PERSON-CENTERED THERAPY The Case of Stan THE CASE OF STAN: A CASE REPORT USING PERSON-CENTERED THERAPY A Case Analysis Presented to Prof: Inlyn Cerbo Javier University of Mindanao Tagum College In Partial Fulfilment Of the Course Requirements of Introduction to Counseling Psychology PSY 11 - 0849 Submitted by: Sarah B. Carino December 2020 PERSON-CENTERED THERAPY The Case of Stan PERSON-CENTERED THERAPY Client Name: Stan Age: 35 Date of Report: December 2020 Presenting Problem: Stan is a young troubled man whose real problems come from his extremely challenging environment in which he was brought up. This has consequently made him to have a very low self-esteem. During Stan’s childhood, his whole family contributed to the current issues that he is going through. His mother for instance, shattered his view of the women because she dominated his father and even Stan himself. This made Stan to have a negative view of his father, he describes him as “I saw him as weak and passive” in which Stan seems to image himself as his father thereafter (Case of Stan, n.d). Also, in his childhood, Stan was constantly in shadows of his brothers and sister. In his family, he was the “black sheep” and his parents made him realize this through the use of the hurtful words. As such, Stan’s family is the main root cause of the problems that he is currently facing.As Stan got older, the issues even compounded. For instance, his ex-wife had the same tendencies of dictating and controlling as his mother was. Subsequently, Stan has come to the realization that he should be somewhere else at this point in his life. Not as the twenty five year old sophomore in the college. Stan gets down in almost every aspect of his life and does have the encouragement and motivation that is needed in life. Although Stan’s present life is spotlighted,there is need for him to recapture past feelings that could be the hindrance to his present attempts in developing intimacy with the others Additionally, Stan abuses drugs and alcohol something that has promoted his destructive behavior.Stan’s “unfinished business” consists majorly of the feelings of resentment, and to make matters worse, Stan has turned this resentment into himself.This has made him to feel stupid when he is with other people, and even sometimes at night he experiences terrible feeling and feels like he is “dying inside.” Treatment Goal: The primary objective of this therapy is to present the client with a chance to create a sense of character, where he can figure out how their actions, emotions and mindset is being adversely affected. The therapy seeks to establish close conformity between Stan’s idealized and real self. It also aims to promote self-understanding and reduce cases of insecurity which is one of the problem of the client. The therapist aims to help the client in treating its suffering from low self-esteem. The therapy assists client to come up with techniques to reconnect with his self and attain self-actualization. Hence, this therapy is the most appropriate treatment to use for the client because it will help him to gain inner locus of control and overcome anxiety and extreme low self-esteem. The therapy also aims to allow the client to assume full responsibility for his treatment course. Hence, it will guarantee him a full recovery. The therapist also aims to treat the client as a person with dignity despite his or her situation. The therapist ought to conduct the therapy in a way that does not devaluate the client. Additionally, the therapist aims to respect the client’s right to self-direction rather than imposing directions on the client. Lastly, the therapist will make sure that she will try as much as possible not to dominate her client to assure the client that everything is fine and he can give his trust. PERSON-CENTERED THERAPY The Case of Stan Treatment Plan: Important Note: One of the multicultural issues that might arise when using PCT with clients is a need for dependence on parents or relatives (MacDougall, 2002). The Therapeutic Task: Greater Openness to Experience and Increased Self-esteem Person-centered therapy is a kind of treatment that gives clients an opportunity to figure out how their deeds and thoughts affect their health. Person-centered therapy (PCT) is also referred to as person-centered counseling. It is a kind of talkpsychotherapy established by Carl Rogers. The primary objective of person-centered therapy is to present clients with a chance to create a sense of character, where they can figure out how their actions, emotions and mindsets are being adversely affected (Cooper, O’Hara, Schmid & Wyatt, 2007). Person-centered therapy gives much of the duty of healing course to the patient, with the therapist assuming a non-directive responsibility. Other objectives of person-centered therapy to clients are “greater openness to experience and increased self-esteem” (Cooper et al., 2007). The therapy seeks to establish close conformity between clients’ idealized and real selves. It also aims to promote self-understanding and reduce cases of insecurity. Congruence The therapist who demonstrate congruence in counseling processes shares important sensational reactions with the client. Congruence will be of significant help in helping Stan to accomplish his goals. The therapist will be open with Stan and establish a counseling environment that allows us to relate without fear of intimidation. Such an environment will make Stan disclose other challenges that he might not be comfortable revealing to people. In the process, the therapist will help him to come up with a comprehensive treatment course that addresses all the challenges. By being open, the therapist will help Stan to cope with his emotions and come up with measures to shun anxiety. The therapist will help Stan to learn that negative feelings keep him far from his loved ones and might deny him a chance to get a job in the future. the therapist will do this by asking Stan to determine the number of friends he has made, or job applications he has tried since he lost his job and family. Such an exercise will help him to understand that his emotions may be one of the factors that frustrate his desire to live a happy life. Unconditional Positive Regard Unconditional positive regard implies that “The therapist accepts the client totally for who he or she is without evaluating or censoring, and without disapproving of particular feelings, actions, or characteristics” (Kensit, 2002, p. 350). The therapist exhibit unconditional positive regard through listening to client’s stories without criticizing, disrupting or giving advice. Positive regard establishes a non-threatening background, which allows Stan to share freely sensational, aggressive, or atypical feelings without fear. Unconditional positive regard will help Stan to deal with his low self-esteem. The therapist will allow Stan to give his side of the story without interruptions. Besides, the therapist will make sure that she do not criticize Stan for his actions, feelings or decisions. Showing unconditional positive attitude will help Stan to believe in himself and trust that he can still achieve his dreams regardless of the hardships he has gone through. The therapist will assist Stan to identify fears and perceptions that make him develop low self-esteem and guide him on how to deal with the fears. The therapist will help Stan to explore concerns and perceptions that are most critical to his dreams and guide him on how to work on the perceptions. PERSON-CENTERED THERAPY The Case of Stan Empathy Empathy refers to therapist’s attempt to understand client’s predicament from the client’s point of view. Empathy acts as a prelude step that determines if therapy session will proceed. One way that the therapist will show empathy when helping Stan is by paying attention to his story. Additionally, the therapist will use reflection technique, which involves summarizing what Stan is saying. Such an approach will make Stan to feel that the therapist is listening accurately, thus give him a chance to examine his thoughts and feelings. Through empathy, the therapist will help Stan to deal with his attitude towards relationship. The therapist will request Stan to elaborate on his thoughts about relationship and assist him to change the views. The therapist will endeavor to create an environment that will allow Stan to discern solutions to his challenges by himself. Interventions The goal of this therapy is to enhance the client’s ability to employ effective problem‐ solving strategies to manage current stressors and improve psychosocial functioning. With this therapy, the client might gain increased insight into how current behaviors may be influenced by his experiences and for the solution to these problems within sessions, and implement a chosen solution as part of his weekly homework. Through application and practice of more adaptive solutions to daily stressors, the client experiences enhanced psychosocial functioning and interpersonal relations. The mechanisms underlying this therapy will rely on common benefits that emerge from a caring therapeutic relationship, including instillation of hope and optimism, shared goal setting, and increased positive self‐regard. As client will learn and practice more adaptive problem‐solving approaches and benefit from a therapeutic relationship, he will develop a greater sense of mastery over their environment and experience improved functioning and alleviated symptoms. Summary Person-Centered Therapy (PCT) focuses exclusively on current life problems and is distinct from trauma‐focused interventions. Non‐specific therapeutic factors, such as therapist support, may be considered part of the treatment. Introductory sessions involve education about PTSD; later sessions involve discussion of daily difficulties and assistance for client in managing current symptoms through problem‐solving. The therapist will not include interventions with an active exposure component nor any that require cognitive restructuring. The therapist will include therapies given in both group and individual settings. With time, it is hoped that Stan will cope with his emotions and regain his self-esteem. It is also expected that Stan will understand how his emotions push him far from people and deprive him a chance to establish new relationships that might eventually lead to marriage. Besides, he will understand that it is hard for him to get a job without interacting with people. One of the most challenging aspects of treatment will be helping Stan to regain self-esteem. He believes that he is worthless and spends most of his time alone. It will be challenging to convince him to start relating with people that he perceives to be in a high social status. At the end of the therapy, Stan apparently was less emotionally distressed and more confident. Behaviourally, also, he was being able to cope much better with daily activities and be able to socialize.