the dissociation constant of the
complex. 5. In immunology, a thermodynamic expression of the strength of interaction
between a single antigen-binding site and a single antigenic determinant (and thus of the
stereochemical compatibility between them), most accurately applied to interactions among
simple, uniform antigenic determinants such as haptens. Expressed as the association
constant (K litres mole -1), which, owing to the heterogeneity of affinities in a population of
antibody molecules of a given specificity, actually represents an average value (mean
intrinsic association constant). 6. The reciprocal of the dissociation constant. [EU]
Aggravation: An increasing in seriousness or severity; an act or circumstance that
intensifies, or makes worse. [EU]
Air Pressure: The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it.
Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment. [NIH]
Air Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in
birds, fishes, insects, and mammals. [NIH]
Airway: A device for securing unobstructed passage of air into and out of the lungs during
general anesthesia. [NIH]
Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps
to calculate or determine a given task. [NIH]
Alternative medicine: Practices not generally recognized by the medical community as
standard or conventional medical approaches and used instead of standard treatments.
Alternative medicine includes the taking of dietary supplements, megadose vitamins, and
herbal preparations; the drinking of special teas; and practices such as massage therapy,
magnet therapy, spiritual healing, and meditation. [NIH]
Alveoli: Tiny air sacs at the end of the bronchioles in the lungs. [NIH]
Ameliorated: A changeable condition which prevents the consequence of a failure or
accident from becoming as bad as it otherwise would. [NIH]
Amino acid: Any organic compound containing an amino (-NH2 and a carboxyl (- COOH)
group. The 20 a-amino acids listed in the accompanying table are the amino acids from
which proteins are synthesized by formation of peptide bonds during ribosomal translation
of messenger RNA; all except glycine, which is not optically active, have the L configuration.
Other amino acids occurring in proteins, such as hydroxyproline in collagen, are formed by
posttranslational enzymatic modification of amino acids residues in polypeptide chains.
There are also several important amino acids, such as the neurotransmitter y-aminobutyric
acid, that have no relation to proteins. Abbreviated AA. [EU]
Amnion: The extraembryonic membrane which contains the embryo and amniotic fluid.
Amniotic Fluid: Amniotic cavity fluid which is produced by the amnion and fetal lungs and
kidneys. [NIH]
Amplification: The production of additional copies of a chromosomal DNA sequence,
found as either intrachromosomal or extrachromosomal DNA. [NIH]
Anaesthesia: Loss of feeling or sensation. Although the term is used for loss of tactile
sensibility, or of any of the other senses, it is applied especially to loss of the sensation of
pain, as it is induced to permit performance of surgery or other painful procedures. [EU]
Anaesthetic: 1. Pertaining to, characterized by, or producing anaesthesia. 2. A drug or agent
that is used to abolish the sensation of pain. [EU]
Anal: Having to do with the anus, which is the posterior opening of the large bowel. [NIH]
Analogous: Resembling or similar in some respects, as in function or appearance, but not in
Dictionary 95
origin or development;. [EU]
Anatomical: Pertaining to anatomy, or to the structure of the organism. [EU]
Androgens: A class of sex hormones associated with the development and maintenance of
the secondary male sex characteristics, sperm induction, and sexual differentiation. In
addition to increasing virility and libido, they also increase nitrogen and water retention and
stimulate skeletal growth. [NIH]
Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve
function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance
of surgery or other painful procedures. [NIH]
Aneurysm: A sac formed by the dilatation of the wall of an artery, a vein, or the heart. [NIH]
Animal model: An animal with a disease either the same as or like a disease in humans.
Animal models are used to study the development and progression of diseases and to test
new treatments before they are given to humans. Animals with transplanted human cancers
or other tissues are called xenograft models. [NIH]
Antiallergic: Counteracting allergy or allergic conditions. [EU]
Antibiotic: A drug used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms.
Antibody: A type of protein made by certain white blood cells in response to a foreign
substance (antigen). Each antibody can bind to only a specific antigen. The purpose of this
binding is to help destroy the antigen. Antibodies can work in several ways, depending on
the nature of the antigen. Some antibodies destroy antigens directly. Others make it easier
for white blood cells to destroy the antigen. [NIH]
Antidiuretic: Suppressing the rate of urine formation. [EU]
Antigen: Any substance which is capable, under appropriate conditions, of inducing a
specific immune response and of reacting with the products of that response, that is, with
specific antibody or specifically sensitized T-lymphocytes, or both. Antigens may be soluble
substances, such as toxins and foreign proteins, or particulate, such as bacteria and tissue
cells; however, only the portion of the protein or polysaccharide molecule known as the
antigenic determinant (q.v.) combines with antibody or a specific receptor on a lymphocyte.
Abbreviated Ag. [EU]
Anti-inflammatory: Having to do with reducing inflammation. [NIH]
Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress inflammation. [NIH]
Antineoplastic: Inhibiting or preventing the development of neoplasms, checking the
maturation and proliferation of malignant cells. [EU]
Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the
oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging
effects of oxidation in animal tissues. [NIH]
Antiviral: Destroying viruses or suppressing their replication. [EU]
Anus: The opening of the rectum to the outside of the body. [NIH]
Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries. [NIH]
Aortic Aneurysm: Aneurysm of the aorta. [NIH]
Aplasia: Lack of development of an organ or tissue, or of the cellular products from an
organ or tissue. [EU]
Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration. [NIH]
Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form. [NIH]
Arterial: Pertaining to an artery or to the arteries. [EU]
Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart. [NIH]
Arterioles: The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and
the capillaries. [NIH]
Artery: Vessel-carrying blood from the heart to various parts of the body. [NIH]
Asbestos: Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates
with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal
insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and
gastrointestinal neoplasms. [NIH]
Asbestosis: A lung disorder caused by constant inhalation of asbestos particles. [NIH]
Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity. [NIH]
Aspiration: The act of inhaling. [NIH]
Atelectasis: Incomplete expansion of the lung. [NIH]
Atmospheric Pressure: The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight
of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned. [NIH]
Atrium: A chamber; used in anatomical nomenclature to designate a chamber affording
entrance to another structure or organ. Usually used alone to designate an atrium of the
heart. [EU]
Atrophy: Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a
variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition,
or hormonal changes. [NIH]
Attenuated: Strain with weakened or reduced virulence. [NIH]
Atypical: Irregular; not conformable to the type; in microbiology, applied specifically to
strains of unusual type. [EU]
Auditory: Pertaining to the sense of hearing. [EU]
Aural: Pertaining to or perceived by the ear, as an aural stimulus. [EU]
Axillary: Pertaining to the armpit area, including the lymph nodes that are located there.
Bacteria: Unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls,
multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or
bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. [NIH]
Bacterial Physiology: Physiological processes and activities of bacteria. [NIH]
Balloon Occlusion: Use of a balloon catheter to block the flow of blood through an artery or
vein. [NIH]
Benign: Not cancerous; does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other parts of the body.
Benign tumor: A noncancerous growth that does not invade nearby tissue or spread to other
parts of the body. [NIH]
Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the liver and secreted into the duodenum. Its
composition includes bile acids and salts, cholesterol, and electrolytes. It aids digestion of
fats in the duodenum. [NIH]
Bile Pigments: Pigments that give a characteristic color to bile including: bilirubin,
biliverdine, and bilicyanin. [NIH]
Biliary: Having to do with the liver, bile ducts, and/or gallbladder. [NIH]
Dictionary 97
Biochemical: Relating to biochemistry; characterized by, produced by, or involving
chemical reactions in living organisms. [EU]
Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of
tissue from the living body. [NIH]
Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived
constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and
clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., genetic
engineering) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include transfection and cloning
technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and
protein structure function analysis and prediction. [NIH]
Bladder: The organ that stores urine. [NIH]
Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood. [NIH]
Blood pressure: The pressure of blood against the walls of a blood vessel or heart chamber.
Unless there is reference to another location, such as the pulmonary artery or one of the
heart chambers, it refers to the pressure in the systemic arteries, as measured, for example,
in the forearm. [NIH]
Blood vessel: A tube in the body through which blood circulates. Blood vessels include a
network of arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins. [NIH]
Blood Volume: Volume of circulating blood. It is the sum of the plasma volume and
erythrocyte volume. [NIH]
Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms. [NIH]
Bone scan: A technique to create images of bones on a computer screen or on film. A small
amount of radioactive material is injected into a blood vessel and travels through the
bloodstream; it collects in the bones and is detected by a scanner. [NIH]
Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from kallidin in the
blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary
permeability. Bradykinin is also released from mast cells during asthma attacks, from gut
walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a
neurotransmitter. [NIH]
Breathing Exercises: Therapeutic exercises aimed to deepen inspiration or expiration or
even to alter the rate and rhythm of respiration. [NIH]
Bronchi: The larger air passages of the lungs arising from the terminal bifurcation of the
trachea. [NIH]
Bronchial: Pertaining to one or more bronchi. [EU]
Bronchioles: The tiny branches of air tubes in the lungs. [NIH]
Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the bronchioles. [NIH]
Bronchitis: Inflammation (swelling and reddening) of the bronchi. [NIH]
Bronchoalveolar Lavage: Washing out of the lungs with saline or mucolytic agents for
diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It is very useful in the diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary
infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients. [NIH]
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid: Fluid obtained by washout of the alveolar compartment of
the lung. It is used to assess biochemical and inflammatory changes in and effects of therapy
on the interstitial lung tissue. [NIH]
Bronchography: Radiography of the bronchial tree after injection of a contrast medium.
Bronchopulmonary: Pertaining to the lungs and their air passages; both bronchial and
pulmonary. [EU]
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease appearing in certain newborn infants
treated for respiratory distress syndrome with mechanical ventilation and elevated
concentration of inspired oxygen. [NIH]
Bronchoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the bronchi. [NIH]
Bronchus: A large air passage that leads from the trachea (windpipe) to the lung. [NIH]
Burns: Injuries to tissues caused by contact with heat, steam, chemicals (burns, chemical),
electricity (burns, electric), or the like. [NIH]
Burns, Electric: Burns produced by contact with electric current or from a sudden discharge
of electricity. [NIH]
Bypass: A surgical procedure in which the doctor creates a new pathway for the flow of
body fluids. [NIH]
Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the
alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic
weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with
phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal
functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in
many enzymatic processes. [NIH]
Capillary: Any one of the minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules, forming a
network in nearly all parts of the body. Their walls act as semipermeable membranes for the
interchange of various substances, including fluids, between the blood and tissue fluid;
called also vas capillare. [EU]
Carbohydrate: An aldehyde or ketone derivative of a polyhydric alcohol, particularly of the
pentahydric and hexahydric alcohols. They are so named because the hydrogen and oxygen
are usually in the proportion to form water, (CH2O)n. The most important carbohydrates
are the starches, sugars, celluloses, and gums. They are classified into mono-, di-, tri-, polyand heterosaccharides. [EU]
Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary
for the respiration cycle of plants and animals. [NIH]
Carcinogenic: Producing carcinoma. [EU]
Carcinoma: Cancer that begins in the skin or in tissues that line or cover internal organs.
Cardiac: Having to do with the heart. [NIH]
Cardiac Output: The volume of blood passing through the heart per unit of time. It is
usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with stroke volume
(volume per beat). [NIH]
Cardiomegaly: Hypertrophy or enlargement of the heart. [NIH]
Cardiopulmonary: Having to do with the heart and lungs. [NIH]
Cardiopulmonary Bypass: Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right
atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the
heart and lungs. [NIH]
Cardiovascular: Having to do with the heart and blood vessels. [NIH]
Case report: A detailed report of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual
patient. Case reports also contain some demographic information about the patient (for
example, age, gender, ethnic origin). [NIH]
Dictionary 99
Case series: A group or series of case reports involving patients who were given similar
treatment. Reports of case series usually contain detailed information about the individual
patients. This includes demographic information (for example, age, gender, ethnic origin)
and information on diagnosis, treatment, response to treatment, and follow-up after
treatment. [NIH]
Catheter: A flexible tube used to deliver fluids into or withdraw fluids from the body. [NIH]
Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ,
or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It
differs from intubation in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in
obstructions. [NIH]
Cell: The individual unit that makes up all of the tissues of the body. All living things are
made up of one or more cells. [NIH]
Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one cell
division and the end of the next, by which cellular material is divided between daughter
cells. [NIH]
Cell Death: The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as
metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability. [NIH]
Cell Division: The fission of a cell. [NIH]
Cerebrospinal: Pertaining to the brain and spinal cord. [EU]
Cerebrospinal fluid: CSF. The fluid flowing around the brain and spinal cord.
Cerebrospinal fluid is produced in the ventricles in the brain. [NIH]
Cervical: Relating to the neck, or to the neck of any organ or structure. Cervical lymph
nodes are located in the neck; cervical cancer refers to cancer of the uterine cervix, which is
the lower, narrow end (the "neck") of the uterus. [NIH]
Cervical Plexus: A network of nerve fibers originating in the upper four cervical spinal cord
segments. The cervical plexus distributes cutaneous nerves to parts of the neck, shoulders,
and back of the head, and motor fibers to muscles of the cervical spinal column, infrahyoid
muscles, and the diaphragm. [NIH]
Chemotherapy: Treatment with anticancer drugs. [NIH]
Chest cavity: Space in body surrounding the lungs. [NIH]
Chest wall: The ribs and muscles, bones, and joints that make up the area of the body
between the neck and the abdomen. [NIH]
Cholecystectomy: Surgical removal of the gallbladder. [NIH]
Cholesteatoma: A non-neoplastic keratinizing mass with stratified squamous epithelium,
frequently occurring in the meninges, central nervous system, bones of the skull, and most
commonly in the middle ear and mastoid region. [NIH]
Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially
the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils. [NIH]
Chromosomal: Pertaining to chromosomes. [EU]
Chronic: A disease or condition that persists or progresses over a long period of time. [NIH]
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Collective term for chronic bronchitis and
emphysema. [NIH]
CIS: Cancer Information Service. The CIS is the National Cancer Institute's link to the public,
interpreting and explaining research findings in a clear and understandable manner, and
providing personalized responses to specific questions about cancer. Access the CIS by
calling 1-800-4-CANCER, or by using the Web site at http://cis.nci.nih.gov. [NIH]
Cleft Palate: Congenital fissure of the soft and/or hard palate, due to faulty fusion. [NIH]
Clinical Medicine: The study and practice of medicine by direct examination of the patient.
Clinical study: A research study in which patients receive treatment in a clinic or other
medical facility. Reports of clinical studies can contain results for single patients (case
reports) or many patients (case series or clinical trials). [NIH]
Clinical trial: A research study that tests how well new medical treatments or other
interventions work in people. Each study is designed to test new methods of screening,
prevention, diagnosis, or treatment of a disease. [NIH]
Cloning: The production of a number of genetically identical individuals; in genetic
engineering, a process for the efficient replication of a great number of identical DNA
molecules. [NIH]
Collapse: 1. A state of extreme prostration and depression, with failure of circulation. 2.
Abnormal falling in of the walls of any part of organ. [EU]
Colon: The long, coiled, tubelike organ that removes water from digested food. The
remaining material, solid waste called stool, moves through the colon to the rectum and
leaves the body through the anus. [NIH]
Comatose: Pertaining to or affected with coma. [EU]
Combination chemotherapy: Treatment using more than one anticancer drug. [NIH]
Complement: A term originally used to refer to the heat-labile factor in serum that causes
immune cytolysis, the lysis of antibody-coated cells, and now referring to the entire
functionally related system comprising at least 20 distinct serum proteins that is the effector
not only of immune cytolysis but also of other biologic functions. Complement activation
occurs by two different sequences, the classic and alternative pathways. The proteins of the
classic pathway are termed 'components of complement' and are designated by the symbols
C1 through C9. C1 is a calcium-dependent complex of three distinct proteins C1q, C1r and
C1s. The proteins of the alternative pathway (collectively referred to as the properdin
system) and complement regulatory proteins are known by semisystematic or trivial names.
Fragments resulting from proteolytic cleavage of complement proteins are designated with
lower-case letter suffixes, e.g., C3a. Inactivated fragments may be designated with the suffix
'i', e.g. C3bi. Activated components or complexes with biological activity are designated by a
bar over the symbol e.g. C1 or C4b,2a. The classic pathway is activated by the binding of C1
to classic pathway activators, primarily antigen-antibody complexes containing IgM, IgG1,
IgG3; C1q binds to a single IgM molecule or two adjacent IgG molecules. The alternative
pathway can be activated by IgA immune complexes and also by nonimmunologic materials
including bacterial endotoxins, microbial polysaccharides, and cell walls. Activation of the
classic pathway triggers an enzymatic cascade involving C1, C4, C2 and C3; activation of the
alternative pathway triggers a cascade involving C3 and factors B, D and P. Both result in
the cleavage of C5 and the formation of the membrane attack complex. Complement
activation also results in the formation of many biologically active complement fragments
that act as anaphylatoxins, opsonins, or chemotactic factors. [EU]
Complementary and alternative medicine: CAM. Forms of treatment that are used in
addition to (complementary) or instead of (alternative) standard treatments. These practices
are not considered standard medical approaches. CAM includes dietary supplements,
megadose vitamins, herbal preparations, special teas, massage therapy, magnet therapy,
spiritual healing, and meditation. [NIH]
Complementary medicine: Practices not generally recognized by the medical community as
Dictionary 101
standard or conventional medical approaches and used to enhance or complement the
standard treatments. Complementary medicine includes the taking of dietary supplements,
megadose vitamins, and herbal preparations; the drinking of special teas; and practices such
as massage therapy, magnet therapy, spiritual healing, and meditation. [NIH]
Compliance: Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (lung compliance) or
bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure. [NIH]
Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques
for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make
biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and
theories applicable to molecular biology and areas of computer-based techniques for solving
biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets. [NIH]
Computed tomography: CT scan. A series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body,
taken from different angles; the pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray
machine. Also called computerized tomography and computerized axial tomography (CAT)
scan. [NIH]
Computerized axial tomography: A series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body,
taken from different angles; the pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray
machine. Also called CAT scan, computed tomography (CT scan), or computerized
tomography. [NIH]
Computerized tomography: A series of detailed pictures of areas inside the body, taken
from different angles; the pictures are created by a computer linked to an x-ray machine.
Also called computerized axial tomography (CAT) scan and computed tomography (CT
scan). [NIH]
Concomitant: Accompanying; accessory; joined with another. [EU]
Condoms: A sheath that is worn over the penis during sexual behavior in order to prevent
pregnancy or spread of sexually transmitted disease. [NIH]
Congenita: Displacement, subluxation, or malposition of the crystalline lens. [NIH]
Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of connective
tissue cells embedded in a large amount of extracellular matrix. [NIH]
Connective Tissue: Tissue that supports and binds other tissues. It consists of connective
tissue cells embedded in a large amount of extracellular matrix. [NIH]
Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment. [NIH]
Consolidation: The healing process of a bone fracture. [NIH]
Constriction: The act of constricting. [NIH]
Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted
beyond normal dimensions. [NIH]
Contraindications: Any factor or sign that it is unwise to pursue a certain kind of action or
treatment, e. g. giving a general anesthetic to a person with pneumonia. [NIH]
Contralateral: Having to do with the opposite side of the body. [NIH]
Contrast medium: A substance that is introduced into or around a structure and, because of
the difference in absorption of x-rays by the contrast medium and the surrounding tissues,
allows radiographic visualization of the structure. [EU]
Controlled study: An experiment or clinical trial that includes a comparison (control) group.
Contusion: A bruise; an injury of a part without a break in the skin. [EU]
Coronary: Encircling in the manner of a crown; a term applied to vessels; nerves, ligaments,
etc. The term usually denotes the arteries that supply the heart muscle and, by extension, a
pathologic involvement of them. [EU]
Coronary Thrombosis: Presence of a thrombus in a coronary artery, often causing a
myocardial infarction. [NIH]
Corticosteroid: Any of the steroids elaborated by the adrenal cortex (excluding the sex
hormones of adrenal origin) in response to the release of corticotrophin (adrenocorticotropic
hormone) by the pituitary gland, to any of the synthetic equivalents of these steroids, or to
angiotensin II. They are divided, according to their predominant biological activity, into
three major groups: glucocorticoids, chiefly influencing carbohydrate, fat, and protein
metabolism; mineralocorticoids, affecting the regulation of electrolyte and water balance;
and C19 androgens. Some corticosteroids exhibit both types of activity in varying degrees,
and others exert only one type of effect. The corticosteroids are used clinically for hormonal
replacement therapy, for suppression of ACTH secretion by the anterior pituitary, as
antineoplastic, antiallergic, and anti-inflammatory agents, and to suppress the immune
response. Called also adrenocortical hormone and corticoid. [EU]
Critical Care: Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or
crisis. [NIH]
Curative: Tending to overcome disease and promote recovery. [EU]
Cyanosis: A bluish or purplish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes due to an
increase in the amount of deoxygenated hemoglobin in the blood or a structural defect in the
hemoglobin molecule. [NIH]
Cyclic: Pertaining to or occurring in a cycle or cycles; the term is applied to chemical
compounds that contain a ring of atoms in the nucleus. [EU]
Cyst: A sac or capsule filled with fluid. [NIH]
Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form cystine. [NIH]
Decubitus: An act of lying down; also the position assumed in lying down. [EU]
Dermal: Pertaining to or coming from the skin. [NIH]
Diabetes Mellitus: A heterogeneous group of disorders that share glucose intolerance in
common. [NIH]
Diagnostic procedure: A method used to identify a disease. [NIH]
Dialyzer: A part of the hemodialysis machine. (See hemodialysis under dialysis.) The
dialyzer has two sections separated by a membrane. One section holds dialysate. The other
holds the patient's blood. [NIH]
Diaphragm: The musculofibrous partition that separates the thoracic cavity from the
abdominal cavity. Contraction of the diaphragm increases the volume of the thoracic cavity
aiding inspiration. [NIH]
Diencephalon: The paired caudal parts of the prosencephalon from which the thalamus,
hypothalamus, epithalamus, and subthalamus are derived. [NIH]
Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or
concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself
throughout the available space; a major mechanism of biological transport. [NIH]
Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body. [NIH]
Dilution: A diluted or attenuated medicine; in homeopathy, the diffusion of a given
quantity of a medicinal agent in ten or one hundred times the same quantity of water. [NIH]
Direct: 1. Straight; in a straight line. 2. Performed immediately and without the intervention
Dictionary 103
of subsidiary means. [EU]
Dissection: Cutting up of an organism for study. [NIH]
Distal: Remote; farther from any point of reference; opposed to proximal. In dentistry, used
to designate a position on the dental arch farther from the median line of the jaw. [EU]
Diverticulum: A pathological condition manifested as a pouch or sac opening from a
tubular or sacular organ. [NIH]
Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity
of another drug. [NIH]
Duct: A tube through which body fluids pass. [NIH]
Dyskinesia: Impairment of the power of voluntary movement, resulting in fragmentary or
incomplete movements. [EU]
Dyspnea: Difficult or labored breathing. [NIH]
Eardrum: A thin, tense membrane forming the greater part of the outer wall of the tympanic
cavity and separating it from the external auditory meatus; it constitutes the boundary
between the external and middle ear. [NIH]
Ectoderm: The outer of the three germ layers of the embryo. [NIH]
Ectodermal Dysplasia: A group of hereditary disorders involving tissues and structures
derived from the embryonic ectoderm. They are characterized by the presence of
abnormalities at birth and involvement of both the epidermis and skin appendages. They
are generally nonprogressive and diffuse. Various forms exist, including anhidrotic and
hidrotic dysplasias, focal dermal hypoplasia, and aplasia cutis congenita. [NIH]
Edema: Excessive amount of watery fluid accumulated in the intercellular spaces, most
commonly present in subcutaneous tissue. [NIH]
Efficacy: The extent to which a specific intervention, procedure, regimen, or service
produces a beneficial result under ideal conditions. Ideally, the determination of efficacy is
based on the results of a randomized control trial. [NIH]
Effusion: The escape of fluid into a part or tissue, as an exudation or a transudation. [EU]
Elastic: Susceptible of resisting and recovering from stretching, compression or distortion
applied by a force. [EU]
Elective: Subject to the choice or decision of the patient or physician; applied to procedures
that are advantageous to the patient but not urgent. [EU]
Electrolyte: A substance that dissociates into ions when fused or in solution, and thus
becomes capable of conducting electricity; an ionic solute. [EU]
Embryo: The prenatal stage of mammalian development characterized by rapid
morphological changes and the differentiation of basic structures. [NIH]
Emphysema: A pathological accumulation of air in tissues or organs. [NIH]
Emulsion: A preparation of one liquid distributed in small globules throughout the body of
a second liquid. The dispersed liquid is the discontinuous phase, and the dispersion
medium is the continuous phase. When oil is the dispersed liquid and an aqueous solution
is the continuous phase, it is known as an oil-in-water emulsion, whereas when water or
aqueous solution is the dispersed phase and oil or oleaginous substance is the continuous
phase, it is known as a water-in-oil emulsion. Pharmaceutical emulsions for which official
standards have been promulgated include cod liver oil emulsion, cod liver oil emulsion with
malt, liquid petrolatum emulsion, and phenolphthalein in liquid petrolatum emulsion. [EU]
Endothelium: A layer of epithelium that lines the heart, blood vessels (endothelium,
vascular), lymph vessels (endothelium, lymphatic), and the serous cavities of the body. [NIH]
Endothelium-derived: Small molecule that diffuses to the adjacent muscle layer and relaxes
it. [NIH]
Enophthalmos: Recession of the eyeball into the orbit. [NIH]
Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences,
or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Eosinophilic: A condition found primarily in grinding workers caused by a reaction of the
pulmonary tissue, in particular the eosinophilic cells, to dust that has entered the lung. [NIH]
Eosinophilic Granuloma: The most benign clinical form of Langerhans-cell histiocytosis,
which involves localized nodular lesions of the gastric mucosa, small intestine, bones, lungs,
or skin, with infiltration by eosinophils. The proliferating cell that appears to be responsible
for the clinical manifestations is the Langerhans cell. [NIH]
Eosinophils: Granular leukocytes with a nucleus that usually has two lobes connected by a
slender thread of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing coarse, round granules that are
uniform in size and stainable by eosin. [NIH]
Epidermis: Nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers:
1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); 2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum
epidermidis); 3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); 4) clear layer (stratum
lucidum epidermidis); and 5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis). [NIH]
Epistaxis: Bleeding from the nose. [NIH]
Epithelial: Refers to the cells that line the internal and external surfaces of the body. [NIH]
Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. [NIH]
Epithelium: One or more layers of epithelial cells, supported by the basal lamina, which
covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body. [NIH]
Erythrocyte Volume: Volume of circulating erythrocytes. It is usually measured by
radioisotope dilution technique. [NIH]
Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces erythreus.
Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits
protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits
peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during
translation and assembly of proteins. [NIH]
Esophagus: The muscular tube through which food passes from the throat to the stomach.
Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of podophyllotoxin that exhibits antitumor activity.
Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA.
This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by
topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase
of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the
cell cycle. [NIH]
Eustachian tube: The middle ear cavity is in communication with the back of the nose
through the Eustachian tube, which is normally closed, but opens on swallowing, in order to
maintain equal air pressure. [NIH]
Exhaustion: The feeling of weariness of mind and body. [NIH]
Exogenous: Developed or originating outside the organism, as exogenous disease. [EU]
Expiration: The act of breathing out, or expelling air from the lungs. [EU]
Dictionary 105
Expiratory: The volume of air which leaves the breathing organs in each expiration. [NIH]
Extracellular: Outside a cell or cells. [EU]
Extracorporeal: Situated or occurring outside the body. [EU]
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation: Application of a life support system that circulates
the blood through an oxygenating system, which may consist of a pump, a membrane
oxygenator, and a heat exchanger. Examples of its use are to assist victims of smoke
inhalation injury, respiratory failure, and cardiac failure. [NIH]
Family Planning: Programs or services designed to assist the family in controlling
reproduction by either improving or diminishing fertility. [NIH]
Fat: Total lipids including phospholipids. [NIH]
Femoral: Pertaining to the femur, or to the thigh. [EU]
Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery. [NIH]
Fetus: The developing offspring from 7 to 8 weeks after conception until birth. [NIH]
Fibroid: A benign smooth muscle tumor, usually in the uterus or gastrointestinal tract. Also
called leiomyoma. [NIH]
Fibroma: A benign tumor of fibrous or fully developed connective tissue. [NIH]
Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ,
usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury. [NIH]
Fissure: Any cleft or groove, normal or otherwise; especially a deep fold in the cerebral
cortex which involves the entire thickness of the brain wall. [EU]
Fixation: 1. The act or operation of holding, suturing, or fastening in a fixed position. 2. The
condition of being held in a fixed position. 3. In psychiatry, a term with two related but
distinct meanings : (1) arrest of development at a particular stage, which like regression
(return to an earlier stage), if temporary is a normal reaction to setbacks and difficulties but
if protracted or frequent is a cause of developmental failures and emotional problems, and
(2) a close and suffocating attachment to another person, especially a childhood figure, such
as one's mother or father. Both meanings are derived from psychoanalytic theory and refer
to 'fixation' of libidinal energy either in a specific erogenous zone, hence fixation at the oral,
anal, or phallic stage, or in a specific object, hence mother or father fixation. 4. The use of a
fixative (q.v.) to preserve histological or cytological specimens. 5. In chemistry, the process
whereby a substance is removed from the gaseous or solution phase and localized, as in
carbon dioxide fixation or nitrogen fixation. 6. In ophthalmology, direction of the gaze so
that the visual image of the object falls on the fovea centralis. 7. In film processing, the
chemical removal of all undeveloped salts of the film emulsion, leaving only the developed
silver to form a permanent image. [EU]
Flail Chest: A complication of multiple rib fractures, rib and sternum fractures, or thoracic
surgery. A portion of the chest wall becomes isolated from the thoracic cage and exhibits
paradoxical respiration. [NIH]
Flatus: Gas passed through the rectum. [NIH]
Fovea: The central part of the macula that provides the sharpest vision. [NIH]
Gallbladder: The pear-shaped organ that sits below the liver. Bile is concentrated and stored
in the gallbladder. [NIH]
Gas: Air that comes from normal breakdown of food. The gases are passed out of the body
through the rectum (flatus) or the mouth (burp). [NIH]
Gas exchange: Primary function of the lungs; transfer of oxygen from inhaled air into the
blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood into the lungs. [NIH]
Gastric: Having to do with the stomach. [NIH]
Gastrin: A hormone released after eating. Gastrin causes the stomach to produce more acid.
Gastrointestinal: Refers to the stomach and intestines. [NIH]
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the gastrointestinal system. [NIH]
Gastrointestinal tract: The stomach and intestines. [NIH]
Gene: The functional and physical unit of heredity passed from parent to offspring. Genes
are pieces of DNA, and most genes contain the information for making a specific protein.
Genital: Pertaining to the genitalia. [EU]
Gestational: Psychosis attributable to or occurring during pregnancy. [NIH]
Gestational Age: Age of the conceptus. In humans, this may be assessed by medical history,
physical examination, early immunologic pregnancy tests, radiography, ultrasonography,
and amniotic fluid analysis. [NIH]
Giant Cells: Multinucleated masses produced by the fusion of many cells; often associated
with viral infections. In AIDS, they are induced when the envelope glycoprotein of the HIV
virus binds to the CD4 antigen of uninfected neighboring T4 cells. The resulting syncytium
leads to cell death and thus may account for the cytopathic effect of the virus. [NIH]
Gland: An organ that produces and releases one or more substances for use in the body.
Some glands produce fluids that affect tissues or organs. Others produce hormones or
participate in blood production. [NIH]
Glucocorticoids: A group of corticosteroids that affect carbohydrate metabolism
(gluconeogenesis, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of blood sugar), inhibit corticotropin
secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat
and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective
tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and
functioning of the central nervous system. [NIH]
Glucose: D-Glucose. A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally
occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used
therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement. [NIH]
Gonadal: Pertaining to a gonad. [EU]
Governing Board: The group in which legal authority is vested for the control of healthrelated institutions and organizations. [NIH]
Grade: The grade of a tumor depends on how abnormal the cancer cells look under a
microscope and how quickly the tumor is likely to grow and spread. Grading systems are
different for each type of cancer. [NIH]
Grafting: The operation of transfer of tissue from one site to another. [NIH]
Guanylate Cyclase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of GTP to 3',5'-cyclic GMP and
pyrophosphate. It also acts on ITP and dGTP. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC [NIH]
Heart failure: Loss of pumping ability by the heart, often accompanied by fatigue,
breathlessness, and excess fluid accumulation in body tissues. [NIH]
Hematuria: Presence of blood in the urine. [NIH]
Hemodialysis: The use of a machine to clean wastes from the blood after the kidneys have
failed. The blood travels through tubes to a dialyzer, which removes wastes and extra fluid.
The cleaned blood then flows through another set of tubes back into the body. [NIH]
Dictionary 107
Hemoglobin: One of the fractions of glycosylated hemoglobin A1c. Glycosylated
hemoglobin is formed when linkages of glucose and related monosaccharides bind to
hemoglobin A and its concentration represents the average blood glucose level over the
previous several weeks. HbA1c levels are used as a measure of long-term control of plasma
glucose (normal, 4 to 6 percent). In controlled diabetes mellitus, the concentration of
glycosylated hemoglobin A is within the normal range, but in uncontrolled cases the level
may be 3 to 4 times the normal conentration. Generally, complications are substantially
lower among patients with Hb levels of 7 percent or less than in patients with HbA1c levels
of 9 percent or more. [NIH]
Hemoptysis: Bronchial hemorrhage manifested with spitting of blood. [NIH]
Hemorrhage: Bleeding or escape of blood from a vessel. [NIH]
Hereditary: Of, relating to, or denoting factors that can be transmitted genetically from one
generation to another. [NIH]
Histiocytosis: General term for the abnormal appearance of histiocytes in the blood. Based
on the pathological features of the cells involved rather than on clinical findings, the
histiocytic diseases are subdivided into three groups: Langerhans cell histiocytosis, nonLangerhans cell histiocytosis, and malignant histiocytic disorders. [NIH]
Histology: The study of tissues and cells under a microscope. [NIH]
Hormonal: Pertaining to or of the nature of a hormone. [EU]
Hormone: A substance in the body that regulates certain organs. Hormones such as gastrin
help in breaking down food. Some hormones come from cells in the stomach and small
intestine. [NIH]
Hyaline membrane disease: A respiratory disease of newborns, especially premature
infants, in which a membrane composed of proteins and dead cells forms and lines the
alveoli making gas exchange difficult or impossible. [NIH]
Hypersensitivity: Altered reactivity to an antigen, which can result in pathologic reactions
upon subsequent exposure to that particular antigen. [NIH]
Hypoplasia: Incomplete development or underdevelopment of an organ or tissue. [EU]
Hypothermia: Lower than normal body temperature, especially in warm-blooded animals;
in man usually accidental or unintentional. [NIH]
Hypoxic: Having too little oxygen. [NIH]
Idiopathic: Describes a disease of unknown cause. [NIH]
Ileus: Obstruction of the intestines. [EU]
Immune response: The activity of the immune system against foreign substances (antigens).
Immune system: The organs, cells, and molecules responsible for the recognition and
disposal of foreign ("non-self") material which enters the body. [NIH]
Immunocompromised: Having a weakened immune system caused by certain diseases or
treatments. [NIH]
Immunologic: The ability of the antibody-forming system to recall a previous experience
with an antigen and to respond to a second exposure with the prompt production of large
amounts of antibody. [NIH]
Impairment: In the context of health experience, an impairment is any loss or abnormality of
psychological, physiological, or anatomical structure or function. [NIH]
In vitro: In the laboratory (outside the body). The opposite of in vivo (in the body). [NIH]
In vivo: In the body. The opposite of in vitro (outside the body or in the laboratory). [NIH]
Incision: A cut made in the body during surgery. [NIH]
Incisional: The removal of a sample of tissue for examination under a microscope. [NIH]
Indigestion: Poor digestion. Symptoms include heartburn, nausea, bloating, and gas. Also
called dyspepsia. [NIH]
Induction: The act or process of inducing or causing to occur, especially the production of a
specific morphogenetic effect in the developing embryo through the influence of evocators
or organizers, or the production of anaesthesia or unconsciousness by use of appropriate
agents. [EU]
Infancy: The period of complete dependency prior to the acquisition of competence in
walking, talking, and self-feeding. [NIH]
Infarction: A pathological process consisting of a sudden insufficient blood supply to an
area, which results in necrosis of that area. It is usually caused by a thrombus, an embolus,
or a vascular torsion. [NIH]
Infection: 1. Invasion and multiplication of microorganisms in body tissues, which may be
clinically unapparent or result in local cellular injury due to competitive metabolism, toxins,
intracellular replication, or antigen-antibody response. The infection may remain localized,
subclinical, and temporary if the body's defensive mechanisms are effective. A local
infection may persist and spread by extension to become an acute, subacute, or chronic
clinical infection or disease state. A local infection may also become systemic when the
microorganisms gain access to the lymphatic or vascular system. 2. An infectious disease.
Infiltration: The diffusion or accumulation in a tissue or cells of substances not normal to it
or in amounts of the normal. Also, the material so accumulated. [EU]
Inflammation: A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues
caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical
signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function. [NIH]
Ingestion: Taking into the body by mouth [NIH]
Inhalation: The drawing of air or other substances into the lungs. [EU]
Inorganic: Pertaining to substances not of organic origin. [EU]
Instillation: . [EU]
Insufflation: The act of blowing a powder, vapor, or gas into any body cavity for
experimental, diagnostic, or therapeutic purposes. [NIH]
Intensive Care: Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical
patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant
monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
Interstitial: Pertaining to or situated between parts or in the interspaces of a tissue. [EU]
Intestinal: Having to do with the intestines. [NIH]
Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the stomach to the anus. It includes the
large intestine and small intestine. [NIH]
Intoxication: Poisoning, the state of being poisoned. [EU]
Intracellular: Inside a cell. [NIH]
Intubation: Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if
obstructed. It is differentiated from catheterization in that the insertion of a catheter is
Dictionary 109
usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body. [NIH]
Invasive: 1. Having the quality of invasiveness. 2. Involving puncture or incision of the skin
or insertion of an instrument or foreign material into the body; said of diagnostic techniques.
Involuntary: Reaction occurring without intention or volition. [NIH]
Ischemia: Deficiency of blood in a part, due to functional constriction or actual obstruction
of a blood vessel. [EU]
Kb: A measure of the length of DNA fragments, 1 Kb = 1000 base pairs. The largest DNA
fragments are up to 50 kilobases long. [NIH]
Kidney Pelvis: The flattened, funnel-shaped expansion connecting the ureter to the kidney
calices. [NIH]
Kinetic: Pertaining to or producing motion. [EU]
Larynx: An irregularly shaped, musculocartilaginous tubular structure, lined with mucous
membrane, located at the top of the trachea and below the root of the tongue and the hyoid
bone. It is the essential sphincter guarding the entrance into the trachea and functioning
secondarily as the organ of voice. [NIH]
Latex Allergy: Hypersensitivity to products containing processed natural rubber latex such
as rubber gloves, condoms, catheters, dental dams, balloons, and sporting equipment. Both
T-cell mediated (delayed hypersensitivity) and IgE antibody-mediated (immediate
hypersensitivity) allergic responses are possible. Delayed hypersensitivity results from
exposure to antioxidants present in the rubber; immediate hypersensitivity results from
exposure to a latex protein. [NIH]
Lavage: A cleaning of the stomach and colon. Uses a special drink and enemas. [NIH]
Leiomyoma: A benign tumor derived from smooth muscle tissue, also known as a fibroid
tumor. They rarely occur outside of the uterus and the gastrointestinal tract but can occur in
the skin and subcutaneous tissues, probably arising from the smooth muscle of small blood
vessels in these tissues. [NIH]
Leiomyosarcoma: A tumor of the muscles in the uterus, abdomen, or pelvis. [NIH]
Lesion: An area of abnormal tissue change. [NIH]
Life Expectancy: A figure representing the number of years, based on known statistics, to
which any person of a given age may reasonably expect to live. [NIH]
Ligament: A band of fibrous tissue that connects bones or cartilages, serving to support and
strengthen joints. [EU]
Linkages: The tendency of two or more genes in the same chromosome to remain together
from one generation to the next more frequently than expected according to the law of
independent assortment. [NIH]
Lipoma: A benign tumor composed of fat cells. [NIH]
Lithotripsy: The destruction of a calculus of the kidney, ureter, bladder, or gallbladder by
physical forces, including crushing with a lithotriptor through a catheter. Focused
percutaneous ultrasound and focused hydraulic shock waves may be used without surgery.
Lithotripsy does not include the dissolving of stones by acids or litholysis. Lithotripsy by
laser is laser lithotripsy. [NIH]
Liver: A large, glandular organ located in the upper abdomen. The liver cleanses the blood
and aids in digestion by secreting bile. [NIH]
Lobe: A portion of an organ such as the liver, lung, breast, or brain. [NIH]
Localized: Cancer which has not metastasized yet. [NIH]
Lung volume: The amount of air the lungs hold. [NIH]
Lymph: The almost colorless fluid that travels through the lymphatic system and carries
cells that help fight infection and disease. [NIH]
Lymph node: A rounded mass of lymphatic tissue that is surrounded by a capsule of
connective tissue. Also known as a lymph gland. Lymph nodes are spread out along
lymphatic vessels and contain many lymphocytes, which filter the lymphatic fluid (lymph).
Lymphadenopathy: Disease or swelling of the lymph nodes. [NIH]
Lymphatic: The tissues and organs, including the bone marrow, spleen, thymus, and lymph
nodes, that produce and store cells that fight infection and disease. [NIH]
Lymphatic system: The tissues and organs that produce, store, and carry white blood cells
that fight infection and other diseases. This system includes the bone marrow, spleen,
thymus, lymph nodes and a network of thin tubes that carry lymph and white blood cells.
These tubes branch, like blood vessels, into all the tissues of the body. [NIH]
Lymphocyte: A white blood cell. Lymphocytes have a number of roles in the immune
system, including the production of antibodies and other substances that fight infection and
diseases. [NIH]
Lymphokines: Soluble protein factors generated by activated lymphocytes that affect other
cells, primarily those involved in cellular immunity. [NIH]
Macrophage: A type of white blood cell that surrounds and kills microorganisms, removes
dead cells, and stimulates the action of other immune system cells. [NIH]
Macrophage Activation: The process of altering the morphology and functional activity of
macrophages so that they become avidly phagocytic. It is initiated by lymphokines, such as
the macrophage activation factor (MAF) and the macrophage migration-inhibitory factor
(MMIF), immune complexes, C3b, and various peptides, polysaccharides, and immunologic
adjuvants. [NIH]
Malignant: Cancerous; a growth with a tendency to invade and destroy nearby tissue and
spread to other parts of the body. [NIH]
Malignant mesothelioma: A rare type of cancer in which malignant cells are found in the
sac lining the chest or abdomen. Exposure to airborne asbestos particles increases one's risk
of developing malignant mesothelioma. [NIH]
Malignant tumor: A tumor capable of metastasizing. [NIH]
Malnutrition: A condition caused by not eating enough food or not eating a balanced diet.
Maxillary: Pertaining to the maxilla : the irregularly shaped bone that with its fellow forms
the upper jaw. [EU]
Maxillary Sinus: One of the paired paranasal sinuses, located in the body of the maxilla,
communicating with the middle meatus of the nasal cavity. [NIH]
Meatus: A canal running from the internal auditory foramen through the petrous portion of
the temporal bone. It gives passage to the facial and auditory nerves together with the
auditory branch of the basilar artery and the internal auditory veins. [NIH]
Mechanical ventilation: Use of a machine called a ventilator or respirator to improve the
exchange of air between the lungs and the atmosphere. [NIH]
Meconium: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a fullterm fetus. It consists of secretions of the intestinal glands, bile pigments, fatty acids,
Dictionary 111
amniotic fluid, and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.
Meconium Aspiration: Syndrome caused by sucking of thick meconium into the lungs,
usually by term or post-term infants (often small for gestational age) either in utero or with
first breath. The resultant small airway obstruction may produce respiratory distress,
tachypnea, cyanosis, pneumothorax, and/or pneumomediastinum. [NIH]
Mediastinitis: Inflammation of the mediastinum, the area between the pleural sacs. [NIH]
Mediastinum: The area between the lungs. The organs in this area include the heart and its
large blood vessels, the trachea, the esophagus, the bronchi, and lymph nodes. [NIH]
MEDLINE: An online database of MEDLARS, the computerized bibliographic Medical
Literature Analysis and Retrieval System of the National Library of Medicine. [NIH]
Membrane: A very thin layer of tissue that covers a surface. [NIH]
Meninges: The three membranes that cover and protect the brain and spinal cord. [NIH]
Mesothelioma: A benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous) tumor affecting the
lining of the chest or abdomen. Exposure to asbestos particles in the air increases the risk of
developing malignant mesothelioma. [NIH]
Metastasis: The spread of cancer from one part of the body to another. Tumors formed from
cells that have spread are called "secondary tumors" and contain cells that are like those in
the original (primary) tumor. The plural is metastases. [NIH]
Metastasize: To spread from one part of the body to another. When cancer cells metastasize
and form secondary tumors, the cells in the metastatic tumor are like those in the original
(primary) tumor. [NIH]
Metastatic: Having to do with metastasis, which is the spread of cancer from one part of the
body to another. [NIH]
Methionine: A sulfur containing essential amino acid that is important in many body
functions. It is a chelating agent for heavy metals. [NIH]
MI: Myocardial infarction. Gross necrosis of the myocardium as a result of interruption of
the blood supply to the area; it is almost always caused by atherosclerosis of the coronary
arteries, upon which coronary thrombosis is usually superimposed. [NIH]
Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and
viruses. [NIH]
Middle Ear Ventilation: Ventilation of the middle ear in the treatment of secretory (serous)
otitis media, usually by placement of tubes or grommets which pierce the tympanic
membrane. [NIH]
Migration: The systematic movement of genes between populations of the same species,
geographic race, or variety. [NIH]
Mineralocorticoids: A group of corticosteroids primarily associated with the regulation of
water and electrolyte balance. This is accomplished through the effect on ion transport in
renal tubules, resulting in retention of sodium and loss of potassium. Mineralocorticoid
secretion is itself regulated by plasma volume, serum potassium, and angiotensin II. [NIH]
Mitochondrial Swelling: Increase in volume of mitochondria due to an influx of fluid; it
occurs in hypotonic solutions due to osmotic pressure and in isotonic solutions as a result of
altered permeability of the membranes of respiring mitochondria. [NIH]
Mitotic: Cell resulting from mitosis. [NIH]
Molecular: Of, pertaining to, or composed of molecules : a very small mass of matter. [EU]
Molecule: A chemical made up of two or more atoms. The atoms in a molecule can be the
same (an oxygen molecule has two oxygen atoms) or different (a water molecule has two
hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom). Biological molecules, such as proteins and DNA,
can be made up of many thousands of atoms. [NIH]
Morphology: The science of the form and structure of organisms (plants, animals, and other
forms of life). [NIH]
Motor nerve: An efferent nerve conveying an impulse that excites muscular contraction.
Mucilaginous: Pertaining to or secreting mucus. [NIH]
Mucolytic: Destroying or dissolving mucin; an agent that so acts : a mucopolysaccharide or
glycoprotein, the chief constituent of mucus. [EU]
Mucosa: A mucous membrane, or tunica mucosa. [EU]
Mucus: The viscous secretion of mucous membranes. It contains mucin, white blood cells,
water, inorganic salts, and exfoliated cells. [NIH]
Muscle Fibers: Large single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic
unit of muscle tissue. They consist of a soft contractile substance enclosed in a tubular
sheath. [NIH]
Muscular Atrophy: Derangement in size and number of muscle fibers occurring with aging,
reduction in blood supply, or following immobilization, prolonged weightlessness,
malnutrition, and particularly in denervation. [NIH]
Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the heart composed of striated, involuntary muscle
known as cardiac muscle. [NIH]
Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit.
Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense
pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses. [NIH]
NCI: National Cancer Institute. NCI, part of the National Institutes of Health of the United
States Department of Health and Human Services, is the federal government's principal
agency for cancer research. NCI conducts, coordinates, and funds cancer research, training,
health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to the cause, diagnosis,
prevention, and treatment of cancer. Access the NCI Web site at http://cancer.gov. [NIH]
Necrosis: A pathological process caused by the progressive degradative action of enzymes
that is generally associated with severe cellular trauma. It is characterized by mitochondrial
swelling, nuclear flocculation, uncontrolled cell lysis, and ultimately cell death. [NIH]
Neonatal: Pertaining to the first four weeks after birth. [EU]
Neoplasia: Abnormal and uncontrolled cell growth. [NIH]
Neoplasm: A new growth of benign or malignant tissue. [NIH]
Neoplastic: Pertaining to or like a neoplasm (= any new and abnormal growth); pertaining
to neoplasia (= the formation of a neoplasm). [EU]
Nerve: A cordlike structure of nervous tissue that connects parts of the nervous system with
other tissues of the body and conveys nervous impulses to, or away from, these tissues. [NIH]
Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells. It
is synthesized from arginine by a complex reaction, catalyzed by nitric oxide synthase.
Nitric oxide is endothelium-derived relaxing factor. It is released by the vascular
endothelium and mediates the relaxation induced by some vasodilators such as
acetylcholine and bradykinin. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of
aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide
Dictionary 113
activates cytosolic guanylate cyclase and thus elevates intracellular levels of cyclic GMP.
Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight 14.
Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by
volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells. [NIH]
Non-small cell lung cancer: A group of lung cancers that includes squamous cell carcinoma,
adenocarcinoma, and large cell carcinoma. [NIH]
Nuclear: A test of the structure, blood flow, and function of the kidneys. The doctor injects a
mildly radioactive solution into an arm vein and uses x-rays to monitor its progress through
the kidneys. [NIH]
Nucleic acid: Either of two types of macromolecule (DNA or RNA) formed by
polymerization of nucleotides. Nucleic acids are found in all living cells and contain the
information (genetic code) for the transfer of genetic information from one generation to the
next. [NIH]
Oedema: The presence of abnormally large amounts of fluid in the intercellular tissue
spaces of the body; usually applied to demonstrable accumulation of excessive fluid in the
subcutaneous tissues. Edema may be localized, due to venous or lymphatic obstruction or to
increased vascular permeability, or it may be systemic due to heart failure or renal disease.
Collections of edema fluid are designated according to the site, e.g. ascites (peritoneal
cavity), hydrothorax (pleural cavity), and hydropericardium (pericardial sac). Massive
generalized edema is called anasarca. [EU]
Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye
and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases. [NIH]
Optic cup: The white, cup-like area in the center of the optic disc. [NIH]
Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve. The optic nerve conveys visual information from the
retina to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the retinal ganglion cells which sort at the
optic chiasm and continue via the optic tracts to the brain. The largest projection is to the
lateral geniculate nuclei; other important targets include the superior colliculi and the
suprachiasmatic nuclei. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of
the central nervous system. [NIH]
Orbit: One of the two cavities in the skull which contains an eyeball. Each eye is located in a
bony socket or orbit. [NIH]
Ossification: The formation of bone or of a bony substance; the conversion of fibrous tissue
or of cartilage into bone or a bony substance. [EU]
Otitis: Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain, fever, abnormalities of
hearing, hearing loss, tinnitus, and vertigo. [EU]
Otitis Media: Inflammation of the middle ear. [NIH]
Otitis Media with Effusion: Inflammation of the middle ear with a clear pale yellowcolored transudate. [NIH]
Oxygenation: The process of supplying, treating, or mixing with oxygen. No:1245 oxygenation the process of supplying, treating, or mixing with oxygen. [EU]
Oxygenator: An apparatus by which oxygen is introduced into the blood during circulation
outside the body, as during open heart surgery. [NIH]
Paediatric: Of or relating to the care and medical treatment of children; belonging to or
concerned with paediatrics. [EU]
Palate: The structure that forms the roof of the mouth. It consists of the anterior hard palate
and the posterior soft palate. [NIH]
Palliative: 1. Affording relief, but not cure. 2. An alleviating medicine. [EU]
Pancreas: A mixed exocrine and endocrine gland situated transversely across the posterior
abdominal wall in the epigastric and hypochondriac regions. The endocrine portion is
comprised of the Islets of Langerhans, while the exocrine portion is a compound acinar
gland that secretes digestive enzymes. [NIH]
Papilloma: A benign epithelial neoplasm which may arise from the skin, mucous
membranes or glandular ducts. [NIH]
Paradoxical: Occurring at variance with the normal rule. [EU]
Paralysis: Loss of ability to move all or part of the body. [NIH]
Parathyroid: 1. Situated beside the thyroid gland. 2. One of the parathyroid glands. 3. A
sterile preparation of the water-soluble principle(s) of the parathyroid glands, ad-ministered
parenterally as an antihypocalcaemic, especially in the treatment of acute
hypoparathyroidism with tetany. [EU]
Parathyroid Glands: Two small paired endocrine glands in the region of the thyroid gland.
They secrete parathyroid hormone and are concerned with the metabolism of calcium and
phosphorus. [NIH]
Parenchyma: The essential elements of an organ; used in anatomical nomenclature as a
general term to designate the functional elements of an organ, as distinguished from its
framework, or stroma. [EU]
Parietal: 1. Of or pertaining to the walls of a cavity. 2. Pertaining to or located near the
parietal bone, as the parietal lobe. [EU]
Parotid: The space that contains the parotid gland, the facial nerve, the external carotid
artery, and the retromandibular vein. [NIH]
Pathogenesis: The cellular events and reactions that occur in the development of disease.
Pathologic: 1. Indicative of or caused by a morbid condition. 2. Pertaining to pathology (=
branch of medicine that treats the essential nature of the disease, especially the structural
and functional changes in tissues and organs of the body caused by the disease). [EU]
Pathophysiology: Altered functions in an individual or an organ due to disease. [NIH]
Pedicle: Embryonic link between the optic vesicle or optic cup and the forebrain or
diencephalon, which becomes the optic nerve. [NIH]
Pelvic: Pertaining to the pelvis. [EU]
Pelvis: The lower part of the abdomen, located between the hip bones. [NIH]
Percutaneous: Performed through the skin, as injection of radiopacque material in
radiological examination, or the removal of tissue for biopsy accomplished by a needle. [EU]
Perforation: 1. The act of boring or piercing through a part. 2. A hole made through a part or
substance. [EU]
Perfusion: Bathing an organ or tissue with a fluid. In regional perfusion, a specific area of
the body (usually an arm or a leg) receives high doses of anticancer drugs through a blood
vessel. Such a procedure is performed to treat cancer that has not spread. [NIH]
Perioperative: Around the time of surgery; usually lasts from the time of going into the
hospital or doctor's office for surgery until the time the patient goes home. [NIH]
Peritoneal: Having to do with the peritoneum (the tissue that lines the abdominal wall and
covers most of the organs in the abdomen). [NIH]
Dictionary 115
Peritoneal Cavity: The space enclosed by the peritoneum. It is divided into two portions, the
greater sac and the lesser sac or omental bursa, which lies behind the stomach. The two sacs
are connected by the foramen of Winslow, or epiploic foramen. [NIH]
Phallic: Pertaining to the phallus, or penis. [EU]
Pharmacologic: Pertaining to pharmacology or to the properties and reactions of drugs. [EU]
Phrenic Nerve: The motor nerve of the diaphragm. The phrenic nerve fibers originate in the
cervical spinal column (mostly C4) and travel through the cervical plexus to the diaphragm.
Physical Therapy: The restoration of function and the prevention of disability following
disease or injury with the use of light, heat, cold, water, electricity, ultrasound, and exercise.
Pituitary Gland: A small, unpaired gland situated in the sella turcica tissue. It is connected
to the hypothalamus by a short stalk. [NIH]
Plasma: The clear, yellowish, fluid part of the blood that carries the blood cells. The proteins
that form blood clots are in plasma. [NIH]
Plasma Volume: Volume of plasma in the circulation. It is usually measured by indicator
dilution techniques. [NIH]
Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of platelets to one another. This clumping together
can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., thrombin, collagen) and is part of the
mechanism leading to the formation of a thrombus. [NIH]
Platelets: A type of blood cell that helps prevent bleeding by causing blood clots to form.
Also called thrombocytes. [NIH]
Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs and lining the thoracic cavity. [NIH]
Pleural: A circumscribed area of hyaline whorled fibrous tissue which appears on the
surface of the parietal pleura, on the fibrous part of the diaphragm or on the pleura in the
interlobar fissures. [NIH]
Pleural cavity: A space enclosed by the pleura (thin tissue covering the lungs and lining the
interior wall of the chest cavity). It is bound by thin membranes. [NIH]
Pleural Effusion: Presence of fluid in the pleural cavity resulting from excessive
transudation or exudation from the pleural surfaces. It is a sign of disease and not a
diagnosis in itself. [NIH]
Pneumoconiosis: Condition characterized by permanent deposition of substantial amounts
of particulate matter in the lungs, usually of occupational or environmental origin, and by
the tissue reaction to its presence. [NIH]
Pneumonia: Inflammation of the lungs. [NIH]
Pneumonitis: A disease caused by inhaling a wide variety of substances such as dusts and
molds. Also called "farmer's disease". [NIH]
Pneumothorax: Accumulation of air or gas in the space between the lung and chest wall,
resulting in partial or complete collapse of the lung. [NIH]
Podophyllotoxin: The main active constituent of the resin from the roots of may apple or
mandrake (Podophyllum peltatum and P. emodi). It is a potent spindle poison, toxic if taken
internally, and has been used as a cathartic. It is very irritating to skin and mucous
membranes, has keratolytic actions, has been used to treat warts and keratoses, and may
have antineoplastic properties, as do some of its congeners and derivatives. [NIH]
Polysaccharide: A type of carbohydrate. It contains sugar molecules that are linked together
chemically. [NIH]
Positive End-Expiratory Pressure: A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is
maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lung at the end of expiration, thus
keeping the alveoli open and improving gas exchange. [NIH]
Postcholecystectomy Syndrome: A condition that occurs after gallbladder removal. The
muscle between the gallbladder and the small intestine does not work properly, causing
pain, nausea, and indigestion. Also called biliary dyskinesia. [NIH]
Postoperative: After surgery. [NIH]
Practice Guidelines: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for
the health care practitioner to assist him in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis,
therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government
agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the
convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of
health care and delivery. [NIH]
Preoperative: Preceding an operation. [EU]
Progesterone: Pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione. The principal progestational hormone of the body,
secreted by the corpus luteum, adrenal cortex, and placenta. Its chief function is to prepare
the uterus for the reception and development of the fertilized ovum. It acts as an
antiovulatory agent when administered on days 5-25 of the menstrual cycle. [NIH]
Progression: Increase in the size of a tumor or spread of cancer in the body. [NIH]
Progressive: Advancing; going forward; going from bad to worse; increasing in scope or
severity. [EU]
Prophylaxis: An attempt to prevent disease. [NIH]
Protein S: The vitamin K-dependent cofactor of activated protein C. Together with protein
C, it inhibits the action of factors VIIIa and Va. A deficiency in protein S can lead to
recurrent venous and arterial thrombosis. [NIH]
Proteins: Polymers of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. The specific sequence of amino
acids determines the shape and function of the protein. [NIH]
Psychiatry: The medical science that deals with the origin, diagnosis, prevention, and
treatment of mental disorders. [NIH]
Psychoactive: Those drugs which alter sensation, mood, consciousness or other
psychological or behavioral functions. [NIH]
Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among
alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions. [NIH]
Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of
literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and
editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Pulmonary: Relating to the lungs. [NIH]
Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right
ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs. [NIH]
Pulmonary Embolism: Embolism in the pulmonary artery or one of its branches. [NIH]
Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an artery produced by waves of
pressure caused by the ejection of blood from the left ventricle of the heart as it contracts.
Radiation: Emission or propagation of electromagnetic energy (waves/rays), or the
waves/rays themselves; a stream of electromagnetic particles (electrons, neutrons, protons,
Dictionary 117
alpha particles) or a mixture of these. The most common source is the sun. [NIH]
Radioactive: Giving off radiation. [NIH]
Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of
roentgen rays, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film). [NIH]
Radiology: A specialty concerned with the use of x-ray and other forms of radiant energy in
the diagnosis and treatment of disease. [NIH]
Randomized: Describes an experiment or clinical trial in which animal or human subjects
are assigned by chance to separate groups that compare different treatments. [NIH]
Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until the organism responds. [NIH]
Receptor: A molecule inside or on the surface of a cell that binds to a specific substance and
causes a specific physiologic effect in the cell. [NIH]
Recombinant: A cell or an individual with a new combination of genes not found together
in either parent; usually applied to linked genes. [EU]
Rectum: The last 8 to 10 inches of the large intestine. [NIH]
Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission. [NIH]
Refer: To send or direct for treatment, aid, information, de decision. [NIH]
Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a
stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord. [NIH]
Refractory: Not readily yielding to treatment. [EU]
Regimen: A treatment plan that specifies the dosage, the schedule, and the duration of
treatment. [NIH]
Reliability: Used technically, in a statistical sense, of consistency of a test with itself, i. e. the
extent to which we can assume that it will yield the same result if repeated a second time.
Remission: A decrease in or disappearance of signs and symptoms of cancer. In partial
remission, some, but not all, signs and symptoms of cancer have disappeared. In complete
remission, all signs and symptoms of cancer have disappeared, although there still may be
cancer in the body. [NIH]
Renal pelvis: The area at the center of the kidney. Urine collects here and is funneled into
the ureter, the tube that connects the kidney to the bladder. [NIH]
Resection: Removal of tissue or part or all of an organ by surgery. [NIH]
Respiration: The act of breathing with the lungs, consisting of inspiration, or the taking into
the lungs of the ambient air, and of expiration, or the expelling of the modified air which
contains more carbon dioxide than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary,
4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= oxygen consumption) or cell respiration
(= cell respiration). [NIH]
Respirator: A mechanical device that helps a patient breathe; a mechanical ventilator. [NIH]
Respiratory distress syndrome: A lung disease that occurs primarily in premature infants;
the newborn must struggle for each breath and blueing of its skin reflects the baby's inability
to get enough oxygen. [NIH]
Respiratory failure: Inability of the lungs to conduct gas exchange. [NIH]
Respiratory Physiology: Functions and activities of the respiratory tract as a whole or of any
of its parts. [NIH]
Respiratory Therapy: Care of patients with deficiencies and abnormalities associated with
the cardiopulmonary system. It includes the therapeutic use of medical gases and their
administrative apparatus, environmental control systems, humidification, aerosols,
ventilatory support, bronchopulmonary drainage and exercise, respiratory rehabilitation,
assistance with cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and maintenance of natural, artificial, and
mechanical airways. [NIH]
Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead; it includes
such measures as artificial respiration and cardiac massage. [EU]
Retraction: 1. The act of drawing back; the condition of being drawn back. 2. Distal
movement of teeth, usually accomplished with an orthodontic appliance. [EU]
Retrograde: 1. Moving backward or against the usual direction of flow. 2. Degenerating,
deteriorating, or catabolic. [EU]
Retrospective: Looking back at events that have already taken place. [NIH]
Rickets: A condition caused by deficiency of vitamin D, especially in infancy and childhood,
with disturbance of normal ossification. The disease is marked by bending and distortion of
the bones under muscular action, by the formation of nodular enlargements on the ends and
sides of the bones, by delayed closure of the fontanelles, pain in the muscles, and sweating
of the head. Vitamin D and sunlight together with an adequate diet are curative, provided
that the parathyroid glands are functioning properly. [EU]
Risk factor: A habit, trait, condition, or genetic alteration that increases a person's chance of
developing a disease. [NIH]
Roxithromycin: Semisynthetic derivative of erythromycin. It is concentrated by human
phagocytes and is bioactive intracellularly. While the drug is active against a wide spectrum
of pathogens, it is particularly effective in the treatment of respiratory and genital tract
infections. [NIH]
Rubber: A high-molecular-weight polymeric elastomer derived from the milk juice (latex) of
Hevea brasiliensis and other trees. It is a substance that can be stretched at room
temperature to atleast twice its original length and after releasing the stress, retractrapidly,
and recover its original dimensions fully. Synthetic rubber is made from many different
chemicals, including styrene, acrylonitrile, ethylene, propylene, and isoprene. [NIH]
Saline: A solution of salt and water. [NIH]
Saponins: Sapogenin glycosides. A type of glycoside widely distributed in plants. Each
consists of a sapogenin as the aglycon moiety, and a sugar. The sapogenin may be a steroid
or a triterpene and the sugar may be glucose, galactose, a pentose, or a methylpentose.
Sapogenins are poisonous towards the lower forms of life and are powerful hemolytics
when injected into the blood stream able to dissolve red blood cells at even extreme
dilutions. [NIH]
Sarcoidosis: An idiopathic systemic inflammatory granulomatous disorder comprised of
epithelioid and multinucleated giant cells with little necrosis. It usually invades the lungs
with fibrosis and may also involve lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen, eyes, phalangeal bones,
and parotid glands. [NIH]
Schizoid: Having qualities resembling those found in greater degree in schizophrenics; a
person of schizoid personality. [NIH]
Schizophrenia: A mental disorder characterized by a special type of disintegration of the
personality. [NIH]
Schizotypal Personality Disorder: A personality disorder in which there are oddities of
thought (magical thinking, paranoid ideation, suspiciousness), perception (illusions,
depersonalization), speech (digressive, vague, overelaborate), and behavior (inappropriate
Dictionary 119
affect in social interactions, frequently social isolation) that are not severe enough to
characterize schizophrenia. [NIH]
Sclerosis: A pathological process consisting of hardening or fibrosis of an anatomical
structure, often a vessel or a nerve. [NIH]
Screening: Checking for disease when there are no symptoms. [NIH]
Secondary tumor: Cancer that has spread from the organ in which it first appeared to
another organ. For example, breast cancer cells may spread (metastasize) to the lungs and
cause the growth of a new tumor. When this happens, the disease is called metastatic breast
cancer, and the tumor in the lungs is called a secondary tumor. Also called secondary
cancer. [NIH]
Secretion: 1. The process of elaborating a specific product as a result of the activity of a
gland; this activity may range from separating a specific substance of the blood to the
elaboration of a new chemical substance. 2. Any substance produced by secretion. [EU]
Secretory: Secreting; relating to or influencing secretion or the secretions. [NIH]
Segmental: Describing or pertaining to a structure which is repeated in similar form in
successive segments of an organism, or which is undergoing segmentation. [NIH]
Segmentation: The process by which muscles in the intestines move food and wastes
through the body. [NIH]
Semisynthetic: Produced by chemical manipulation of naturally occurring substances. [EU]
Sensibility: The ability to receive, feel and appreciate sensations and impressions; the
quality of being sensitive; the extend to which a method gives results that are free from false
negatives. [NIH]
Sequela: Any lesion or affection following or caused by an attack of disease. [EU]
Serous: Having to do with serum, the clear liquid part of blood. [NIH]
Serum: The clear liquid part of the blood that remains after blood cells and clotting proteins
have been removed. [NIH]
Shock: The general bodily disturbance following a severe injury; an emotional or moral
upset occasioned by some disturbing or unexpected experience; disruption of the
circulation, which can upset all body functions: sometimes referred to as circulatory shock.
Shunt: A surgically created diversion of fluid (e.g., blood or cerebrospinal fluid) from one
area of the body to another area of the body. [NIH]
Side effect: A consequence other than the one(s) for which an agent or measure is used, as
the adverse effects produced by a drug, especially on a tissue or organ system other than the
one sought to be benefited by its administration. [EU]
Silicosis: A type of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of particles of silica, quartz,
ganister or slate. [NIH]
Skull: The skeleton of the head including the bones of the face and the bones enclosing the
brain. [NIH]
Small cell lung cancer: A type of lung cancer in which the cells appear small and round
when viewed under the microscope. Also called oat cell lung cancer. [NIH]
Small intestine: The part of the digestive tract that is located between the stomach and the
large intestine. [NIH]
Smoke Inhalation Injury: Pulmonary injury following the breathing in of toxic smoke from
burning materials such as plastics, synthetics, building materials, etc. This injury is the most
frequent cause of death in burn patients. [NIH]
Smooth muscle: Muscle that performs automatic tasks, such as constricting blood vessels.
Sodium: An element that is a member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol
Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23. With a valence of 1, it has a strong affinity for
oxygen and other nonmetallic elements. Sodium provides the chief cation of the
extracellular body fluids. Its salts are the most widely used in medicine. (From Dorland,
27th ed) Physiologically the sodium ion plays a major role in blood pressure regulation,
maintenance of fluid volume, and electrolyte balance. [NIH]
Specialist: In medicine, one who concentrates on 1 special branch of medical science. [NIH]
Spectrum: A charted band of wavelengths of electromagnetic vibrations obtained by
refraction and diffraction. By extension, a measurable range of activity, such as the range of
bacteria affected by an antibiotic (antibacterial s.) or the complete range of manifestations of
a disease. [EU]
Spinal cord: The main trunk or bundle of nerves running down the spine through holes in
the spinal bone (the vertebrae) from the brain to the level of the lower back. [NIH]
Spirometry: Measurement of volume of air inhaled or exhaled by the lung. [NIH]
Spleen: An organ that is part of the lymphatic system. The spleen produces lymphocytes,
filters the blood, stores blood cells, and destroys old blood cells. It is located on the left side
of the abdomen near the stomach. [NIH]
Sputum: The material expelled from the respiratory passages by coughing or clearing the
throat. [NIH]
Squamous: Scaly, or platelike. [EU]
Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that begins in squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells
resembling fish scales. Squamous cells are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the
skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the passages of the respiratory and
digestive tracts. Also called epidermoid carcinoma. [NIH]
Squamous cell carcinoma: Cancer that begins in squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells
resembling fish scales. Squamous cells are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the
skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the passages of the respiratory and
digestive tracts. Also called epidermoid carcinoma. [NIH]
Squamous Epithelium: Tissue in an organ such as the esophagus. Consists of layers of flat,
scaly cells. [NIH]
Status Asthmaticus: A sudden intense and continuous aggravation of a state of asthma,
marked by dyspnea to the point of exhaustion and collapse and not responding to the usual
therapeutic efforts. [NIH]
Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of a duct or canal. [EU]
Sterile: Unable to produce children. [NIH]
Sternum: Breast bone. [NIH]
cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene ring system. Some of the substances included in this
group are progesterone, adrenocortical hormones, the gonadal hormones, cardiac aglycones,
bile acids, sterols (such as cholesterol), toad poisons, saponins, and some of the carcinogenic
hydrocarbons. [EU]
Stimulus: That which can elicit or evoke action (response) in a muscle, nerve, gland or other
excitable issue, or cause an augmenting action upon any function or metabolic process. [NIH]
Dictionary 121
Stomach: An organ of digestion situated in the left upper quadrant of the abdomen between
the termination of the esophagus and the beginning of the duodenum. [NIH]
Stool: The waste matter discharged in a bowel movement; feces. [NIH]
Stricture: The abnormal narrowing of a body opening. Also called stenosis. [NIH]
Stroke: Sudden loss of function of part of the brain because of loss of blood flow. Stroke may
be caused by a clot (thrombosis) or rupture (hemorrhage) of a blood vessel to the brain. [NIH]
Stroma: The middle, thickest layer of tissue in the cornea. [NIH]
Subacute: Somewhat acute; between acute and chronic. [EU]
Subclinical: Without clinical manifestations; said of the early stage(s) of an infection or other
disease or abnormality before symptoms and signs become apparent or detectable by
clinical examination or laboratory tests, or of a very mild form of an infection or other
disease or abnormality. [EU]
Subcutaneous: Beneath the skin. [NIH]
Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and
peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of pain, causes rapid contractions
of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
Suction: The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by
means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure. [NIH]
Sulfur: An element that is a member of the chalcogen family. It has an atomic symbol S,
atomic number 16, and atomic weight 32.066. It is found in the amino acids cysteine and
methionine. [NIH]
Supine: Having the front portion of the body upwards. [NIH]
Suppression: A conscious exclusion of disapproved desire contrary with repression, in
which the process of exclusion is not conscious. [NIH]
Suppurative: Consisting of, containing, associated with, or identified by the formation of
pus. [NIH]
Surfactant: A fat-containing protein in the respiratory passages which reduces the surface
tension of pulmonary fluids and contributes to the elastic properties of pulmonary tissue.
Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and
followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the
beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using
life table methods. [NIH]
Systemic: Affecting the entire body. [NIH]
Tachypnea: Rapid breathing. [NIH]
Technetium: The first artificially produced element and a radioactive fission product of
uranium. The stablest isotope has a mass number 99 and is used diagnostically as a
radioactive imaging agent. Technetium has the atomic symbol Tc, atomic number 43, and
atomic weight 98.91. [NIH]
Therapeutics: The branch of medicine which is concerned with the treatment of diseases,
palliative or curative. [NIH]
Thermal: Pertaining to or characterized by heat. [EU]
Thoracic: Having to do with the chest. [NIH]
Thoracic Surgery: A surgical specialty concerned with diagnosis and treatment of disorders
of the heart, lungs, and esophagus. Two major types of thoracic surgery are classified as
pulmonary and cardiovascular. [NIH]
Thoracotomy: Surgical incision into the chest wall. [NIH]
Thrombophlebitis: Inflammation of a vein associated with thrombus formation. [NIH]
Thrombus: An aggregation of blood factors, primarily platelets and fibrin with entrapment
of cellular elements, frequently causing vascular obstruction at the point of its formation.
Some authorities thus differentiate thrombus formation from simple coagulation or clot
formation. [EU]
Tinnitus: Sounds that are perceived in the absence of any external noise source which may
take the form of buzzing, ringing, clicking, pulsations, and other noises. Objective tinnitus
refers to noises generated from within the ear or adjacent structures that can be heard by
other individuals. The term subjective tinnitus is used when the sound is audible only to the
affected individual. Tinnitus may occur as a manifestation of cochlear diseases;
vestibulocochlear nerve diseases; intracranial hypertension; craniocerebral trauma; and
other conditions. [NIH]
Tissue: A group or layer of cells that are alike in type and work together to perform a
specific function. [NIH]
Tomography: Imaging methods that result in sharp images of objects located on a chosen
plane and blurred images located above or below the plane. [NIH]
Tooth Preparation: Procedures carried out with regard to the teeth or tooth structures
preparatory to specified dental therapeutic and surgical measures. [NIH]
Topical: On the surface of the body. [NIH]
Toxic: Having to do with poison or something harmful to the body. Toxic substances
usually cause unwanted side effects. [NIH]
Toxicity: The quality of being poisonous, especially the degree of virulence of a toxic
microbe or of a poison. [EU]
Toxicology: The science concerned with the detection, chemical composition, and
pharmacologic action of toxic substances or poisons and the treatment and prevention of
toxic manifestations. [NIH]
Toxins: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often proteins, with specific
biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants, or
animals. [NIH]
Trachea: The cartilaginous and membranous tube descending from the larynx and
branching into the right and left main bronchi. [NIH]
Tracheostomy: Surgical formation of an opening into the trachea through the neck, or the
opening so created. [NIH]
Tracheostomy tube: A 2-inch- to 3-inch-long curved metal or plastic tube placed in a
surgically created opening (tracheostomy) in the windpipe to keep it open. Also called a
trach ("trake") tube. [NIH]
Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA into cells, usually eukaryotic. It is
analogous to bacterial transformation. [NIH]
Transitional cell carcinoma: A type of cancer that develops in the lining of the bladder,
ureter, or renal pelvis. [NIH]
Translocation: The movement of material in solution inside the body of the plant. [NIH]
Trauma: Any injury, wound, or shock, must frequently physical or structural shock,
producing a disturbance. [NIH]
Dictionary 123
Tumour: 1. Swelling, one of the cardinal signs of inflammations; morbid enlargement. 2. A
new growth of tissue in which the multiplication of cells is uncontrolled and progressive;
called also neoplasm. [EU]
Tunica: A rather vague term to denote the lining coat of hollow organs, tubes, or cavities.
Tympanic membrane: A thin, tense membrane forming the greater part of the outer wall of
the tympanic cavity and separating it from the external auditory meatus; it constitutes the
boundary between the external and middle ear. [NIH]
Uranium: A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U,
atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear
weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors. [NIH]
Ureter: One of a pair of thick-walled tubes that transports urine from the kidney pelvis to
the bladder. [NIH]
Ureterocele: Cystic dilatation of the ureter with ballooning of the ureteral orifice into the
lumen of the bladder. [NIH]
Urethra: The tube through which urine leaves the body. It empties urine from the bladder.
Urinary: Having to do with urine or the organs of the body that produce and get rid of
urine. [NIH]
Urinary tract: The organs of the body that produce and discharge urine. These include the
kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra. [NIH]
Urine: Fluid containing water and waste products. Urine is made by the kidneys, stored in
the bladder, and leaves the body through the urethra. [NIH]
Uteroglobin: A protein fraction of pregnant uterine fluid which can induce and regulate
blastocystic development. Blastokinin is thought to be similar or identical to uteroglobin.
Presence in uterine fluid regulated by progesterone. [NIH]
Uterus: The small, hollow, pear-shaped organ in a woman's pelvis. This is the organ in
which a fetus develops. Also called the womb. [NIH]
Vaccines: Suspensions of killed or attenuated microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi,
protozoa, or rickettsiae), antigenic proteins derived from them, or synthetic constructs,
administered for the prevention, amelioration, or treatment of infectious and other diseases.
Vascular: Pertaining to blood vessels or indicative of a copious blood supply. [EU]
Vasoconstriction: Narrowing of the blood vessels without anatomic change, for which
constriction, pathologic is used. [NIH]
Vasodilators: Any nerve or agent which induces dilatation of the blood vessels. [NIH]
Vein: Vessel-carrying blood from various parts of the body to the heart. [NIH]
Vena: A vessel conducting blood from the capillary bed to the heart. [NIH]
Venous: Of or pertaining to the veins. [EU]
Ventilation: 1. In respiratory physiology, the process of exchange of air between the lungs
and the ambient air. Pulmonary ventilation (usually measured in litres per minute) refers to
the total exchange, whereas alveolar ventilation refers to the effective ventilation of the
alveoli, in which gas exchange with the blood takes place. 2. In psychiatry, verbalization of
one's emotional problems. [EU]
Ventricle: One of the two pumping chambers of the heart. The right ventricle receives
oxygen-poor blood from the right atrium and pumps it to the lungs through the pulmonary
artery. The left ventricle receives oxygen-rich blood from the left atrium and pumps it to the
body through the aorta. [NIH]
Venules: The minute vessels that collect blood from the capillary plexuses and join together
to form veins. [NIH]
Vertebrae: A bony unit of the segmented spinal column. [NIH]
Vertigo: An illusion of movement; a sensation as if the external world were revolving
around the patient (objective vertigo) or as if he himself were revolving in space (subjective
vertigo). The term is sometimes erroneously used to mean any form of dizziness. [EU]
Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and
treatment of diseases in animals. [NIH]
Viral: Pertaining to, caused by, or of the nature of virus. [EU]
Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or
viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the
tissues of the host. [NIH]
Virus: Submicroscopic organism that causes infectious disease. In cancer therapy, some
viruses may be made into vaccines that help the body build an immune response to, and
kill, tumor cells. [NIH]
Visceral: , from viscus a viscus) pertaining to a viscus. [EU]
Viscosity: A physical property of fluids that determines the internal resistance to shear
forces. [EU]
Vitro: Descriptive of an event or enzyme reaction under experimental investigation
occurring outside a living organism. Parts of an organism or microorganism are used
together with artificial substrates and/or conditions. [NIH]
Vivo: Outside of or removed from the body of a living organism. [NIH]
Wheezing: Breathing with a rasp or whistling sound; a sign of airway constriction or
obstruction. [NIH]
White blood cell: A type of cell in the immune system that helps the body fight infection
and disease. White blood cells include lymphocytes, granulocytes, macrophages, and others.
Windpipe: A rigid tube, 10 cm long, extending from the cricoid cartilage to the upper border
of the fifth thoracic vertebra. [NIH]
Withdrawal: 1. A pathological retreat from interpersonal contact and social involvement, as
may occur in schizophrenia, depression, or schizoid avoidant and schizotypal personality
disorders. 2. (DSM III-R) A substance-specific organic brain syndrome that follows the
cessation of use or reduction in intake of a psychoactive substance that had been regularly
used to induce a state of intoxication. [EU]
Wound Infection: Invasion of the site of trauma by pathogenic microorganisms. [NIH]
Xenograft: The cells of one species transplanted to another species. [NIH]
X-ray: High-energy radiation used in low doses to diagnose diseases and in high doses to
treat cancer. [NIH]
Abdominal, 11, 22, 35, 58, 93, 102, 114
Abscess, 13, 45, 93
Acetylcholine, 93, 112
Acetylcysteine, 13, 46, 93
Adaptability, 93, 99
Adaptation, 40, 93
Adenocarcinoma, 93, 113
Adjustment, 93
Adrenal Cortex, 93, 102, 116
Adsorption, 63, 93
Adsorptive, 93
Adverse Effect, 93, 119
Aerosols, 93, 118
Aetiology, 13, 28, 93
Affinity, 93, 120
Aggravation, 94, 120
Air Pressure, 94, 104
Air Sacs, 94
Airway, 6, 7, 10, 11, 15, 27, 34, 47, 49, 50,
63, 94, 111, 124
Algorithms, 94, 97
Alternative medicine, 68, 94
Alveoli, 6, 8, 94, 107, 116, 123
Ameliorated, 7, 94
Amino acid, 94, 95, 102, 104, 111, 116, 121
Amnion, 94
Amniotic Fluid, 46, 94, 106, 111
Amplification, 8, 94
Anaesthesia, 11, 12, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20, 21,
25, 26, 27, 34, 35, 36, 37, 39, 41, 47, 49,
51, 94, 108
Anaesthetic, 63, 94
Anal, 94, 105
Analogous, 7, 94, 122
Anatomical, 95, 96, 101, 107, 114, 119
Androgens, 93, 95, 102
Anesthesia, 11, 12, 14, 27, 28, 30, 34, 37, 38,
47, 49, 94, 95
Aneurysm, 14, 95
Animal model, 7, 95
Antiallergic, 95, 102
Antibiotic, 5, 95, 104, 120
Antibody, 94, 95, 100, 107, 108, 109
Antidiuretic, 46, 95
Antigen, 57, 94, 95, 100, 106, 107, 108
Anti-inflammatory, 7, 95, 102, 106
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, 95, 102
Antineoplastic, 95, 102, 115
Antioxidants, 95, 109
Antiviral, 93, 95
Anus, 94, 95, 100, 108
Aorta, 66, 95, 98, 124
Aortic Aneurysm, 14, 95
Aplasia, 95, 103
Apnea, 48, 95
Arginine, 95, 112
Arterial, 47, 58, 96, 106, 116
Arteries, 95, 96, 97, 102, 111
Arterioles, 96, 97, 98
Artery, 14, 26, 27, 36, 95, 96, 102, 105, 110,
114, 116
Asbestos, 11, 24, 42, 43, 47, 96, 110, 111
Asbestosis, 96
Ascites, 96, 113
Aspiration, 7, 10, 36, 46, 96
Atmospheric Pressure, 5, 96
Atrium, 96, 98, 123
Atrophy, 5, 24, 96
Attenuated, 8, 96, 102, 123
Atypical, 13, 35, 96
Auditory, 96, 103, 110, 123
Aural, 5, 96
Axillary, 96
Bacteria, 5, 93, 95, 96, 111, 120, 123
Bacterial Physiology, 93, 96
Balloon Occlusion, 24, 96
Benign, 43, 96, 104, 105, 109, 111, 112, 114
Benign tumor, 96, 105, 109
Bile, 96, 105, 109, 110, 120
Bile Pigments, 96, 110
Biliary, 96, 116
Biochemical, 8, 97
Biopsy, 30, 97, 114
Biotechnology, 9, 68, 75, 97
Bladder, 66, 97, 101, 109, 117, 122, 123
Blood Glucose, 97, 107
Blood pressure, 97, 106, 120
Blood vessel, 97, 98, 99, 103, 109, 110, 111,
114, 120, 121, 123
Blood Volume, 6, 97
Body Fluids, 97, 98, 103, 120
Bone scan, 26, 97
Bradykinin, 97, 112
Breathing Exercises, 60, 97
Bronchi, 14, 97, 98, 111, 122
Bronchial, 7, 14, 17, 28, 35, 41, 44, 58, 62,
97, 98, 107
Bronchioles, 94, 97
Bronchiolitis, 14, 21, 97
Bronchitis, 11, 80, 97, 99
Bronchoalveolar Lavage, 50, 97
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid, 50, 97
Bronchography, 48, 97
Bronchopulmonary, 7, 38, 98, 118
Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia, 7, 38, 98
Bronchoscopy, 10, 15, 23, 43, 49, 50, 51, 90,
Bronchus, 24, 38, 57, 98
Burns, 10, 98
Burns, Electric, 98
Bypass, 26, 27, 28, 36, 47, 50, 98
Calcium, 96, 98, 100, 114
Capillary, 6, 97, 98, 123, 124
Carbohydrate, 98, 102, 106, 115
Carbon Dioxide, 98, 105, 117
Carcinogenic, 98, 120
Carcinoma, 46, 57, 66, 98, 113, 120
Cardiac, 10, 12, 16, 21, 23, 29, 38, 58, 60, 65,
98, 105, 112, 118, 120
Cardiac Output, 21, 98
Cardiomegaly, 29, 98
Cardiopulmonary, 39, 98, 118
Cardiopulmonary Bypass, 39, 98
Cardiovascular, 8, 36, 43, 60, 98, 122
Case report, 12, 15, 28, 36, 43, 98, 99, 100
Case series, 99, 100
Catheter, 31, 62, 96, 99, 108, 109
Catheterization, 99, 108
Cell Cycle, 99, 104
Cell Death, 10, 99, 104, 106, 112
Cell Division, 96, 99, 104
Cerebrospinal, 99, 119
Cerebrospinal fluid, 99, 119
Cervical, 99, 115
Cervical Plexus, 99, 115
Chemotherapy, 99
Chest cavity, 99, 115
Chest wall, 11, 99, 105, 115, 122
Cholecystectomy, 3, 57, 99
Cholesteatoma, 4, 5, 13, 99
Cholesterol, 96, 99, 120
Chromosomal, 94, 99
Chronic, 4, 5, 12, 15, 17, 18, 20, 23, 31, 39,
41, 91, 98, 99, 108, 121
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease,
15, 99
CIS, 59, 99
Cleft Palate, 4, 100
Clinical Medicine, 24, 100
Clinical study, 18, 100
Clinical trial, 6, 59, 75, 100, 101, 117
Cloning, 97, 100
Collapse, 8, 13, 17, 24, 29, 51, 54, 62, 100,
115, 120
Colon, 18, 100, 109
Comatose, 62, 100
Combination chemotherapy, 59, 100
Complement, 100, 101
Complementary and alternative
medicine, 57, 60, 100
Complementary medicine, 57, 100
Compliance, 63, 101
Computational Biology, 75, 101
Computed tomography, 18, 19, 23, 24, 101
Computerized axial tomography, 101
Computerized tomography, 101
Concomitant, 33, 101
Condoms, 101, 109
Congenita, 101, 103
Connective Tissue, 101, 105, 106, 110
Consciousness, 101, 116, 118
Consolidation, 17, 27, 29, 101
Constriction, 63, 101, 109, 123, 124
Constriction, Pathologic, 101, 123
Contraindications, ii, 101
Contralateral, 25, 101
Contrast medium, 97, 101
Controlled study, 37, 101
Contusion, 30, 101
Coronary, 26, 27, 36, 102, 111
Coronary Thrombosis, 102, 111
Corticosteroid, 33, 102
Critical Care, 6, 12, 16, 17, 24, 41, 50, 58,
59, 102
Curative, 102, 118, 121
Cyanosis, 102, 111
Cyclic, 102, 106, 113
Cyst, 14, 102
Cysteine, 93, 102, 121
Decubitus, 49, 102
Dermal, 102, 103
Diabetes Mellitus, 102, 107
Diagnostic procedure, 61, 68, 102
Dialyzer, 102, 106
Diaphragm, 36, 99, 102, 115
Diencephalon, 102, 114
Diffusion, 102, 108
Digestion, 96, 102, 108, 109, 121
Dilution, 6, 102, 104, 115
Direct, iii, 21, 100, 102, 117
Dissection, 4, 66, 103
Distal, 4, 62, 63, 66, 103, 118
Diverticulum, 48, 103
Drug Interactions, 103
Duct, 99, 103, 120
Dyskinesia, 103, 116
Dyspnea, 90, 103, 120
Eardrum, 4, 103
Ectoderm, 103
Ectodermal Dysplasia, 34, 103
Edema, 8, 90, 103, 113
Efficacy, 7, 59, 103
Effusion, 5, 36, 89, 103
Elastic, 103, 121
Elective, 44, 103
Electrolyte, 102, 103, 111, 120
Embryo, 94, 103, 108
Emphysema, 7, 30, 38, 80, 99, 103
Emulsion, 103, 105
Endothelium, 103, 104, 112
Endothelium-derived, 104, 112
Enophthalmos, 32, 40, 104
Environmental Health, 74, 76, 104
Eosinophilic, 22, 104
Eosinophilic Granuloma, 22, 104
Eosinophils, 104
Epidermis, 103, 104
Epistaxis, 34, 104
Epithelial, 8, 93, 104, 114
Epithelial Cells, 8, 104
Epithelium, 8, 103, 104
Erythrocyte Volume, 97, 104
Erythromycin, 104, 118
Esophagus, 104, 111, 120, 121, 122
Etoposide, 59, 104
Eustachian tube, 4, 104
Exhaustion, 104, 120
Exogenous, 7, 23, 93, 104
Expiration, 97, 104, 105, 116, 117
Expiratory, 8, 37, 105
Extracellular, 101, 105, 120
Extracorporeal, 30, 105
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation,
30, 105
Family Planning, 75, 105
Fat, 102, 105, 106, 109, 121
Femoral, 98, 105
Femoral Artery, 98, 105
Fetus, 105, 110, 123
Fibroid, 105, 109
Fibroma, 22, 105
Fibrosis, 15, 30, 48, 59, 80, 105, 118, 119
Fissure, 100, 105
Fixation, 22, 105
Flail Chest, 20, 105
Flatus, 105
Fovea, 105
Gallbladder, 3, 93, 96, 99, 105, 109, 116
Gas exchange, 6, 11, 12, 18, 19, 21, 26, 35,
105, 107, 116, 117, 123
Gastric, 104, 106
Gastrin, 106, 107
Gastrointestinal, 96, 97, 105, 106, 109, 121
Gastrointestinal Neoplasms, 96, 106
Gastrointestinal tract, 105, 106, 109
Gene, 97, 106
Genital, 106, 118
Gestational, 106, 111
Gestational Age, 106, 111
Giant Cells, 106, 118
Gland, 93, 106, 110, 114, 115, 119, 120
Glucocorticoids, 93, 102, 106
Glucose, 97, 102, 106, 107, 118
Gonadal, 106, 120
Governing Board, 106, 116
Grade, 66, 106
Grafting, 26, 27, 36, 106
Guanylate Cyclase, 106, 113
Heart failure, 106, 113
Hematuria, 66, 106
Hemodialysis, 39, 102, 106
Hemoglobin, 6, 102, 107
Hemoptysis, 29, 107
Hemorrhage, 66, 107, 121
Hereditary, 103, 107
Histiocytosis, 104, 107
Histology, 8, 107
Hormonal, 96, 102, 107
Hormone, 46, 102, 106, 107, 114, 116
Hyaline membrane disease, 12, 107
Hypersensitivity, 107, 109
Hypoplasia, 103, 107
Hypothermia, 23, 107
Hypoxic, 25, 63, 107
Idiopathic, 107, 118
Ileus, 3, 22, 107
Immune response, 95, 102, 107, 121, 124
Immune system, 107, 110, 124
Immunocompromised, 11, 107
Immunologic, 106, 107, 110
Impairment, 5, 18, 19, 26, 35, 36, 103, 107
In vitro, 7, 30, 107, 108
In vivo, 7, 107, 108
Incision, 66, 108, 109, 122
Incisional, 3, 108
Indigestion, 108, 116
Induction, 12, 26, 38, 95, 108
Infancy, 108, 118
Infarction, 102, 108, 111
Infection, 4, 11, 59, 108, 110, 121, 124
Infiltration, 104, 108
Inflammation, 7, 8, 95, 97, 105, 108, 111,
113, 115, 122
Ingestion, 62, 108
Inhalation, 93, 96, 108, 119
Inorganic, 108, 112
Instillation, 30, 108
Insufflation, 15, 108
Intensive Care, 15, 20, 42, 46, 47, 50, 51, 59,
Interstitial, 8, 97, 108
Intestinal, 10, 108, 110
Intestines, 93, 106, 107, 108, 110, 119
Intoxication, 108, 124
Intracellular, 108, 113
Intubation, 14, 28, 29, 34, 36, 44, 62, 99, 108
Invasive, 10, 34, 66, 109
Involuntary, 109, 112, 117
Ischemia, 96, 109
Kb, 74, 109
Kidney Pelvis, 109, 123
Kinetic, 21, 109
Larynx, 109, 122
Latex Allergy, 14, 109
Lavage, 6, 13, 109
Leiomyoma, 14, 105, 109
Leiomyosarcoma, 38, 109
Lesion, 109, 119
Life Expectancy, 66, 109
Ligament, 32, 109
Linkages, 107, 109
Lipoma, 18, 109
Lithotripsy, 3, 109
Liver, 10, 93, 96, 103, 105, 106, 109, 118
Lobe, 14, 15, 17, 18, 23, 25, 28, 29, 33, 42,
45, 48, 49, 109, 114
Localized, 93, 104, 105, 108, 110, 113
Lung volume, 6, 7, 8, 63, 110
Lymph, 10, 23, 96, 99, 104, 110, 111, 118
Lymph node, 23, 96, 99, 110, 111, 118
Lymphadenopathy, 10, 110
Lymphatic, 104, 108, 110, 113, 120
Lymphatic system, 110, 120
Lymphocyte, 95, 110
Lymphokines, 110
Macrophage, 8, 110
Macrophage Activation, 8, 110
Malignant, 31, 58, 66, 93, 95, 107, 110, 111,
Malignant mesothelioma, 110, 111
Malignant tumor, 66, 110
Malnutrition, 96, 110, 112
Maxillary, 17, 20, 31, 32, 39, 40, 110
Maxillary Sinus, 40, 110
Meatus, 103, 110, 123
Mechanical ventilation, 6, 8, 11, 12, 98,
110, 116
Meconium, 7, 46, 110, 111
Meconium Aspiration, 7, 46, 111
Mediastinitis, 45, 111
Mediastinum, 111
MEDLINE, 75, 111
Membrane, 4, 94, 100, 102, 103, 105, 107,
109, 111, 112, 115, 123
Meninges, 99, 111
Mesothelioma, 31, 42, 43, 110, 111
Metastasis, 111
Metastasize, 66, 111, 119
Metastatic, 66, 111, 119
Methionine, 111, 121
MI, 91, 111
Microbiology, 93, 96, 111
Middle Ear Ventilation, 4, 111
Migration, 110, 111
Mineralocorticoids, 93, 102, 111
Mitochondrial Swelling, 111, 112
Mitotic, 104, 111
Molecular, 75, 77, 97, 101, 111, 118
Molecule, 95, 100, 102, 104, 112, 117
Morphology, 110, 112
Motor nerve, 112, 115
Mucilaginous, 110, 112
Mucolytic, 93, 97, 112
Mucosa, 62, 104, 112
Mucus, 12, 40, 41, 112
Muscle Fibers, 112
Muscular Atrophy, 33, 112
Myocardium, 111, 112
Nausea, 108, 112, 116
NCI, 1, 73, 100, 112
Necrosis, 8, 30, 108, 111, 112, 118
Neonatal, 13, 27, 35, 48, 49, 58, 112
Neoplasia, 112
Neoplasm, 15, 112, 114, 123
Neoplastic, 48, 99, 112
Nerve, 95, 99, 112, 113, 114, 115, 119, 120,
122, 123
Nitric Oxide, 6, 112
Nitrogen, 27, 95, 105, 113
Non-small cell lung cancer, 59, 113
Nuclear, 24, 26, 112, 113, 123
Nucleic acid, 113
Oedema, 49, 113
Ophthalmology, 105, 113
Optic cup, 113, 114
Optic Nerve, 113, 114
Orbit, 104, 113
Ossification, 113, 118
Otitis, 4, 5, 12, 32, 111, 113
Otitis Media, 4, 5, 12, 32, 111, 113
Otitis Media with Effusion, 4, 5, 32, 113
Oxygenation, 6, 47, 60, 62, 113
Oxygenator, 98, 105, 113
Paediatric, 39, 58, 113
Palate, 100, 113
Palliative, 114, 121
Pancreas, 93, 114
Papilloma, 58, 114
Paradoxical, 105, 114
Paralysis, 19, 114
Parathyroid, 114, 118
Parathyroid Glands, 114, 118
Parenchyma, 4, 114
Parietal, 114, 115
Parotid, 114, 118
Pathogenesis, 5, 7, 8, 28, 46, 114
Pathologic, 5, 32, 97, 102, 107, 114
Pathophysiology, 39, 114
Pedicle, 4, 114
Pelvic, 66, 114
Pelvis, 109, 114, 123
Percutaneous, 109, 114
Perforation, 5, 114
Perfusion, 65, 114
Perioperative, 47, 51, 114
Peritoneal, 96, 113, 114, 115
Peritoneal Cavity, 96, 113, 115
Phallic, 105, 115
Pharmacologic, 95, 115, 122
Phrenic Nerve, 23, 29, 115
Physical Therapy, 16, 21, 59, 115
Pituitary Gland, 102, 115
Plasma, 8, 97, 107, 111, 115
Plasma Volume, 97, 111, 115
Platelet Aggregation, 112, 115
Platelets, 112, 115, 122
Pleura, 44, 115
Pleural, 10, 19, 22, 29, 31, 33, 36, 42, 43, 47,
63, 89, 111, 113, 115
Pleural cavity, 63, 113, 115
Pleural Effusion, 10, 19, 22, 29, 33, 43, 115
Pneumoconiosis, 115, 119
Pneumonia, 3, 17, 31, 32, 41, 47, 50, 58, 59,
62, 66, 101, 115
Pneumonitis, 31, 115
Pneumothorax, 22, 46, 66, 111, 115
Podophyllotoxin, 104, 115
Polysaccharide, 95, 115
Positive End-Expiratory Pressure, 36, 37,
Postcholecystectomy Syndrome, 3, 116
Postoperative, 4, 16, 18, 22, 27, 34, 35, 37,
38, 47, 50, 51, 57, 59, 62, 63, 116
Practice Guidelines, 76, 116
Preoperative, 59, 116
Progesterone, 116, 120, 123
Progression, 5, 39, 95, 116
Progressive, 26, 112, 116, 123
Prophylaxis, 10, 116
Protein S, 97, 104, 116
Proteins, 94, 95, 100, 104, 107, 112, 113,
115, 116, 119, 122, 123
Psychiatry, 105, 116, 123
Psychoactive, 116, 124
Public Policy, 75, 116
Publishing, 9, 116
Pulmonary Artery, 97, 116, 124
Pulmonary Embolism, 27, 80, 116
Pulse, 46, 116
Radiation, 116, 117, 124
Radioactive, 97, 113, 117, 121, 123
Radiography, 20, 30, 45, 97, 106, 117
Radiology, 13, 19, 26, 27, 29, 30, 32, 33, 35,
40, 42, 44, 48, 49, 54, 117
Randomized, 103, 117
Reaction Time, 6, 117
Receptor, 93, 95, 117
Recombinant, 7, 15, 30, 41, 42, 117
Rectum, 95, 100, 105, 117
Recurrence, 27, 66, 117
Refer, 1, 100, 105, 117
Reflex, 15, 117
Refractory, 20, 24, 41, 49, 117
Regimen, 103, 117
Reliability, 23, 117
Remission, 117
Renal pelvis, 66, 117, 122
Resection, 18, 117
Respiration, 25, 95, 97, 98, 105, 117, 118
Respirator, 110, 117
Respiratory distress syndrome, 6, 7, 8, 23,
30, 98, 117
Respiratory failure, 11, 105, 117
Respiratory Physiology, 18, 21, 44, 117,
Respiratory Therapy, 10, 117
Resuscitation, 58, 118
Retraction, 5, 13, 118
Retrograde, 66, 118
Retrospective, 37, 118
Rickets, 31, 118
Risk factor, 5, 118
Roxithromycin, 25, 118
Rubber, 109, 118
Saline, 97, 118
Saponins, 118, 120
Sarcoidosis, 15, 16, 33, 39, 118
Schizoid, 118, 124
Schizophrenia, 118, 119, 124
Schizotypal Personality Disorder, 118, 124
Sclerosis, 49, 119
Screening, 100, 119
Secondary tumor, 111, 119
Secretion, 46, 102, 106, 111, 112, 119
Secretory, 7, 111, 119
Segmental, 22, 35, 44, 48, 62, 119
Segmentation, 119
Semisynthetic, 104, 118, 119
Sensibility, 94, 119
Sequela, 4, 119
Serous, 4, 104, 111, 115, 119
Serum, 100, 111, 119
Shock, 25, 109, 119, 122
Shunt, 6, 119
Side effect, 93, 119, 122
Silicosis, 43, 119
Skull, 99, 113, 119
Small cell lung cancer, 36, 119
Small intestine, 104, 107, 108, 116, 119
Smoke Inhalation Injury, 105, 119
Smooth muscle, 105, 109, 120, 121
Sodium, 8, 111, 120
Specialist, 81, 120
Spectrum, 118, 120
Spinal cord, 12, 40, 42, 99, 111, 117, 120
Spirometry, 37, 59, 120
Spleen, 110, 118, 120
Sputum, 34, 120
Squamous, 45, 99, 113, 120
Squamous cell carcinoma, 45, 113, 120
Squamous Epithelium, 99, 120
Status Asthmaticus, 35, 41, 44, 120
Stenosis, 41, 120, 121
Sterile, 62, 114, 120
Sternum, 105, 120
Steroid, 33, 118, 120
Stimulus, 96, 117, 120
Stomach, 93, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 112,
115, 119, 120, 121
Stool, 100, 121
Stricture, 120, 121
Stroke, 74, 98, 121
Stroma, 114, 121
Subacute, 108, 121
Subclinical, 108, 121
Subcutaneous, 103, 109, 113, 121
Substance P, 104, 119, 121
Suction, 21, 62, 121
Sulfur, 24, 111, 121
Supine, 50, 121
Suppression, 102, 121
Suppurative, 4, 12, 121
Surfactant, 7, 8, 30, 46, 121
Survival Rate, 66, 121
Systemic, 95, 97, 108, 113, 118, 121
Tachypnea, 90, 111, 121
Technetium, 24, 121
Therapeutics, 121
Thermal, 96, 121
Thoracic, 10, 13, 14, 17, 22, 23, 24, 25, 31,
35, 40, 42, 43, 59, 102, 105, 115, 121, 124
Thoracic Surgery, 10, 14, 35, 105, 121
Thoracotomy, 25, 122
Thrombophlebitis, 3, 122
Thrombus, 102, 108, 115, 122
Tinnitus, 113, 122
Tomography, 6, 19, 44, 122
Tooth Preparation, 93, 122
Topical, 23, 29, 122
Toxic, iv, 115, 119, 122
Toxicity, 103, 122
Toxicology, 76, 122
Toxins, 95, 108, 122
Trachea, 28, 97, 98, 109, 111, 122
Tracheostomy, 20, 122
Tracheostomy tube, 20, 122
Transfection, 97, 122
Transitional cell carcinoma, 66, 122
Translocation, 41, 104, 122
Trauma, 62, 112, 122, 124
Tumour, 26, 123
Tunica, 112, 123
Tympanic membrane, 4, 5, 15, 34, 111, 123
Uranium, 121, 123
Ureter, 4, 66, 109, 117, 122, 123
Ureterocele, 4, 123
Urethra, 123
Urinary, 40, 66, 123
Urinary tract, 40, 66, 123
Urine, 66, 95, 97, 106, 117, 123
Uteroglobin, 7, 123
Uterus, 99, 105, 109, 116, 123
Vaccines, 123, 124
Vascular, 4, 30, 40, 104, 108, 112, 113, 122,
Vasoconstriction, 25, 123
Vasodilators, 112, 123
Vein, 95, 96, 113, 114, 122, 123
Vena, 66, 123
Venous, 113, 116, 123
Ventilation, 5, 8, 10, 14, 20, 32, 37, 47, 49,
50, 63, 65, 111, 123
Ventricle, 116, 123
Venules, 97, 98, 124
Vertebrae, 120, 124
Vertigo, 113, 124
Veterinary Medicine, 75, 124
Viral, 93, 106, 124
Virulence, 96, 122, 124
Virus, 21, 106, 124
Visceral, 44, 124
Viscosity, 93, 124
Vitro, 124
Vivo, 124
Wheezing, 38, 124
White blood cell, 95, 110, 112, 124
Windpipe, 98, 122, 124
Withdrawal, 33, 124
Wound Infection, 66, 124
Xenograft, 95, 124
X-ray, 16, 17, 90, 101, 113, 117, 124