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SLM 1 - Unit 1-5

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B.A.(Prog.)/B.Com(Prog.)
Semester-III/IV
CORE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
ENGLISH PROFICIENCY-II
SLM-1 (Unit 1-5)
SCHOOL OF OPEN LEARNING
University of Delhi
Department of English
Content Editors: Dr. Neeta Gupta
Nalini Prabhakar
English
Undergraduate Course
CORE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
ENGLISH PROFICIENCY-II
SLM-1 (Unit 1-5)
Table of Contents

Note to the student

Learning Objectives

Units in the SLM
Page No.
o Unit 1: Reading and Comprehending-II
01-62
o Unit 2: Basic Grammar Rules-II
63-80
o Unit 3: Conversing-II
81-119
o Unit 4: Writing Skills-II
120-144
o Unit 5: Applying for a Job
145-155
Content Editors: Dr. Neeta Gupta
Nalini Prabhakar
Developed by Department of English
School of Open Learning
University of Delhi
SCHOOL OF OPEN LEARNING
UNIVERSITY OF DELHI
5, Cavalry Lane, Delhi-110007
Dear student,
This SLM on the Compulsory Core English Language paper, ENGLISH
PROFICIENCY has been prepared keeping in mind your academic requirement as also
your convenience. The suggested readings for this paper have been sourced from six
different textbooks, and some of you may not be able to procure all the texts and look
for the relevant extracts. We have provided all the extracts from the various texts in this
SLM with a view to provide you hassle-free learning.
You are required to study the following Units:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
Unit 1: Reading and Comprehending II
Unit 2: Basic Grammar Rules II
Unit 3: Conversing II
Unit 4: Writing Skills II
Unit 5: Applying for a Job
Each Unit in this Self Learning Material contains a number of exercises such as
Reading Comprehension, Vocabulary, Grammar, Writing etc. Explanations have been
provided to help you in doing the exercises and answer keys have also been provided to
check your progress. You are advised to make good use of this SLM as it is modeled on
the lines of a work-book, where you can practice various kinds of language exercises,
thereby improving your spoken and written language skills.
Best Wishes,
Neeta Gupta
Nalini Prabhakar
Learning Objectives
This Self Learning Material (SLM)
 Will enhance your proficiency in English
 Will help you improve your basic comprehension skills and enrich your
vocabulary.
 Will enable you to form simple sentences, rearrange them if the order is
mixed up and write short paragraphs.
 Will help you to understand basic grammar rules pertaining to tenses,
prepositions. Modals, conjunctions and subject -verb agreement.
 Will help you know how to carry on a simple conversation and
understand the difference between formal and informal speech.
Unit-1a
READING AND COMPREHENDING II
From: The Foundation English Course for Undergraduates: Book II
The Buddha
Anil Aneja
The Buddha walked on fearlessly. The robber, Angulimala followed him as fast as he
could but was not able to catch up with him. He swore and shouted at Gautama Buddha, but
the latter only smiled at him kindly and continued to walk through the forest. This went on
for several hours and Angulaimala, tired at last, sat down. the Buddha stood in front of him.
His face was shining with kindness for the robber.
“Who are you, man?” asked Angulimala. “Why do you travel through this forest alone?
Aren't you afraid of the robber Angulimala? Why couldn't I catch you? What magic do you
possess?”
The Buddha's face was full of compassion and he replied gently, “I'm a friend of yours
and I have come to the forest to help you. I have come to save you from further sin. I am not
afraid of you because I love you as I love all other men. My magic is the magic of kindness
for all living creatures.”
These noble words touched the cruel heart of Angulimala and he fell at the feet of the
Buddha. “Save me, O Lord!” he said, sobbing, “I am the greatest sinner on earth!” He cried
bitterly and tears flowed from his eyes in two unending streams.
Glossary
swore
:
used bad words to show anger
compassion
:
pity
I. Comprehension
A.
State whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F): (Solutions are provided)
1. Gautam Buddha walked faster than Angulimala. (T)
2. The Buddha hated Angulimala. (F)
3. The Buddha went to the forest to catch Angulimala because Angulimala was a
robber. (F).
4. The Buddha loved everyone-people and animals. (T).
5. Anuglimala wanted the Buddha to save him from more sin. (T).
1
B.
Give short answers to the following questions:
1. Why was the Buddha in the forest?
Answer: The Buddha was in the forest to save Angulimal from further sin.
2. Why did Angulimala shout at the Buddha?
Answer: Angulimal shouted at the Buddha because he could not understand why the
Buddha was not afraid of hm.
3. Why was the Buddha not afraid?
Answer: The Buddha was not afraid because he loved Angulimal as he loved all other
people and living creatures.
4. Which lines show that Anuglimala felt sorry for his action?
Answer: The line “Save me O lord. I’m the greatest sinner on earth” shows that
Angulimal felt sorry for his action.
II. Vocabulary
A.
Which words or phrases in the passage have the following meanings? Check your
answers from the key provided below:
1. without being afraid
(para 1) ___________
2. to overtake
(para
3. spoke angrily
(para 1)
___________
4. evil action
(para 3)
___________
5. crying a lot
(para 4)
___________
6. non-stop
(para 4)
___________
___________
Answer Key: 1) fearlessly, 2) catch up, 3) shouted, 4) sin, 5) sobbing, 6) unending
B.
Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the words/phrases given in the
brackets:
Check your answers from the key provided below:
1. He _________ to the party and _________ dancing for a long time (went on, went).
2. She is _______ the dark. I told her not to be ______, the electricity will come soon
(afraid of, afraid).
3. Monika likes to sit in the ________ row, jut ________ the teacher (in front of,
front).
4. “My bag is completely _______, I cannot put anything else in it.” “What is
it________ ?” (full of, full).
5. “Do not _______ so loudly”, the teacher _________ the students (shouted at, shout).
2
Answer Key: 1) Went, went on; 2) afraid of, afraid; 3) front, in front of ; 4) full, full of ;
5) shout, shouted at.
III. Grammar : Simple Past Tense (revision)
A.
Complete the following sentences using the past tense of the verbs given in the box.
reach,
go,
buy,
eat,
pay,
hire,
start
Neha was hungry. She _______ a cake from a shop and ________ it. She then
________ for home. As she didn't get a bus she ______ and autorikshaw. When she
________ home she _______ the driver the scooter fare and _________ inside.
Answer Key: bought, ate, started, hired, reached, paid, went.
B.
Fill in the blanks using the correct tense of the verbs given in brackets:
Last Wednesday our class ______ (go) for a picnic to Chakravart lake. We _______
(reach) the college at seven o'clock in the morning. We _______ (get) into the bus. The
bus ______ (start) at half past seven. We ______ (reach) Chakravarti like at about ten
o'clock. All of us ______ (get) off and ______ (go) to the bank of the lake. All the girls
________ (want) to boat. So the teachers _______ (hire) four boats. We ______ (sit) in
the boats and _______ (go) up and down the lake. After half an hour we ______ (come)
back and had lunch. After lunch we ______ (sing) songs and ______ (tell) jokes. (We
________ (enjoy) ourselves. At four we________ (return).
Answer Key: went, reached, got, started, reached, got, went, wanted, hired, sat,
went, came, sang, told, enjoyed, returned.
3
The Old Man and the Sea
Anil Aneja
He was an old man who fished alone in a skiff in the Gulf Stream and eighty four days
had passed and he had not taken any fish. In the first forty days a boy had been with him. But
after forty days without a fish the boy's parents had told him that the old man was unlucky,
and the boy had gone at their orders in another boat which caught three good fish in the first
week. It made the boy sad to see the old man come back each day with his skiff empty and he
always went down to meet him.
The old man was thin, with deep wrinkles in the back of his neck. Everything about him
was old except his eyes and they were the same colour as the sea and were cheerful and
undefeated.
“Santiago”, the boy said to him as they climbed the bank from where the skiff was pulled
up. “I could go with you again. We've made some money.”
The old man had taught the boy to fish and the boy loved him.
“No”, the old man said. “You're with a lucky boat. Stay with them.”
“But remember how you went eighty seven days without fish and then we caught big
ones every day for three weeks”.
“I remember”, the old man said. “I know that you did not leave because you did not trust
me.”
“It was papa who made me leave. I am a boy and I must obey him.”
The extract entitled “The Old Man and the Sea” included in your text book is taken from
a well known novel of Ernest Hemingway, of the same title. Ernest Hemingway was a
famous American novelist of the first half of the twentieth century and “The Old Man and the
Sea” is considered as one of his most famous novels.
In the first paragraph of the passage an old fisherman is described. It appears to us that
the fisherman is rather poor as he is using an ordinary boat (skiff). Also, he appears to have
been rather unlucky as he has not been able to catch any fish for 84 days. A boy who used to
accompany him while fishing left his boat after 40 days had passed without they being able to
catch any fish. However, he did not leave on his own accord. He was made to do so by his
parents who considered the old man's boat to be unlucky and had, therefore, asked the boy to
go with another boat. As the old man was not able to catch any fish for such a long time, the
boy was not able to earn any money either. When he joined another boat he was able to catch
three fish in one week's time. Thus the new boat had proved to be lucky for the boy.
However, the boy was not happy. He was sad to see the old man returning unsuccessfully to
the bank every day.
4
In the second paragraph, the writer tells us in brief about the appearance and nature of
the old man. The old man, we are told, is old in every respect. This refers to his physical
appearance, may be his clothes and the condition of his boat etc. We are further told that his
eyes were of the same colour as the sea and “were cheerful and undefeated”. Now this is a
very important statement about the old man. Think of certain qualities which are generally
associated with the sea. For instance, when still, the sea appears calm and patient. The sea
also appears endless. There is a continuity of flow despite all odds in every season. It seems
to have an endless urge to go on, come what may. The tides have an uncomfortable force.
Now, consider the character of the old man in the light of the above observations.
Everything seems to be against him, he is old, not very rich, has no one to help him while
fishing, even the boy whom he taught fishing left the old man and joined another boat. He is
going through a difficult time in life, and yet when he talks to the boy we notice that he is
cheerful and has not given up hope. He is undefeated because despite not being able to catch
any fish for as many as 84 days, he still goes about his task with the hope that some day he
will be lucky. Later in the passage we also learn that it is not the first time that the old man
has not been able to catch a fish for such a long time. On an earlier occasion, he was unable
to catch any fish for 87 days. Thus, the old man becomes a symbol of hope, a never ending
effort and courage just like the sea
In the conversation which takes place between the old man and the boy, we notice the
selflessness and compassion of the old man and the affection of the boy. The old man had
taught the boy how to fish, and yet the boy left him to join another boat. Despite this the old
man does not have any ill-feelings towards the boy. He speaks to the boy warmly and gently.
When the boy offers to return to the boat of the old man, the old man tells him to stay with
the “lucky boat” even though he is in great need of someone to help him while fishing.
He is wise and knows that the boy did not leave him on his own accord. The boy tells the
old man that as he is a boy, it is his duty to obey his parents. Thus, he is respectful towards
the old man who taught him how to fish as well as towards his parents who asked him to
leave the boat of the old man.
Exercises
I. Comprehension
Answer the following questions in brief: (Check your answers with the ones provided):
a)
What did the old man do for his living?
Answer: The old man used to catch fish for a living.
b)
How often was the old man able to catch the fish?
Answer: Eighty four days had passed and he had not been able to catch any fish.
c)
Why did the boy leave the old man?
Answer: The boy’s father asked him to join another boat.
d)
What was the attitude of the boy's parents towards the old man?
Answer: The boy’s parents thought that the old man was unlucky.
5
e)
Which boat was called the “lucky boat” and why?
Answer: The boy’s second boat was called a lucky boat because it had caught three
big fish in the first week.
f)
What was the old man's own attitude when he was unable to catch the fish for a long
time?
Answer: The old man began to feel that his luck was not with him.
g)
What made the boy feel sad?
Answer: The boy felt sad when he saw the old man come back empty handed every
day.
h)
Why did the boy want to come back to the old man?
Answer: The boy wanted to come back to the old man because he had taught him
fishing and he loved him.
i)
Why did the old man ask him to stay where he was?
Answer: He said so because he believed the boy was on a lucky boat.
II. VOCABULARY
Which words or phrases in the passage have the following meanings:
a)
light rowing boat
b)
fold or crease in skin caused by old age
c)
happy
d)
remain
e)
comply with
Answer Key: skiff, wrinkles, cheerful, stay, obey.
III. Grammar
The conversation between Santiago in the passage and the boy has been reported in the
direct speech mode in the passage. Rewrite the same conversation in indirect mode.
Solution is given below:
The boy told Santiago that he could go with him again and that in the past they had made
some money. The old man refused and told him to stay with the boat he was on because it
was a lucky boat. The boy then reminded the old man of how they had gone eighty seven
days without fish and had then caught big ones everyday for the next three weeks.
The old man replied and said that he remembers all that and he knew that the boy had not
left him because he did not trust him. The boy said that it was his papa who had made him
leave and since he is a boy he has to obey him.
Glossary
skiff
:
a very small, light boat
6
The Future Man: Like This...?
K. Ojha
What will man be like in the future-in 5000 or even 50,000 years from now? We can only
make a guess, of course, but we can be sure that he will be different from what he is today.
For man is slowly changing all the time.
Let us take an obvious example. Man, even five hundred years ago, was shorter than he
is today. Now, on an average, men are about three inches taller. Five hundred years is quite a
short period of time, so we may assume that man will continue to grow taller.
Again, in the modern world we use our brains a great deal, but we make use of only
about 20% of the brain's capacity. As time goes on, however, we shall have to use our brains
more and more – eventually we shall need larger brains. This may bring about a physical
change too: the head, in particular the forehead, will grow larger.
Nowadays, we use our eyes all the time. In fact, we use them so much that very often
they become weaker and we have to wear glasses. However, it is likely that over a long
period of time man's eyes will grow stronger rather than weaker.
On the other hand, we tend to make less use of our arms and legs. These, as a result, may
grow weaker. At the same time, however, our fingers will grow more sensitive because they
are used a great deal in modern life, as in computer operation.
But what about hair? This will probably disappear from the body altogether in course of
time because it does not serve a useful purpose any longer. In the future, then, both men and
women are likely to be bald!
Perhaps all this gives the impression that the future man will not be very attractive
creature to look at! This may be true. But, in spite of all these changes, the future man will
still have a lot in common with us. He will still be a human being, with thoughts and
emotions similar to our own.
I. Comprehension
A.
Say whether the following statements are true or false. Writer T or F against them and
correct the false statement. (Check your answers with the ones provided):
1.
The future man will be much shorter than he is today. (F)
2.
The future man will have a much bigger forehead. (T)
3.
The future man may have stronger limbs.
(F)
4.
The future man may grow his hair longer.
(F)
5.
The future man may not have to wear glasses.
6.
The future man will be emotionally and mentally different from us. (F)
7
(T)
B.
C.
The main features of the future man are given below. Write the number of the
paragraph in which each is described: (The exercise has been solved for you):
Feature
No. of paragraph
strength of limbs
para 5
eye-sight
para 4
height
para 2
intelligence
para 3
baldness
para 6.
Answer the following questions in one sentence each:
1.
How much of his brain does man use today?
Answer: Man uses about twenty percent of his brain today.
2.
What change is likely to come in the fingers of the future man?
Answer: The fingers of the future man will be more sensitive.
3.
Why will the future men and women have no hair on their bodies?
Answer: Hair do not serve any useful purpose.
4.
How will the future man be similar to the man of today?
Answer: He will still have thoughts and emotions similar to our own.
D.
Rewrite the following sentences in the order in which they appear in the passage:
1.
The future man's hair will disappear.
2.
His head will grow larger.
3.
His thoughts and emotions will remain the same.
4.
His eye will grow stronger.
5.
The future man will become taller.
6.
His arms and legs will grow weaker.
Answer: The order should be: 5, 2, 4, 6, 1, 3.
II. Vocabulary
A
In the sentence The future man will grow taller the describing word 'taller' refers to the
height of the future man. Write the parts of the body for which the following describing
words are used in the passage. ( The exercise has been solved for you):
Describing word
Part of the body
weaker
arms and legs
larger
forehead
stronger
eyes
8
B.
Complete the following with the names of different parts of the body
Answer Key:
across : 3) nose; 4) neck; 7) leg; 8) elbow; 9) ear; 10) face.
down : 2) heel; 5) knee; 6) tooth; 11) arm.
III. Grammar : Will, won't, may, may not, can, can't.
Read the following sentences:
1.
Man will continue to grow taller.
2.
The future man won't be very attractive.
3.
The future man may look different from us.
4.
The future man may not have any hair.
5.
We can't make a guess about the future man.
6.
We can be sure about the future.
We use will when we are sure about the future event. The negative of will is won't (will
not). We use may when we are not sure about the future event. The negative of may is
may not. Can is used when we wish to say that something is possible or that someone has
the ability to do something. The negative of can is can't (cannot).
Now complete the following sentences with will, won't, may, may not, can or can't.
1.
I'm sure we _______ win the match because we have the best team.
2.
You _______ take your purse inside the hall if you like, but you _____ take a big
bag.
3.
Don't be afraid of the dog, it ________ bite you.
4.
My aunt loves music, she _______ play the piano very well.
5.
My bicycle has broken down, I ______ repair it tomorrow.
6.
I am not sure where to go during the vacation, I _______ go to Shimla.
9
7.
I am too tired to walk, I think I ________ take a scooter.
8.
He has been to France many times, he _________ speak French very well.
9.
Rita _________ play tennis, she has hurt her leg.
10.
Mohan _______ be home just now, he always comes late.
Answer key
1. Will
2. May, can’t
3. Won’t
4. Can
5. Will/may
6. May
7. Will
8. Can
9. Can’t/mayn’t
10. Won’t
10
The Primitive Man
K. Ojha
The early ancestor of the human race was a very ugly and unattractive mammal. He was quite
small, much smaller than the people of today. The heat of the sun and the biting wind of the
cold winter had coloured his skin dark brown. His head and most of his body, his arms and
legs, too, were covered with long, coarse hair. He had very thin but strong fingers which
made his hands look like those of a monkey. His forehead was low and his jaw was like the
jaw of a wild animal which uses its teeth both as fork and knife. He wore no clothes. He had
seen no fire except the flames of the rumbling volcanoes which filled the earth with their
smoke and lava.
He lived in the damp blackness of vast forests, as the pygmies of Africa do to this day.
When he felt the pangs of hunger he ate raw leaves and roots of plants or he took eggs away
from an angry bird to provide food to his own young. Once in a while after a long and patient
chase, he would catch a sparrow or a small wild dog or perhaps a rabbit. These he would eat
raw for he had never discovered that food tasted better when it was cooked.
During the day this primitive human prowled about looking for things to eat. When night
descended upon the earth, he hid his wife and children in a hollow tree or behind some heavy
boulders, for he was surrounded on all sides by ferocious animals, and when it was dark those
animals began to prowl about, looking for something to eat for their mates and their own
young, and they liked the taste of human beings. It was a world where you must either eat or
be eaten and life was very unhappy because it was full of fear and misery.
1.
Before you read the passage on The Primitive Man, read the passage on The
Future Man.
In The Future Man the writer tells us how man will look in future, what changes
will take place in his appearance and habits, how he will be different from us.
2.
Attempt all the exercises given below the passage.
3.
Now read the passage on The Primitive Man.
In The Primitive Man the writer gives us some information about our ancestors, about
the man who lived long ago, how he was different from us. The primitive man was
uncivilized, uneducated, and animal-like in his appearance and behaviour. He lived in fear
and his life was in danger.
Here are exercises on the text.
I. Comprehension
A. Say whether the following statements are true or false. Write T or F against them and
correct the false statements. (Check your answers with the ones provided):
1.
The primitive man was short, hairy and dark brown. ( T )
11
2.
He ate raw meat, vegetables and fruit. (T )
3.
He hunted animals at night. ( F )
4.
Animals were friendly to him. ( F )
5.
His life was very insecure and miserable. ( T )
B. Match the titles with the paragraphs. Write only the number of the paragraph against
each. The exercise has been solved for you:
1.
The food habits of the primitive man. (para 2)
2.
His relationship with wild animals. (para 3)
3.
The appearance of the primitive man. (para 1 )
C. Answer the following questions in one or two sentences each.
1.
How did the primitive man look?
Answer: The primitive man looked short, dark and hairy.
2.
Describe his fingers and forehead.
Answer: His fingers were strong and his forehead was low.
3.
How did he resemble a wild animal and a monkey?
Answer: His strong fingers made him look like a monkey and his jaw made him look
like a wild animal.
4.
How did he become dark brown?
Answer: The heat of the sun and the cold winter wind made his skin dark brown.
5.
What did he know about fire?
Answer: He only knew about the flames of the rumbling volcanoes.
6.
How did he protect his family from wild animals?
Answer: He hid his family in a hollow tree or behind some heavy boulders.
D. Rewrite the following sentences in the proper order.
1. His life was hard and unhappy.
2. The primitive man was not good looking.
3. He lived in forests.
4. He wore no clothes.
5. He looked for food throughout the day
6. He did not know how to cook.
7. At night he and his family lived in fear of wild animals.
8. A large portion of his body was covered with hair.
Answer Key: The order of the sentences should be: 2, 8, 4, 3, 5, 6, 7, 1.
12
II. Vocabulary
(a) Refer to the passage and write the opposites of the following words.
1. beautiful
2. big
3. smooth
4. fat
5. high
6. impatient
Answer key: 1) ugly, 2) 3) small, 4) coarse, 5) thin, 6) low, 7) patient
III. Grammar
Rewrite the following changing the underlined verbs into the past tense. (The answers
have been provided within brackets)
It is (was) the late afternoon June. Armando and Jorge are (were) hiding in the tall grass
next to the runaway in Havana airport.
Suddenly they hear (heard) the roar of a plane. It comes (came) straight down the run
way, turns (turned) round and stops (stopped) only for a minute. This is (was) their chance.
“Let's run”, shouts (shouted) Jorge to Armando. They both dash (dashed) to the plane
and start (started) climbing up the wheels of the plane.
“Hurry, we can't have much time”, shouts (shouted) Armando. He quickly gets (got)
into the compartment above the right wheel. Jorge gets (got) into the compartment above the
left wheel.
The Plane starts (started) roaring again. The noise is (was) so great that Armando nearly
slips (slipped). He gets (got) hold of a part of the machine in the compartment as the plane
rises (rose) in the sky.
Now the right wheel is folding into the compartment. It begins (began) squeezing
Armando against the roof of the compartment. He can (could) hardly breathe. The door
beneath the compartment closes (closed) and Armando is (was) plunged in darkness.
Glossary
primitive
:
of the earliest times
ancestor
:
our great-great grand parents
13
Cigarettes Are Risky
Neeta Gupta
Four weeks ago I was late for work. I left my house five minutes later than usual and I saw
my bus approaching the bus stop. I began to run, but I was too slow. I waited ten minutes for
another bus and I was still gasping for air when it arrived. The next day I gave up smoking.
For the first few days I was very irritable, but now I feel much better. Now I can ask: why do
people smoke?
Every year teams of doctors publish reports saying that smoking is dangerous for your
health. Every year the Government pays for advertisements telling people that smoking is bad
for them. But there are millions of people who still smoke twenty or thirty cigarettes a day.
In some countries advertisements for cigarettes are not allowed on television. If you read
a newspaper or a magazine you will see cigarette advertisements but at the bottom of each
advertisement you will see the government health warning–Cigarette Smoking is Injurious to
Health. You can read this warning on cigarette packets also. And yet people die every year
from the effects of smoking. One wonders why people smoke!
Experts in various fields say that it is difficult to understand why people begin to smoke
and why they make it a habit. Most people start smoking because other people around them
do it. Children feel it makes them seem adult to smoke, and other children also encourage
them to smoke. Some children see their parents smoking, so they start smoking too.
The effect that smoking has on a person helps to make it a habit. Cigarettes contain
nicotine which has an effect on the heart and the nervous system. Smoking one or two
cigarettes causes an increase in the heart rate and a slight rise in blood pressure. The effect of
smoking on the nervous system is that it reduces tension and helps to relax. People want these
effects or feel they need them and start depending on them and so they go on smoking.
Glossary
gasping
:
trying hard to breathe
banned
:
not allowed by order
injurious :
harmful
I. Comprehension
Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F) . (Solutions are given):
A.
1. The writer stopped smoking because he got tired when he ran a little. (T)
2. The Government does not do anything to stop people from smoking. (F)
3. Smoking increases tension. (F)
4. Smoking becomes a habit because it helps people to relax. (T)
5. People smoke because they do not know that smoking is dangerous for health. (F)
14
B.
Complete the following sentences:
1. Doctors say that smoking is dangerous for health.
2. The writer was irritable because he had given up smoking.
3. Later, the writer felt much better.
C.
1. List three bad effects of smoking.
Answer: Increase in heart rate, slight rise in blood pressure and damage to lungs
are three bad effects of smoking.
2. Give three reasons why children start smoking.
Answer: Children start smoking either because they see their parents smoking or
they are pushed into it by other children or they feel like adults when they smoke.
3. List the three steps taken by the doctors and the government to discourage
smoking.
Answer: Doctors bring out reports warning people that smoking is bad for them;
Government brings out advertisements warning people that cigarettes are injurious
to health and it also puts a health warning on every packet of cigarettes.
4. How does smoking become a habit?
Answer: Smoking becomes a habit because it helps people to relax. They start
depending on cigarettes for a feeling of relaxation.
II. Vocabulary
A. Fill in the blanks choosing the most appropriate word from the list given below: (You
can check your answers from the Key provided):
approaching, irritable, reduce, arrive, encourage, effect
1
In summer heat one feels very _____________
2. Students work hard only when they feel the examinations are _____________
3. The inquiry office said that the train would _____________ at 9 p.m.
4. Morning walk has a good _____________ on the health of people.
5. If you _____________ the price, I will buy two pairs of shoes.
6. She is very shy, so we must _____________ her to speak.
Answer Key: irritable, approaching, arrive, effect, reduce encourage.
B.
Find words from the lesson which mean the opposite of the words given in column A.
Column A
1.
worse
Column B
(para 1)
_____________
15
2.
safe
(para 2)
_____________
3.
top
(para 3)
_____________
4.
decrease
(para 5)
_____________
5.
fall
(para 5)
_____________
Answer Key: 1. better, 2. dangerous, 3. bottom, 4. increase, 5. rise.
III. Grammar: Prepositions
Fill in the blanks in the following passage with the appropriate words from the box:
at on from between in
The Home Minister of Nepal reached Delhi on the 15th of August at 10.00 o'clock. He
was received at the Indira Gandhi Airport by the Governor of Delhi. From the airport he went
to Rashtrapati Bhawan. In the evening he met the Prime Minister at his residence. At night
he addressed the members of parliament at the Chelmsford Club. He referred to the old
friendship between Nepal and India. He also talked about the developments taking place in
Nepal and India. He said that in 1989 also when he came to India he was impressed by the
progress made by India in different fields.
16
What Has Happened to Lulu?
Neeta Gupta
What has happened to Lulu, mother?
What has happened to Lu?
There’s nothing in her bed but an old rag-doll
And by its side a shoe.
Why is her window wide, mother,
The curtain flapping free,
And only a circle on the dusty shelf
Where her money-box used to be?
Why do you turn your head, mother,
And why do the tear-drops fall?
And why do you crumple that note on the fire
And say it is nothing at all?
I woke to voices late last night,
I heard an engine roar.
Why do you tell me the things I heard
Were a dream and nothing more?
I heard somebody cry, mother,
In anger or in pain, But now
I ask you why, mother,
You say it was a gust of rain?
Why do you wander about as though
You don’t know what to do?
What has happened to Lulu, mother
What has happened to Lu?
Glossary
rag-doll
:
flapping :
a doll made from old waste pieces of cloth
moving up and down or from side to side
17
I.
crumple :
press into folds or creases
roar
loud deep sound of a lion or thunder, or a person in pain
:
Comprehension
A.
B.
Say whether the following statements are true (T) or false (F):
1.
The speaker in this poem is Lulu’s brother or sister. (T)
2.
The mother is crying because she is sick and has pain. (F)
3.
From the poem we come to know that Lulu was in pain and had gone to
hospital. (F)
4.
The window was open because Lulu had jumped out of it. (T)
5.
The mother found out from Lulu’s note that Lulu had gone. (T)
What do the following refer to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
C.
D.
Its
Where
It
The things
It
stanza 1
stanza 2
stanza 3
stanza 4
stanza 5
line 4
line 4
line 4
line 3
line 4
(old rag doll)
(dusty shelf)
(the note)
(voices and the roar of an engine)
(the sound of someone crying)
Complete the following:
(a)
Lulu took her money box with her.
(b)
Lulu left her ragdoll and a shoe behind.
(c)
Mother was angry because Lulu had run away.
(d)
In place of the money box, there is a circle.
Get into pairs, discuss the following questions and then decide exactly what happened
that night and write it.
a)
Had Lulu informed her mother before leaving home?
Answer: No, Lulu had not informed her mother before leaving home.
b)
Did she leave through the main door?
Answer: No she left through the window.
c)
Whose voices did the speaker in the poem hear?
Answer: The voices were probably of Lulu and the person she left with.
d)
I heard someone cry – who cried?
Answer: It was the mother who cred.
18
e)
I heard an engine roar. What is the connection of this line with Lulu’s leaving
home.
Answer: Lulu left with someone in a car.
Vocabulary
Find words from the poem which are opposite in meaning to the words given below:
rise : fall
everything : nothing
clean : dusty
narrow : wide
new : old
early : late
less : more
II.
Grammar:
Simple Past and Present Perfect Tense
We use the past tense for an action completed in the past. The time is indicated by words
and phrases such as yesterday, last week, an hour ago, and by giving exact date, time or
month.
In the present perfect tense we do not use these words or phrases e.g.
(a) “Have you seen Radha?”
“Yes, I have seen her. I saw her yesterday.”
(b) “Where did you go for the summer holidays?”
“I went to Shimla. I have just come back.”
Note:
We form present perfect with has/have + the past participle.
For a negative sentence, we use ‘not’ between have/has and the past participle e.g.
I have not seen Radha.
She has not eaten her food.
Fill in the blanks with the verbs in the past or present perfect tense:
1.
“Have you seen the Kutub Minar?”
“Yes, I have seen it. I saw it when I was in Class V.
2.
“Have you read this book?
19
No, I have not read it.
3.
What has your mother given you for lunch?
She has given me rice and dal.
4.
What did your brother get on his birthday?
He has got a bicycle.
5.
Where has she kept the new chair?
She has kept it in her bedroom.
6.
Has he passed his Higher Secondary examination?
Yes, he has. He passed it two years ago.
7.
Have you celebrated your birthday?
Yes, I have celebrated my birthday. I celebrated it on the 10th of December.
8.
Have you ever played cricket in your life?
Yes, I have played cricket when I was 12 years old.
10. Have you made plans for the summer?
No, I have not made any plans.
20
Saving Our Wild Life
Farida Nayyar
Like all sports, hunting has its own rules but there is no referee present to make sure that
rules are followed. The entire responsibility of following the rules depends on the sportsman
himself. The forest and wild life staff are there to keep a check but it is the sportsman who
has to keep a control on himself and has to ensure that our wild life is not destroyed
completely.
The most serious and heavy damage to our wild life is caused by poachers from villages
next to the forest. Damage is also done by gangs from big towns who kill wild life so that
they can sell skins and horns. If we are careful and follow the rules of the game strictly, we
can continue to hunt without any loss of our fauna.
In order to save our wild life, a number of national parks and game sanctuaries have been
established. The difference between a national park and a game sanctuary is that while a
national park is established through an Act of parliament or a state legislature, sanctuaries are
established through an administrative order of the government. National parks are permanent
and their boundaries cannot be changed whereas sanctuaries are established for a fixed period
of time which may or may not be increased; and also the boundaries can be changed or
modified. In India we have forty five national parks. The most famous are the Kanha
National Park in Madhya Pradesh, the Corbet National Park and Dudwa National Park in
Uttar Pradesh. In these national parks, the wild life gets an opportunity to exist and multiply
in a natural manner without any interference or danger from man. In the game sanctuaries
(210 at present), similar protection is given to all forms of wild life. The most famous game
sanctuary in India is the Gir Lion Sanctuary in Gujarat. Here lives the Asiatic lion, which
once roamed freely all over North West India, Pakistan, Iraq and Arabia. This is the only part
of the earth where the Asiatic lion still exists in its natural environment owing to the strict
protection given to it for the last eighty years or more.
All our national parks and sanctuaries are a source of great pleasure and recreation to
thousands of visitors each year because they give an opportunity to people to see the rich
fauna of our country in their natural surroundings.
The wild life of a country is its wealth and beauty. A country without its fauna and flora
will look bare, barren and ugly. The lesson 'Saving Our Wild Life' tells us how the
government is trying to save the animals. But only passing laws and orders by the
government will not help much. All of us who want to see this country rich and beautiful,
should try to protect the animals.
We hope that you have read and understood the lesson with the help of the glossary. We
are providing you with the answers to the questions given at the end of the lesson. We hope it
will make the passage more clear to you.
I.
Comprehension
A. The true and false statements:
1.
The sportsmen should completely give up hunting (F).
21
B.
2.
Game sanctuaries are not permanent like national parks (T).
3.
The Asiatic lion is found all over Western India, Pakistan, Iran, Iraq and Arabia. (F).
4.
The Asiatic lion lived secure in the Gir Lion Sanctuary for a century. (F)
5.
All national parks and game sanctuaries are useful to visitors because there they can
see the wild life of the entire world in its national surroundings. (F)
Answers to the questions:
1.
How is hunting similar to sports?
Hunting is similar to sports because it gives both pleasure and exercise. Like all
sports hunting has its own rules.
2.
What is the responsibility of a sportsman?
The responsibility of the sportsman is to keep control on himself and ensure that our
wild life is not destroyed completely.
3.
Who causes the greatest damage to our wildlife?
The poacher causes the greatest damage to our wild life.
4.
Why do people kill wild life?
People kill wild life so that they can sell skins and horns.
5.
Which of the following can be established without the approval of Parliament: a
National Park/A game sanctuary?
A game sanctuary can be established without the approval of the Parliament.
6.
Why do animals feel secure in National Parks and Game Sanctuaries?
The animals feel secure in national parks and game sanctuaries because in these
places they are well protected from the hunters and poachers. They live and
multiply freely there without any interference or danger from man.
II
Vocabulary
A. Fill in the blanks with the following words from the passage:
modify, destroyed, exist, provide, followed, increased, depends, established, multiply, gets,
maintain
1.
Traffic rules are not strictly followed by young people.
2.
If he can maintain this speed, he will win the race.
3.
We cannot exist without food and water.
4.
Mosquitoes multiply very fast.
5.
Success in examination depends on how hard you work.
22
6.
The whole city was destroyed by the earthquake.
7.
The government should provide food and jobs for everyone.
8.
This business was established twenty years ago.
9.
If the dress does not fit you properly, we will modify it.
10. The prices of all items have increased many times during the last one year.
B. Underline the word or phrase that mean the same as the word in italics. (Answers are
provided).
III
No.
Word
A
B
C
1.
entire
major
elementary
complete
2.
valuable
expensive
useful
durable
3.
damage
harm
insult
challenge
4.
opportunity
chance
permission
freedom
5.
recreation
entertainment
education
relaxation
6.
forever
sometimes
for all times
normally
Grammar
Form Questions for the answers given below: (Solutions have been provided in italics) :
1.
She has two brothers. (How many brothers has she?)
2.
I am doing my work. ( What are you doing?)
3.
She is coming at 8 p.m. (When is she coming?)
4.
Mr. Narula is going to London. (Where is Mr. Narula going?)
5.
That is a white peacock. (What colour is that peacock?)
6.
Her name is Sarika. (What is her name?)
7.
I’ll come back at night. (When will you come back?)
8.
I want some potatoes. (What do you want?)
9.
They cost rupees twenty per bag. (How much do they cost per bag?)
10. I want that car. (Which car do you want?)
Glossary
poachers
: the people who catch animals without permission on land
which does not belong to them
fauna
: all the animals of an area
game–sanctuaries
: areas where by law it is forbidden
23
poaching
: to kill birds or animals or to rob their nests
Act of Parliament
: a law passed by the parliament
Administrative Order
: an order passed by the government
recreation
: entertainment
24
Want to do a Computer course?
Neeta Gupta
INSTITUTE OF COMPUTER SCIENCE ELECTRONICS & INSTRUMENTATION.
DEVI ANUSUYA VISHWAVIDYALAYA KHANDWA ROAD, INDORE
ADMISSION NOTICE
For academic session starting from July, 1992
(A) Master of Computer Management
(B) Master Of COMPUTER APPLICATIONS
(M.C.M.)
(M.C.A.)
30 Seats
30 Seats
M.C.M. 3 Year Evening Programme
M.C.A. 3 Years Full Time
Programme
Eligibility Qualification :
At Least II class graduation in any
discipline from a recognised university
Written Test: February 15, 1992
(Time: 5.00 p.m. to 8 00p.m.)
Eligibility Qualification:
At least 55% in graduation with
Mathematics at 10 + 2 level.
Written Test: February 16, 1992.
Application Form: Prescribed Application form can be obtained by sending Rs. 50/ -by
DD/Banker’s Cheque/IPO in favour of the Director ICSEI, D.A.V.V. payable at Indore and a
self-addressed envelope in size 14×22. cm with Stamp of Rs. 10/ -send separate applications
for each programme and subscribe the name of the programme on the left hand top corner.
LAST DATE OF RECEIPT OF APPLICATIONS 5.00 P.M. 31ST JANUARY 1992
TEST CENTERS FOR M.C.A.
TEST CENTERS FOR M.C.M,
INDORE & DELHI
INDORE
ADMISSION NOTICE
NIIP’S CAREER PROGRAMMES IN SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT
The Integrated Higher Education Curriculum: Specially designed programs for a high-growth
career in computers. Starts with computer fundamentals, programming language, structured
systems, analysis design.
Programme Options
Programme
1.
2.
3.
Adv. Diploma in Systems Management
(4 Semesters)
Hons. Diploma in Systems Management
(3 Semesters)
Diploma in Systems Management
(2 Semesters )
25
Duration
regular
24 Months
Fast Track
12 Months
18 Months
9 Months
12 Months
6 Months
Eligibility: Graduates in any discipline. Special Dual Qualification Scheme for Class XII
and Undergraduates enabling simultaneous completion of the programme with graduation.
Placement: Through intensive career guidance and industry/campus interviews. NIIP’s
National Placement Network assists students in getting suitable jobs. For admission please
contact NIIP Student Advisors.
Glossary
I.
1. integrated
: combined
2. curriculum
: syllabus
3. dual
: double, two at a time
4. simultaneous
: at the same time
5. placement
: helping people to get suitable jobs
Comprehension
A. State whether the following are true (T) or false (F):
1.
The NIIP has no last date for application. (T)
2.
The NIIP is a University. (F)
3.
Only graduates are eligible for admission to courses in Devi Anusuya
Vishwavidyalaya. (T)
4.
The M.S.C. (Electronics ) Course will finish in June 1994. (F)
5.
You can Join NIIP only after graduating. (F)
6.
Your sister Madhu who is in class XII and you can both do a course at NIIP now.
(T)
7.
If you fill in the application form correctly, you will surely get admission in Devi
Anusuya Vishawa-Vidyalaya. (F)
8.
Devi Anusuya Vishwavidyalayas are in Indore and Delhi. (T)
9.
If you are a player, you will definitely get admission in Devi Anusuya
Vishwavidyalya. (F)
10. In NIIP, you can do three courses at the same time. (F)
B. Answer the following questions:
1.
What two things will you have to send to get the application form of Devi Anusuya
Vishwa-Vidyalaya?
26
Answer: To get the application form we will have to send Rs. 50/ -by DD/Banker’s
Cheque/IPO in favour of the Director ICSEI, D.A.V.V. payable at Indore and a
self-addressed envelope in size 14×22. cm with Stamp of Rs. 10/ .
2.
To whom will you send these two things?
Answer: To the Director ICSEI, D.A.V.V
3.
Your friend Amit sent an application to Devi Anusuya Vishwavidyala on the 5th of
February 1992 but did not get admission. Can you tell why?
Answer: The last date of sending applications was 31st January
4.
Mohit of Lucknow wants to take admission in the M.C.A., he has sent his
application. What will he do next?
Answer: He will have to appear for a written test.
5.
Mr. Fernandes wants to do an honours course in Systems Management and wants
to finish his course quickly. Where should he apply and how much time will it take
him to do the course?
Answer: He should apply at NIIP for a Fast Track course. He will finish it in 9
months.
6.
Reshma got 65% marks in B.A but could not get admission to the M.C.A. Course of
Devi Anusuya Vishwavidyalaya. Can you give one reason for this?
Answer: She could probably not clear the written test.
7.
What do you have to do to get admission in NIIP?
Answer: Be a graduate in any discipline.
8.
How will you send fifty rupees-to Devi Anusuya to get an application form?
Answer: We can send 0/- rupees by DD/Banker’s Cheque/IPO in favour of the Director
ICSEI, D.A.V.V. payable at Indore
II. Vocabulary
A. Tick (✓) the correct choice:
1.
2.
A recognized university is–
a)
one that everyone knows about.
b)
a university that has been approved by an authority.✓
c)
one that is the most popular University.
A prescribed application form is–
a)
a form prepared and issued by an institution. ✓
27
3.
4.
b)
a form giving all the necessary details.
c)
a form signed by a gazetted officer.
A self-addressed envelope is–
a)
any envelope which has your name on it.
b)
any envelope that you send to someone in your own handwriting.
c)
One which you send after writing your own name and address on it so that an
answer can be sent back to you. ✓
A discipline means:
a)
a strict rule.
b)
a branch of knowledge.✓
c)
a kind of computer course.
B. Fill in the blanks with the following words: qualifications, career, availability, eligibility
guidance, completion
1.
Singing is not her hobby, it is her ___________.
2.
We need someone who knows computer science, shorthand, and typing but you do
not have the necessary ___________.
3.
On the ___________ of this course, you will get a certificate.
4.
We are not sure of going to Kerala for a holiday for it depends on the ___________
of train tickets.
5.
After the death of his mother, he did not get proper ______so he got into bad
company.
Answer Key: 1. career, 2. qualifications, 3. completion, 4. availability, 5. guidance.
III. Grammar
You have learnt about forming questions that begin with a verb/a helping verb or with
do/does/did.
Remember the word order in verb questions is–
Verb + subject + other words +?
Helping verb + subject + main verb + other words +?
The word order in ‘Do questions’ is–
Do/does/did + subject +verb + other words +?
Also remember that the answers to ‘Verb questions’ and ‘Do questions’ generally begin
with Yes or No.
28
Now form questions for the following answers– ( The questions have been provided I
brackets):
1.
Yes, I like mangoes very much. (Do you like mangoes?)
2.
No, I do not want any grapes. (Do you want some grapes?)
3.
Yes, they are at home. (Are your parents at home?)
4.
Yes, she knows his name. (Does she know his name?)
5.
Yes, her mother is a doctor. (Is her mother a doctor?)
6.
Yes, Mr. Mehta is coming today. (Is Mr. Mehta coming today?)
7.
Yes, Priya has come back. (Has Priya come back?)
8.
Yes, Anil wants to sleep. (Does Anil wan to sleep?)
9.
No, Mr. Bachhan did not come late. (Did Mr. Bachhan come late?)
10. Yes, the students saw the show. (Did the students see the show?)
11. Yes, Mamta was eating her food. (Was Mamta eating her food?)
12. Yes, I have seen this film. (Have you seen this film?)
13. No, we have not learnt this lesson. (Have you learnt this lesson?)
14. Yes, we feel happy. (Are you feeling happy?)
15. No, they did not read the book.(Did they read the book?)
16. No, children do not like medicines. (Do children like medicines?)
17. No, Mr. Rehman did not eat his food. (Did Mr. Rehman eat his food?)
18. Yes, people know the value of money. (Do people know the value of money?)
19. Yes, he is my brother. (Is he your brother?)
20. Yes, she had taken her pen. (Had she taken her pen?)
29
(b) Examinations
Dilip.
: How I wish these examinations were over: I am sick of studying. What is the use
of examinations, anyway?
Kishore. : Well, I too think they are a great nuisance but I don’t see how we could get on
without them.
D.
: But why?
K.
: Well, you see, there must be, from time to time, some sort of test of what you
really know, and how far you have progressed in your studies. In what other way
could a University tell whether you were fit to write “B.A.” after your name?
D.
: I don’t know; but I do not believe examinations are a real test. You can get
through an examination by last minute work and cramming; but cramming is not
education, and the crammer generally forgets all he ever knew as soon as the
examination is over. Then there is a good deal of luck about it. Your papers may
be examined by a strict examiner, and mine by a lenient one; I may pass, and you
may fail - and yet you may really be the better student.
K.
: This is true; but to show that the examination system has defects, does not prove it
useless or unnecessary. In general, I think examinations are a fair test.
D.
: I am afraid, I am not convinced.
K.
: Very well, can you suggest any other way of testing a man’s fitness?
D.
: No. I can’t but I can say that not only are examinations unnecessary, they are
positively harmful, very often the hard study necessary for an examination affects
a student’s health. Some students get quite ill with over-study.
K.
: If you waste most of your time at college and then try to cram a year’s course of
study in a few weeks, it is quite likely you will break down. But examinations
don’t hurt students who work methodically and regularly throughout their course.
D.
: Well, I think we would study much better if we do not always have some
examination awaiting us.
K.
: A few might; but many students would not work at all. It is only the fact that they
will be examined which makes some students study at all. An examination is very
useful for it makes idle students work.
D.
: Well; have it your way. All our talk will not put off our examination, which is
next month.
Glossary
cram
positively
put off
:
:
:
to memorize
definitely
postpone
30
Unit-1b
READING and COMPREHENDING II
From Everyday English-2
I AM
A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
Nalini Prabhakar
I will never forget a lesson I learnt when I was ten years old. My teacher, Subramaniam Iyer,
was telling us how seagulls fly. I had a billion doubts and he offered us as many
clarifications. He took us to the seaside and showed us the birds, explaining very movement,
every action... Wonderstruck, I listened to my teacher – the man who, wh8le teaching me
about the flight of birds, gave me a purpose in life – to fly!
People talk of the lack of role models in Indian society. My only statement to such
people is – if we fail in our family system, we have no right to look for moral leaders
anywhere outside.
I will not be presumptuous enough to say that my life can be a model for anybody; but
some poor child living in an obscure place in an underprivileged social setting may find a
little solace in the way my destiny has been shaped. It could perhaps help such children
liberate themselves from the bondage of their illusory backwardness and hopelessness.
People wonder how I manage to balance my scientific approach with my spiritual beliefs. I’d
say it’s very simple. When I look up into the sky, I see a million stars. One star the Sun-is
enough to keep our whole solar system running. We are yet to discover how many more solar
systems there are. The thought is overwhelming! It makes me realize that we are just specks
in the universe. It gives me reason to believe that there is something, somewhere that I can
turn to. And so, I pray.
I have been given everything I wanted in life - and much more. I don’t feel the need to
pray for myself. I pray for my nation, for the people of India, for the young minds that will
take this country to the greatest heights.
1.1. Introduction
Role models are people who have achieved something in their chosen field and whose
lives inspire us to follow in their footsteps. A growing child often, looks for a role model to
follow. It could be one of the family members, neighbours, leaders, scientists, teachers, or
some great person. In this short article the former president Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, tells us
about one such person who inspired him to overcome many difficulties and become a leading
scientist and subsequently the President of India.
1.2. In this article Dr. Kalam recounts a small incident which changed his life. One of his
teachers, while teaching the class about how seagulls fly, inspired him to achieve great things
in life. The teacher took the students to the seaside and actually showed seagulls flying and
explained to them each and every action of the flying seagulls. Thus he demonstrated to the
31
students the actual operation of the scientific explanations the students had read in their text
books. By sharing in practice, what the students learned in theory in classroom, he was able
to inspire Dr. Kalam to develop a scientific temperament and thus became his role model.
Dr. Kalam, further, points out that it is futile to look or expect to find role models outside
if we are unable to create them in our families. A child first comes in close contact with the
family members and it is here that the child looks for his/her first role models. And if we are
unable to provide a role model to the child then we have failed in our duties.
Dr. Kalam’s life can serve as a role model for many poor children living in far flung
villages in India. He himself comes from an underprivileged section of the society living in a
small village in Kerala. But the journey from that little village to the Rashtrapati Bhavan is
indeed remarkable. What children can learn from the example of Dr. Kalam is that they can
also achieve great things in life if they are determined and if they can free themselves from
their hopelessness. They must be optimistic and believe in themselves. Dr. Kalam also points
out that he was able to achieve a balance between his scientific approach and his spiritual
beliefs by simply wondering about the vastness of our universe. When we start imagining
about the vastness of our universe, we realize how small and insignificant we are and we
shall find it easy to believe in something, somewhere which is far greater than us to whom we
can pray. Dr. Kalam believes that he has received much more from life than he had asked for.
Hence he now prays for the nation, the people and also the young minds who are the future of
this great country. The lesson that we learn from Dr. Kalam’s life is that, however great the
obstacles might be, we can overcome all obstacles if we are determined and if we have a
purpose in life. And most importantly we must learn to dream.
Glossary
seagull
: a common grey and white bird that lives near the sea
clarification
: making things clearer
presumptuous
: unduly confident, showing too much confidence
obscure
: remote, not known
underprivileged
: very poor, lacking the opportunities and advantages that most other
people have
solace
: comfort
liberate
: to free
illusory
: unreal the solar
system
: the Sun and the planets that go around it
overwhelming
: having such a great effect on you that you feel confused and do not
know how to react
specks
: small spots
32
Reading Comprehension
1.
Which qualities of his teacher does Dr Abdul Kalam describe in paragraph 1?
Ans. His teacher tried to demonstrate in practice what the students learned in theory and
also encouraged them to develop a scientific temperament . It is this quality in his
teacher that Kalam describes in para-1.
2.
Does Dr Abdul Kalam belong to a rich family? Which sentence tells you about this?
Ans No, he came from a poor family. This sentence tells us : “'I will not be
presumptuous enough to say that my life can be a model for anybody; but some
poor child living in an obscure place in an underprivileged social setting may find a
little solace in the way my destiny has been shaped.”
3
The term ‘scientific approach’ may mean some of the following: Say YES or NO
•
4.
5.
study of reality
YES
•
observation of facts YES
•
a search for logical explanation YES
•
a spirit of enquiry YES
•
no blind faith YES
•
belief in superstitions NO
•
the search for new knowledge YES
•
accepting everything without testing NO
Given below are a few statements based on the text. Say whether you agree or
disagree with them.
i.
Children living in remote corners cannot have a bright future. ( Disagree )
ii.
There are role models in our family and in our society to motivate us to have a
purpose in life. (Agree)
iii.
Children coming from backward places can take inspiration from Dr. Abdul
Kalam’s life. (Agree)
iv.
Nature with its mysteries fills him with a sense of wonder and humility.
(Agree)
v.
A scientist can also believe in a power that is higher than us. (Agree)
What impression do you form about Dr. Kalam from paragraph 5?
Ans. Dr. Kalam comes across as a humble and spiritual man, with an immense love
for the nation and its youth.
33
Vocabulary
1. Notice the words ‘fly’ and ‘flight’ in the text. They are related to each other as ‘fly’
is the verb and ‘flight’ is its noun. Given here are a few more words: column A has
verb forms and column B has noun forms. Complete the table with the help of a
dictionary.
2
Column A: verb forms
Column B: noun forms
clarify
clarification
fail
failure
move
movement
manage
manage
realize
realization
Notice the compound word ‘underprivileged’ which is made of ‘under’ and
‘privileged’. Given below in column A are other compounds made from combining
‘under with a verb in the past participial form. In column B are given their opposites
formed with ‘over’. Note however, that in every case we may not have
corresponding compounds.
Column A
Column B
compounds with ‘under’
compounds with ‘over’
underprivileged
—
underdeveloped
overdeveloped
underpopulated
overpopulated
underfed
overfed
underrated
overrated
—
overjoyed
Language Notes
Note that in the text, the phrase ‘a little solace’ occurs. ‘Little’ and ‘a little’ are both used
before nouns for talking about a small amount but little has a negative meaning and is used
for emphasizing that an amount is smaller than you would expect, for example, There is little
hope of winning the game.
‘A little’ has a positive meaning and is used for emphasizing that an amount is small, but
greater than you might expect, for example, She had a little money left so she took a taxi.
34
‘Little’ is like ‘not much’ or ‘not enough’; ‘a little’ is like ‘some’. Also note that ‘few’
and ‘a few’ are used for countable nouns whereas ‘little’ and ‘a little’ are used for
uncountables.
Writing and Speaking
1. Imagine it’s your first day in college and you’re asked to say a few words about
yourself. You have to speak about.
•
the school you passed out from
•
the subjects that you are studying now
•
the subject you’re most interested in
•
your aim after graduation
•
values that are important in your life
•
your role model.
First draft a few sentences about these points and then make a presentation in the class.
35
THE CHAMPION
(Sigrun Srivastav)
Nalini Prabhakar
The crowd lining the streets of Cleveland had gone wild. People heaved and jostled against
the barrier of policemen shielding the slowly approaching car. "Jesse Owens”, they screamed.
“Long live Jesse Owens! Long live America!"
The tall, dark man in the open car threw both arms up into the air and waved to the
crowd. Occasionally, the car stopped and Jesse Owens stood up to shake a hand or kiss a
blushing teenager on her cheek, accepting flowers with a bow and a radiant smile. He lifted
the three gold medals he had won at the Berlin Olympics and shouted, "I did it for you, the
people of America!" A unanimous roar rent the air, “Long live Jesse Owens! Long live
America!"
The car moved on. Autograph hunters thrust their books at him. As his pen moved over
yet another sheet of paper, Jesse Owens eyes fell on a dark, skinny little boy, flattened against
the car, staring wide-eyed at his hero.
“Next”, said Jesse Owens, handing back the autograph book. "Next".
The little boy did not answer. He did not move. "Next", said the fastest man on the earth.
"Next. Come on now."
The boy stretched forward on tiptoe. "Gee, Mr Owens." He nervously bit his lips. “Gee,
Mr Owens, I would do anything to become like you, to be an Olympic champion”.
The tall man smiled down at the boy with dark, serious eyes. Dropping a friendly hand
on the young admirer’s shoulder, he said, "That’s exactly what I wanted when I was your age,
son.” He gripped the boy by his arms and continued, “Listen, if you work for it, work really
hard, you’ll make it. If you believe in a thing strongly enough, you’ll achieve it. You’ll get it.
If you think you can do it, you will. But listen.” He bent his face closer to the boy’s. "You
have to sweat for it, slog for it. Yes, man! For years, I practically lived in my track gear,
worked, ate and slept in it. It worked, boy. It worked for me. It got me where I am today. And
it’ll work for you too!"
The boy grasped the tall man’s hand and shook it warmly. "It will work with me too, Mr
Owens, Sir”, he said. "I’ll do it. I promise."
The boy kept his promise. Twelve years later in 1948 at the Empire Stadium in London,
a young American won the gold medal for the 100-meter dash-won it in a record time of 10.3
seconds.
His name was Harrison Dillard.
1.1. Introduction
In the preceding unit (Unit 3) we have discussed the importance of role models for a
society. A role model, often, can inspire young children to achieve great things in life. In this
unit we continue with the same topic with another great achiever who was the role model for
many aspiring athletes. I am sure most of you know about the great athlete Jesse Owens. He
was the first man to win four gold medals in the history of the Olympic games. And he
36
achieved this feat in 1936 at Berlin Olympics. His real name was James Cleveland Owens.
He was the grandson of a slave. He struggled a lot in his early life doing odd jobs. But his
hard work and perseverance finally paid off and after Berlin Olympics he was regarded as the
greatest athlete on earth. He won a gold each in the 100 meters, 200 meters, long jump and
4x100 meters relay. I, am sure his life still provides inspiration to millions of young under
privileged children all over the world.
1.2. This piece of writing recounts a small incident which happened during the welcome
organized in honour of Jesse Owens at Cleveland. The triumphant return of Jesse Owens was
marked by wild celebrations in the streets of Cleveland. Owens was taken in a procession in
an open car. Owens accepted the adulation of the crowds with a bow and a radiant smile. He
occasionally shook hands and signed autographs. He showed the gold medals he won at the
Berlin Olympics and said that he did it for the people of America. The crowds roared with
approval and chanted slogans praising Owens and America.
While signing autographs Owens saw a thin little boy staring wide-eyed at him. It is
obvious that the small boy considered Owens his hero. When Owens asked the boy to come
forward he moved closer to Owens and told Owens that he would do anything to become an
Olympic Champion. The advice that Owens gave the boy is very instructive. He said that:
i)
if you believe in something and work really hard for it, you will achieve it.
ii)
but you really need to sweat and slog for years before you can achieve it.
He substantiated this advice from his own experience. He practically slept, ate, worked
and lived in his track gear for years and it worked for him and he was sure that it would work
for the small boy as well. The boy promised Owens that he would indeed do it and he did it.
This boy won the 100 meters gold in a record time of 10.3 seconds at the London Olympics
in 1948. This boy was Harrison Dillard. This small anecdote really demonstrates the fact that
role models can indeed inspire young children to achieve great things in life. It also
demonstrates that to succeed in life you need to believe in your goals, believe in yourself and
be willing to work really hard for years.
Glossary
Heaved
and
Jostled
Radiant
Shielding
Sweat and Slog
Unanimous
:
pushed
:
:
:
:
shining, glowing, brightly
protecting
work hard over a period of time
showing complete agreement
Reading Comprehension
1.
Why were the people of Cleveland so excited?
2.
How did Jesse Owens respond to the welcome he received from the people?
Mention two things that he did.
37
3.
Do you think Jesse Owens was committed to his country or was he concerned only
about his personal victory? Which sentences give you the clue?
4.
What was the little boy’s dream? What advice did Owens give to the little boy to
realise his dream?
5.
What did Owens do to reach this position ?
6.
What was the promise the little boy made? Was he able to keep it? How do we
know?
7.
Can you guess the sport in which Owens and Dillard excelled?
8.
What does the word ‘champion’ mean here?
9.
i.
a supporter
ii.
a winner
iii.
an advisor
Who do you think is/are the champion(s) here?
i.
Jesse Owens
ii.
Harrison Dillard
iii.
both
10. Pick out two sentences which contain the main ideas of the text.
Answer Key
1.
The people of Cleveland were excited because they were in the presence of a man
(Jesse Owens) who had won 4 gold medals at Berlin Olympics 1936.
2.
a. Owens threw both arms up into the air and waved to the crowd.
b. accepted flowers with a bow and a radiant smile.
3.
Owens shout “I did it for you, the people of America” proves that he was committed
to his country.
4.
The little boy’s dream was to be an Olympic champion like Owens. Owen’s advise
to the little boy was to believe in his dream and to work for this dream, work really
hard to realize it.
5.
Owens sweated and slogged for years, practically living in his track pants to achieve
his dream.
6.
The little boy promised to work for his Olympic dream, and in 1948, twelve years
after his meeting with Owens, this same boy Harrison Dillard won the Olympic gold
for 100 m at Empire stadium in London.
38
7.
100 m track events.
8.
winner.
9.
both.
10. a. If you believe in a thing strongly enough, you’ll achieve it.
b. You have to sweat for it, slog for it.
Vocabulary
1.
Look at the phrase ‘a radiant smile that occurs in ‘accepting flowers with a
bow and a radiant smile’,
Other adjectives that collocate with ‘smile’ are:
A faint smile (weak smile)
A beaming smile (broad smile)
A wry smile (crooked smile)
Make sentences using these collocations.
2. Learn the following phrases that occur in the text:
rent the air, autograph hunters, staring wide-eyed (at), waved to the crowd
Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with an appropriate phrase from those
given above:
i.
As soon as Amitabh Bachchan arrived at the function, ____________pushed
their way through to take his autograph.
ii.
When the winning Indian cricket team arrived at the airport, they
enthusiastically___________________.
iii. The shouts of the people protesting against the price hike________________.
iv. The child got into the metro station, _________________at the escalator.
Answer Key :
3.
i.
autograph hunters
ii.
waved to the crowd
iii.
rent the air
iv.
staring wide-eyed
The following phrases that occur in the text have a similar meaning:
work hard, slog for it, sweat for it
39
Consult a dictionary to find other words/phrases with a similar meaning. Notice,
however, that ‘work’ in the following sentences has a different meaning:
It worked for me. And it’ll work for you too!
Can you guess at the meaning of ‘work’ from the context here?
Language Notes
Notice the following sentence that occurs in the text:
If you work for it, you’ll make it.
The ‘if’ clause (If you work for it) describes a condition that is likely to be fulfilled and
the main clause (you’ll make it) mentions the result. Note that simple present tense is used in
the ‘if’ clause and simple future tense is used in the main clause.
Now match the clauses in column A with the clauses in column B to make meaningful
sentences:
Column A
Column B
i. If you believe in a thing strongly a. you will.
enough,
ii. If the rain stops,
b. you'll achieve it.
iii. If you think you can do it,
c. you'll be promoted.
iv. If you perform well at work,
d. you'll be able to go out.
1.
If you believe in a thing strongly enough
you’ll achieve it.
2.
If the rain stops
you’ll be able to go out.
3.
If you think you can do it
you will
4.
If you perform well at work
you’ll be promoted.
Writing
Write a composition of about 150 words about Sania Mirza or Mahesh Bhupathi,
describing their qualities, their achievements, and the glory they have brought to their
country.
You can collect material from newspapers, magazines, and the internet.
Speaking
Jesse Owens gives some advice/suggestions to the little boy to realise his dream. Prepare
a dialogue for a situation in which you give advice to your younger brother/sister about how
to improve his/her performance in the exams and he/she promises to follow your advice.
Some of the expressions you can use for giving advice are:
40
You’d better...
I think you should...
I’ll advise you to....
I suggest/recommend...
But you have to...
Some of the expressions to be used for responding to the advice may be:
I certainly will...
I promise...
I assure you...
41
FLYING HIGH
Indira Vashishta
P.K. Satapathy
I come from a very traditional family of ten brothers and sisters. I’m the youngest one. I
was born after my elder sisters were married (I have a nephew and a niece who are older than
me). So it’s a two generation gap between me and my father. My father was very orthodox.
When I was small, my sisters were not allowed to step out of the house; if they did, they
positively had to be back no later than 5 pm. They were not allowed to wear anything except
for salwar kameez with a dupatta. The first five children were girls, my father was hell-bent
on having a son. I didn’t like this family tradition of treating girls as second-class citizens.
My brothers’ birthdays were like festival days – big celebrations. As for my sisters, nobody
even knew when their birthdays came or went. Once they reached seventeen or eighteen, my
father got them married off. One of them wanted to be an IPS officer (Indian Police Service),
another wanted to be a doctor, but they were not allowed to have careers of their own. I saw
all this from childhood, so that’s why I wanted to be in a profession – to be a bit different. I
wanted a career.
Once, when I was in the 10th standard, I saw a lady pilot – it was quite an amazing sight
for me. Just imagine, in a population of a billion people, there are probably no more than a
hundred pilots. As for lady pilots? It’s a tiny percentage. I knew that I wanted to do
something different with my life. I also wanted to be in a different profession where I
wouldn’t be exploited, and where I could do whatever I wished. But I really had to fight for
it. It was very difficult. My father never agreed with my taking up a job. My mother was very
attached to me, and she had to take a stand. She had wanted me to become a doctor, but I
wanted something a bit more adventurous. My sisters were not allowed to step out of the
house, and yet at the age of eighteen, I went abroad to study - to New Zealand. And that, too,
on my own.
I don’t know from where I got this determination. I knew that I wanted to make
something of myself. I just decided, at the age of 17, that I wanted to become a pilot. When I
went to New Zealand, it was only the second time I’d even seen a cockpit. My eldest brother
had supported me in this, because you need money for the training, but practically everyone
else was against it. They all used to tell my mother, “She’s just passing time, she’s making a
fool out of you, she’ll just waste money and come back”. But my mother had told me: “I’m
trusting you, don’t break my trust”.
When I came back, my mother was very proud. My father was rather upset, because he
never wanted any of his daughters to become anything – for him, his sons were the ones that
mattered. But my mom, she was very proud ... sadly, she’s no more, but it was her last dream
that I should be a pilot.
Just after I qualified, I was in a road accident in which my right arm was badly fractured.
It took me a year-and-a-half to recover from that. Then, I had another accident which meant I
was on crutches for another year. I must say I’ve had quite a few adventures! But I didn’t
give up on my career, even though my family was really after me to get married. It’s quite a
42
major issue for a traditional Hindu family if you’re not married by the age of twenty-eight. I
managed to avoid it, because I used to run away from the house whenever they invited some
boy over to see me.
While I was recovering from my accidents, I worked for a year-and-a-half for Alliance
Air in a ground job, travelling to work by bus. Other people think being a pilot is quite a
glamorous job – after all, not everybody at the age of 26 or 27 owns their own house – but for
me, basically, a job is a job.
1.1 Introduction
It is important to remember that if we pursue our dreams with determination, and
courage we can overcome all hurdles and eventually achieve our dreams. The previous two
lessons provide examples of people who believed in their dreams and worked hard to
achieve their dreams but women, more than men in our society, have to work harder to
achieve their dreams. They not only have to overcome their circumstances, but also have to
overcome social barriers to achieve their goals. Our society, traditionally, is a male
dominated society where women are forced to sacrifice their individual aspirations and stay
confined within the four walls of their homes. Though the status of women in our society has
improved greatly over the last few decades much needs to be done. Women, given a chance,
have proved time and again that they are more than capable of matching men in all activities.
This short biographical piece by Indira Vashishta proves, once again, that women can do well
even in areas which were considered to be exclusive male domains. She manages to become a
pilot, despite resistance from her family by sheer determination and hard work.
1.2 Flying High
This short biographical essay takes us quickly through the early childhood of Indira
Vashishta to the time she started working for Alliance Air in a ground job while recovering
from the road accident she had after qualifying to become a pilot. The difficulties she faced in
becoming a pilot are not unique to her situation. Most girls in our society face the same kind
of problems when they want to have a life which is different from what is expected of them.
In this essay we get to know the following about Indira Vashishta:
a)
She was the youngest child in family of ten brothers and sisters. The first five
children were girls hence her father was determined to have a boy.
b)
She was even younger than her nephew and niece. Thus there was a two generation
gap between Indira Vashishta and her father. (Her father’s generation and her
sister’s generation who had children older than her). The generation gap is not just
an issue of age it is more so about mindset. The father’s mindset in keeping with the
two generation gap, is far too conservative for the author.
c)
In her family, like most orthodox families of the time, the girls were not allowed
any freedom. The girls were treated in a step-motherly fashion. While the birthday
of the boys was celebrated with great enthusiasm, the birthdays of the girls passed
without anyone taking notice of them. Her sisters were not allowed to have any
43
career. The only thing that the father wanted to do was to get them married when
they reached the age of seventeen or eighteen.
d)
After having seen the way girls were treated in her family the author wanted to have
a career of her own which would be a bit different from the ordinary. She was
inspired to become a pilot after she saw a lady pilot when she was in the 10th
standard.
e)
Her father was against her taking up a job and she really had to struggle against this
mindset. Her mother, though, stood by her and at the age of eighteen she went to
New Zealand for higher studies.
f)
When she decided to go to New Zealand to become a pilot, her eldest brother
supported her with financial assistance, though practically everyone was against the
idea. Only her mother kept faith in her and she did keep her mother’s faith.
g)
When she came back from New Zealand as a trained pilot her mother was proud of
her though her father was rather upset. But her struggles were not over as yet.
Unfortunately she had two major accidents which put her plans of being a pilot on
the back burner. In the first accident she broke her right arm and it took her almost
one and a half year to recover from the accident. But once again she had another
accident which put her on crutches for another year.
h)
This was a tough period for her. She couldn’t fulfill her dream of becoming a pilot
immediately. There was enormous pressure on her from the family to get married.
But she managed to avoid getting married by running away everytime the family
invited a boy to see her. But she never gave up her dream to become a pilot, which
she eventually did after she recovered from her injuries.
i)
While recovering from her injuries she started working on a ground job for Alliance
Air. She points out at the end that though the job of a pilot seems quite glamorous, it
is a job like any other job but the rewards are quite generous.
j)
Though it was her mother’s dream to see her daughter become a pilot, she did not
live to see her dream fulfilled. But it is her support which made Indira Vashishta
overcome all the hurdles in her path. It provided her with the courage to revolt
against the orthodox beliefs of her father. Her success not only justified her
mother’s faith in her but may also provide the motivation for others to follow in her
footsteps.
Glossary
orthodox
:
following traditional beliefs.
hell-bent
:
determined to achieve something.
cock-pit
:
part of the plane where the pilot sits.
ground job
:
working for an airline at the airport rather than on aircraft.
amazing
:
surprising, causing wonder
44
tiny
:
very small
exploited
:
treated unfairly
crutches
:
a stick used by person injured in the foot or leg to support body
weight when walking
glamorous
:
quality of being more attractive, exciting or interesting than ordinary
people or things.
Reading Comprehension
(Paragraph 1)
1. What does Indira mean by ‘a two generation gap’ between her father and herself?
Indira was younger than her nephew and niece. Thus there was a two generation gap
between Indira Vashishta and her father. (Her father’s generation and her sister’s
generation who had children older than her).
2. How did Indira react to the way her sisters were treated at home?
In her family, like most orthodox families of the time, the girls were not allowed any
freedom. Her sisters were not allowed to have any career. The only thing that the
father wanted to do was to get them married when they reached the age of seventeen
or eighteen. After having seen the way girls were treated in her family the author
wanted to have a career of her own which would be a bit different from the
ordinary.
(Paragraph 2 and 3)
3. How did the idea of becoming a pilot form in her mind?
She was inspired to become a pilot after she saw a lady pilot when she was in the
10th standard.
5. Which members of her family supported her and how?
When she decided to go to New Zealand to become a pilot, her mother, stood by her
and her eldest brother supported her with financial assistance, though practically
everyone was against the idea.
(Paragraph 4, 5 and 6)
6. How did her mother and father react when she came back from New Zealand?
When she came back from New Zealand as a trained pilot her mother was proud of
her though her father was rather upset.
7. How did she manage to avoid getting married?
She managed to avoid getting married by running away everytime the family invited
a boy to see her.
45
8. Which accidents did she have after she qualified as a pilot?
She had two major accidents which put her plans of being a pilot on the back burner.
In the first accident she broke her right arm and it took her almost one and a half
year to recover from the accident. She had another accident which put her on
crutches for another year.
9. Do you think Indira Vashishta is justified in revolting against her father’s authority?
Yes, had she not revolted, her dream of flying would have died a quiet death and her
life would have been ordinary, just like that of her elder sisters.
Vocabulary
1.
Here are a few words used to describe the work that one does:
job
what you do regularly to earn money, especially what you do for a
particular company or person
career
a job that you have been trained for and intend to do for several years
profession
a job that needs special education and training such as the profession of
a doctor or lawyer
Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with a suitable word from those given above:
i.
After a long search, he managed to get a job as a sales executive in the company.
ii.
She’s an architect by profession but she also does web-designing as a hobby.
iii. These days there are a lot of career options for the youngsters.
iv. Hari had become so desperate that he took the first job that came along.
v.
He’s specializing in marketing as he intends making a career in sales and marketing,
2.
Look at some of the words that are commonly used with the noun ‘job’:
get a job, lose a job, part-time/ full-time job, temporary/ permanent job, offer
somebody a job, apply for a job, job satisfaction.
Make sentences using these phrases.
i.
3.
He wants to get a job in a good company.
_________________________
_________________________
_________________________
Complete the blanks in the following table with a matching noun or adjective as
required:
Nouns
Adjectives
adventure
adventurous
46
glamour
glamorous
determination
determined
tradition
traditional
orthodoxy
orthodox
Language Notes
Notice that in the following sentences, a comma (,) separates the main clauses from the
subordinate clauses:
When I came back, my mother was very proud.
Just after I qualified, I was in a road accident...
Also note the use of the dash (–) in the following sentences:
I saw all this from childhood, so that’s why I wanted to be in a profession – to be a bit
different.
The dash separates the phrase ‘to be a bit different’ from the rest of the sentence; it is
used either to emphasize something or to show that it is not structurally a part of the sentence.
Writing
You may have noticed that the units ‘I Am, ‘The Champion’, and ‘Flying High’ are all
in some way or the other connected with the theme of setting a goal in life, whether a short
term goal or a long-term one. In each case, the concerned individuals were able to achieve
their goal in spite of the difficulties that came their way. All of them displayed certain
qualities which may be described as:
•
sustained effort
•
self-confidence
•
having a role model
•
openness to suggestions/advice
•
ability to face criticism/opposition
•
setting a goal and pursuing it single-mindedly
•
strong will-power
Evaluate these qualities and decide on any three which are, in your opinion, most crucial
for success. Then write a short composition arguing for the qualities you have chosen.
Some of the expressions you may use are:
In my opinion, ...
47
As far as I can see...
All of these are important but...
As I have said, A is more important than B...
The reasons are...
Speaking
Prepare a short oral presentation on the following topic:
Young people should have the freedom to choose and parents should not impose their
wishes on them.
48
A POEM
Rabindranath Tagore
Usha Anand
Through many years,
At great expense,
Journeying through many countries
I went to see high mountains,
I went to see oceans.
Only I had not seen
At my very doorstep,
The dew drop glistening
On the ear of the corn.
Pre-reading activity
1.
If I were offered a holiday and given a choice between hills and sea beaches, I
would prefer to go to the hills. The hills have a charm and a mystery of their own.
The beauty, the fresh hill air and the greenery all make one feel close to God. A
sense of spirituality overcomes you as you see the beauty of nature. You wonder at
the creations of the Almighty when you are removed from the noise and confusion
of the crowded cities. In cities, after running around like crazy people all day, you
rest at night only to begin the same routine the next day. There is no time to look
around and explore the glory and the beauty of nature. In the hills, it is different.
You observe and marvel at the various phenomena of nature the sunrise, the clouds,
the breeze, the sunset, the birds, the flowers, and the hill people themselves in their
simplicity and goodness.
2.
I am in the habit of waking up early and going for a walk. I prefer to walk on the
walkway because the early morning, the grass is covered with dew-drops that shine
in the morning sunlight. I don’t walk on the grass for two reasons. First, I don’t wish
to break those beads of dew, and secondly. I don’t want my shoes to get wet and
covered with bits of grass.
The Poem
This short poem of nine lines conveys a subtle observation. The poet says that the world
around is full of beauty. But familiarity breeds contempt. We get so used to our immediate
surroundings that we don’t appreciate the beauty around us. The poet comments that over the
years, he spent a lot of money travelling to various parts of the world, going to see high
mountains (maybe the Alps in Europe), the oceans (the Indian ocean south of Kanyakumari)
and perhaps some other forms of the beauty of nature. But, he realises, he did not notice that
at his very doorstep, the dew drops were shining in the morning sun (glistening) over the ear
49
of corn. The ear of corn (bhutta) stands for the beauty of plant life (flora) which repeatedly
appears in seasonal cycles for the benefit of man.
Glossary
glistening
: shining and looking wet or oily
ear
: the top part of the plant
Reading Comprehension
1.
2.
Say which of the statements given below are true, based on your reading of the poem:
i.
The poet is very young. (False)
ii.
The poet has travelled to many countries. (True)
iii.
The poet has seen only mountains. (False)
iv.
The poet has never seen the dew drop shining outside his house on the ear of
corn. (True)
What do you think the poet wants to convey through the poem?
i.
Beauty of Nature is spread everywhere, we only need eyes to see it.
ii.
We take for granted what is close at hand and do not appreciate it.
iii. We need not wander far to enjoy the beauties of Nature and life.
iv. Or, all of the above.
Ans. All of the above
Vocabulary
1.
The word ‘glistening’ occurs in the poem. Learn the meanings of the following verbs
which have the basic meaning of ‘shining and fill in the blanks in the following
sentences with an appropriate word, making changes in the form, where necessary:
twinkle, flicker, glow, sparkle, glitter
i.
All that glitters is not gold.
ii.
Her diamond earrings were sparkling in the dim light.
iii.
The candle-flame flickered in the breeze and then it died.
iv.
A few stars were twinkling in the night sky.
v.
His desk light glowed in the darkness of the big room.
50
2.
In the poem the word ‘see’ is used in its basic meaning. Look at the following phrasal
verbs with ‘see’:
see about
to make arrangements about (something)
see around
to visit a place and walk around looking at it
see off
to go to the station, airport, etc to say goodbye to someone
see through
not to be deceived by
Now fill in the blanks in the following sentences with an appropriate expression:
i.
I was taken in at first but then I could see through his lies.
ii.
It’s getting late, I’d better see about dinner.
iii.
Would you like to see around the Red Fort?
iv.
He won’t be here tonight, he’s going to see off his friend.
Language Notes
Notice the preposition ‘at’ in the phrase ‘at my very doorstep’. Some other fixed phrases
with ‘at’ are:
Phrases with ‘at’
Meaning
at a party/concert/
meeting, etc.
used for saying that someone is They were at a party last
doing something somewhere
night when we called.
at lunch/dinner/war/
breakfast
used for saying that someone is I'm sorry, Mr. Khanna is at
having a meal
lunch right now.
Example
at leisure/rest/war/ peace, used for stating what state The country was at war and
etc
someone or something is in
everyone
was
going
through difficult times.
at present/at the moment
I can’t give you any more
information at the moment.
now
at the beginning/start/end used for saying how something The course seemed quite
of something
was when it began/ended
easy at the beginning.
Writing
Write a short paragraph about a walk you had in the morning in the garden near your
home. Say who you went with, what things you noticed, what things you liked very much and
how you felt after the walk.
51
Speaking
Read the poem given below for enjoyment and recite it with correct stresses and tone:
Oh, fair to see
Bloom-laden cherry tree,
Arrayed in sunny white;
An April day’s delight,
Oh, fair to see!
Oh, fair to see!
Fruit-laden cherry tree,
With balls of shining red
Decking a leafy head,
Oh, fair to see!
–Christina Rossetti, Sing-Song
52
HELEN KELLER : THREE DAYS TO SEE
Neeta Gupta
Helen Keller, a woman from the small farm town of Tuscumbia, Alabama taught the world to
respect people who are blind and deaf. Her mission came from her own life; when she was
less than two years old, she lost both her vision and hearing and got very frustrated. By the
time she was 7, her parents knew she needed help, so they hired a tutor named Anne Sullivan
who helped her to connect words she used to write on her hands with living objects. Later on,
Helen joined Radcliffe University, wrote books, did research, gave speeches, and helped raise
money for many organizations, such as the American Foundation for the Blind and the
American Foundation for the Overseas Blind, which is now called Helen Keller Worldwide.
From 1946 to 1957, she went around the world, speaking about the experiences and rights of
people who are blind. In the text given below, Helen Keller speaks about herself.
I have often thought it would be a blessing if each human being were stricken blind and
deaf for a few days at some time during his early adult life.
Darkness would make him more appreciative of sight; silence: would teach him the joys
of sound.
Now and then I have tested my friends who can see to discover what they see. Recently I
asked a friend, who had just returned from a long walk in the woods, what she had observed.
"Nothing in particular," she replied.
How was it possible, I asked myself, to walk for an hour through the woods and see
nothing worthy of note? I who cannot see find hundreds of things to interest me through
touch. I feel the delicate symmetry of a leaf. I pass my hands lovingly about the smooth skin
of a silver birch, or the rough, shaggy bark of a pine. In spring I touch the branches of trees
hopefully in search of a bud, the first sign of awakening Nature after her winter’s sleep.
Occasionally, if I am very fortunate, I place my hand gently on a small tree and feel the
happy quiver of a bird in full song.
At times my heart cries out with longings to see all these things. If I can get so much
pleasure from mere touch, how much more beauty must be revealed by sight. And I have
imagined what I should most like to see if I were given the use of my eyes, say, for just three
days.
I should divide the period in three parts. On the first day, I should want to see the people
whose kindness and companionship have made my life worth living. I do not know what it is
to see into the heart of a friend through that "window of the soul," the eyes. I can only "see”
through my finger tips the outline of a face. I can detect laughter, sorrow, and many other
emotions. I know my friends from the feel of their faces.
THE FIRST DAY would be a busy one. I should call to me all my dear friends and look
long into their faces, imprinting upon my mind the outward evidences of the beauty that is
within them. I should let my eyes rest, too, on the face of a baby, so that I could catch the
vision of the eager, innocent beauty which precedes the individual’s consciousness of the
53
conflicts which life develops. I should like to see the books which have been read to me, and
which have revealed to me the deepest channels of human life. And I should like to look into
the loyal, trusting eyes of my dogs, the little Scottie and the stalwart Great Dane.
THE NEXT DAY I should arise with the dawn and see the thrilling miracle by which
night is transformed into day. I should behold with awe the magnificent panorama of light by
which the Sun awakens the sleeping earth.
This day I should devote to a hasty glimpse of the world, past and present. I should want
to see the pageant of man’s progress, and so I should go to the museums. There my eyes
would see the condensed history of the earth-animals and the races of men pictured in their
native environment; gigantic carcasses of dinosaurs and mastodons which roamed the earth
before man appeared, with his tiny stature and powerful brain, to conquer the animal
kingdom.
THE FOLLOWING morning, I should again greet the dawn, anxious to discover new
delights, new revelations of beauty. Today, this third day, I shall spend in the workaday
world, amid the haunts of men going about the business of life. The city becomes my
destination.
First, I stand at a busy corner, merely looking at people, trying by sight of them to
understand something of their daily lives. I see smiles, and I am happy. I see suffering, and I
am compassionate.
MY THIRD DAY of sight is drawing to an end. Perhaps there are many serious pursuits
to which I should devote the few remaining hours, but I am afraid that on the evening of the
last day I should again run away to the theatre, to a hilariously funny play so that I might
appreciate the overtones of comedy in the human spirit.
Introduction
When we look at the title of this particular Unit we are a little surprised. Why just ‘Three
days’ to see? We can see everyday of our lives. The only time we are unable to see is when
we close our eyes. We wonder therefore why the author has titled the piece ‘Three Days to
See.
The Pre-Reading Activity asks us questions about our five senses of sight, taste, touch,
smell and hearing. It is difficult to decide which of these five senses is more important. The
second question however focuses on the sense of sight. We all know how difficult it is to
walk with our eyes closed. We feel unsure, we bump into things, we may fall, we may lose
our sense of direction and not know where we are going. It is a frightening feeling that makes
us feel as though we have lost control of ourselves. We wonder where all this is leading to?
Why a title ‘Three Days to See’ and why these questions on the use of our five senses,
particularly the sense of sight?
When we read the author’s name however, everything falls into place. The author is
Helen Keller, a very famous name worldwide, for the way she overcame the almost
impossible difficulty of being stricken blind and deaf at the tender age of two and made a
54
place for herself in the list of outstanding achievers of the world. A brief introduction of the
author gives us a few more details. We are told that she lost her sense of sight and hearing
when she was less than two years old. It was with the help of her teacher Anne Sullivan that
she overcame this handicap to help others like her all over the world. The American
Foundation for Overseas Blind was named after her and is now called Helen Keller
Worldwide. She worked relentlessly for the blind. Her personal achievements are enough of
an example that taught the world to respect the blind and deaf people.
In the piece under consideration in Unit 17, Helen Keller talks about herself and about
what all she would like to do if she was fortunate enough to get her sense of sight and be able
to see the world even if it may be just for three days.
Detailed Explanation
Helen Keller begins by saying that it would be a blessing if each human being went blind
and deaf for a few days sometime during his/her early adult life. She is not being cruel or
unkind but is only trying to make us realize that we take many things in life for granted. We
complain about things that we may not have but never stop to appreciate what we do have. If
we cannot see we would learn to appreciate sight. If we cannot hear, we would learn to enjoy
the joys of sound.
Keller tells her readers how she often tests her friends, who are able to see, by asking
them questions about what they have seen. To help us understand her point further, she gives
the example of a friend who is questioned by Keller. The friend has just returned from a walk
through the woods. When Keller asks her what she had observed, she is surprised to hear the
friend’s reply ‘Nothing in particular’. Keller is surprised and unable to understand how
someone can walk for one hour in the woods and not observe anything that is worth noting.
Keller, who is blind and cannot see gives her own example to help us understand how
even through the sense of touch she is able to find hundreds of things that interest her. She
recounts how she is able to feel the beauty of a leaf, the smoothness of a birch tree or the
roughness of a pine. When it is spring time, she says she tries to search for buds which are the
first signs of Nature waking up after the long winter sleep. If she is very fortunate, she is at
times able to feel the song of a bird through the quiver she feels when she places her hands on
the tree on which the bird is singing.
It is not surprising that Keller longs to be able to actually see these things. If they can
give her so much pleasure merely from touch, they must surely be much more beautiful by
sight. This leads her to a list of things she would like to do if she is given the use of her eyes
even if it be just for three days. We now understand where the title of the piece has come
from.
Keller’s list of things she would like to do when able to see makes us realize how we
take so many things for granted in life. We do not appreciate the beauty around us, we do not
even value the simple but essential comforts of life such as the comfort of looking into a
friendly face.
55
The First Day
On the first day, Keller says she would want to see those people who have stood by her
as friends and companions and have made her life worth living. All along she has merely
been able to touch their faces and knows them by the sensation of touch. Once she has her
sight however she is sure she would be able to see into the heart of a friend through the eyes
which are the ‘windows to the soul.’
Her plan is that on the first day she would be busy calling upon all her friends and
looking into their faces so that the external beauty that she sees as proof of the internal beauty
would remain etched in her memory always. She says she would also like to look into the
face of a baby so she can see beauty in all its innocence. The same innocence is lost when life
surrounds us with conflicts. The next thing she lists are the books that have been read to her
and that have taught her much about human nature and life. She does not forget her loyal
dogs, the little Scottie and the Great Dane, both of whom have proved to be of immense help
to her. She wants to look into their eyes too.
Second Day
On the second day Keller wants to wake up with sunrise and see how night is
transformed into day. Most of us do not pay any attention to these things and just consider
them as daily occurrences. When we look at the same things from Keller’s point of view
however, we realize how much beauty accompanies events that may be happening on a daily
basis. On this second day Keller says she would also like to visit the museums to see ‘the
condensed history of the earth.’
The Third Day
The next morning, on the third day, Keller heads towards the city for she wishes to spend
this day in the work-a-day world. Here she wants to observe men going about their daily
business of life. She plans to merely stand at a corner and look at people. Seeing smiles
would make her happy while seeing suffering would make her compassionate. At the close of
the third day Keller says that she would want to do many things but is afraid that on the
evening of the last day she would just run away to the theatre to enjoy a funny play which is
evidence of comedy in the human spirit.
Keller’s wish-list talks of very simple things which most of us take no note of because
for us they are easily available. Her list however has surely made us realize that there is much
beauty around us that goes unappreciated. Even at the close of the third day Keller does not
end with any sense of regret. There is no ranting and fuming at God who has denied her these
simple pleasures. Instead, there is a desire to laugh, to appreciate the comedy in the human
spirit and she ends by saying that she might just run off to watch and enjoy a hilarious play.
Glossary
stricken blind
: suddenly become unable to see
birch
: a kind of tree
shaggy
: untidy
56
quiver
: a slight trembling
panorama
: an impressive view
pageant
: a public show
gigantic
: unusually large
carcasses
: bodies of dead animals
mastodons
: extinct elephant-lie mammals
revelation
: a discovery
haunts
: places frequently visited by people
pursuits
: things you enjoy doing
Reading Comprehension
1.
Helen Keller feels that all of us should have some experience of living without eyes
and ears for a few days. Why? Do you agree with her? Discuss with your partner.
2.
When Helen asked her friend what she saw in the woods, she was greatly
disappointed with her answer. What did her friend say and why did it disappoint
Helen?
3.
Mention below the things that Helen Keller says she can ‘feel’ when she goes out in
the woods:
i.
She can feel the delicate symmetry of a leaf.
ii.
iii.
4.
What according to Helen Keller is the ‘window of the soul’?
5.
How does Helen Keller find out whether her friends are sad or happy?
6.
What is it that Helen Keller describes as a miracle at the time of dawn?
7.
What are the things that Helen Keller would like to do if she was given the power of
vision for three days? Write three things that she would like to do each day.
First Day
i.
ii.
iii.
Second Day
i.
ii.
iii.
57
Third Day
i.
ii.
iii.
8.
On the third day of her vision at a busy corner when she looks at people’s
expressions, she experiences certain emotions. Complete the following table:
What she sees
What emotions she experiences
she sees smiles
she sees determination
she sees suffering
Answer Key
1.
Keller feels that all of us should have some experience of living without eyes and
ears for a few days because only then we would realize how fortunate we are and
how we take so many things for granted and never stop to think what would happen
if even simple and daily occurrence of life are denied to us.
2.
On being asked by Keller what she saw in the woods, the friend replied ‘Nothing in
particular.’ The friend’s reply disappoints Keller because she is unable to
understand how a person blessed with sight cannot find anything worthwhile in the
woods whereas Keller who is blind can recall many things she has enjoyed simply
by touching and feeling them.
3.
The three things that Helen Keller says she can ‘feel’ when she goes out in the
woods are:
(i)
the delicate symmetry of a leaf.
(ii)
the smooth skin of a silver birch tree.
(iii) the rough shaggy bark of a pine tree.
4.
According to Helen Keller eyes are the ‘windows to the soul.’
5.
Helen Keller can find out whether her friends are sad or happy by touching their
faces. She knows the feel of their faces.
6.
The miracle that Keller describes at the time of dawn is the miracle by which night
is transformed into day.
7.
The three things that Keller would like to do each of the three days of sight are:
First Day
1.
See the people whose kindness and companionship have made her life worth
living.
58
2.
See the innocent beauty of a baby.
3.
See the books that have been read to her and that have taught her much about
life.
Second Day
1.
See the miracle of dawn.
2.
Get a hasty glimpse of the world past and present.
3.
Go to the museums and see the condensed history of the earth.
Third Day
8.
1.
See men going about their work-a-day life.
2.
See the city.
3.
Run away to the theatre to see a funny play.
What she sees
What emotion she expresses
She sees smiles
she is happy
She sees determination
she feels strong
she sees suffering
she feels compassion
Vocabulary
1.
The words ‘silence’ and ‘sound’ which occur in the text are opposite in meaning to
each other. There are many such opposites in the text. Find at least five such pairs.
2.
‘Laughter’ and ‘sorrow’ are two emotions that occur in the text. Laughter is
associated with happiness and sorrow with unhappiness. Given here are some
words/expressions. Sort them out and write them in the appropriate columns.
enjoyed, disgusting, hatred, attractive, dreadful, adore, fond of, care for, fascinated,
displeased, cannot stand, proud, smiles, hilarious, appreciate, darkness, beauty,
unfortunate, pleasure
IWords
.
smooth
Opposites
night
day
past
present
gigantic
tiny
darkness
light
rough
59
II.
Words and expressions
associated with happiness
3.
Words and expressions
associated with unhappiness
enjoyed, attractive
disgusting
adore, fond of, care for
hatred, dreadful
fascinated, smiles
displeased
proud, hilarious
cannot stand
appreciate, beauty
darkness
pleasure
unfortunate
Our basic five senses are sight, hearing, taste, touch and smell. Given below are
some words associated with these senses. Sort them out and write them in the
appropriate columns.
silent, glanced, noisy, gazed, bitter, press, grab, pat, perfumed, stinking, fragrant,
stare, grasp, aroma, spicy
III.
Sight
Hearing
Taste
Touch
Smell
glanced
silent
bitter
press
perfumed
gazed
noisy
spicy
grab
stinking
pat
fragrant
grasp
aroma
Language Notes
We generally use ‘should’ to talk about what is right, sensible and correct, e.g.
Parents should encourage their children to work hard.
It is a good book, you should read it.
In the following sentences, however, ‘should’ is used in the sense of ‘what you
prefer or would like to do’:
On the first day I should want to see the people whose kindness...
I should let my eyes rest.
Some more such sentences where should is used in the sense of ‘what you prefer or
would like to do’ are:
1. I should divide the period in three parts.
60
2.
I should like to see the books that have been read to me.
3.
I should look into the loyal and trusting eyes of my dogs.
4.
I should arise with the dawn and see the thrilling miracle by which night is
transformed into day.
5.
This day I should devote to a hasty glimpse of the world...
6.
I should want to see the pageant of man’s progress...
Writing
Generally, we take our life for granted and keep complaining about the things we do not
have and forget to appreciate the things we possess. Do you agree? Write a paragraph
expressing appreciation for the things you have in life and are grateful for.
Try to use adjectives like–beautiful, comfortable, attractive, wonderful, lovable, pretty,
easy, luxurious
Speaking
Helen Keller is talking about her preferences. Here are some other expressions used
for saying what you prefer:
• I’d prefer....
• I’d rather....
• I like/enjoy...
• My choice/preference would be...
• Perhaps it’d be better if...
• .... appeals to me more than...
If we want to ask others about their preferences we’d say
-- Do you prefer _________ or _________?
• Would you like/prefer _________?
• Which seems better to you _________?
• What is your choice _________?
-- What do you say to _________?
Imagine you are planning to go to a hill station with your friend and you are talking to
her about your choice of hill station. Have a dialogue with your friend giving your preference
and asking about hers.
61
Dialogue
You
:
Would you like to go Nainital for holidays?
Friend
:
I’d rather go to Simla.
You
:
Well, I think both are equally beautiful.
Friend
:
Then which one would you prefer?
Friend
:
Perhaps it would be better if we go to Simla because Simla is closer to Delhi
and we would be able to reach faster
62
Unit-II
BASIC GRAMMAR RULES II
From: Developing Language Skills-I
Grammar
Neeta Gupta
QUESTIONS, NEGATIVES AND QUESTION TAGS
1
Fill in the blanks with a question word, i.e. what, where, when, who, whom, why,
which, how. In some sentences more than one choice is possible. The first blank has
been filled in for you. (You can check your answers from the answer key provided
below)
(a)
Who is your principal?
(b)
...................... does he live?
(c)
...................... did you meet him?
(d)
...................... did he say?
(e)
...................... are his academic qualifications?
(f)
...................... is his office?
(g)
...................... did you greet him?
(h)
...................... room is he in?
(i)
...................... did you give the application to?
(j)
....................... he on leave today?
[Answer Key: where, when/where, what, what, where, how, which , who , is]
2
Form questions from the statements given below, using the question words given in
brackets. Do not forget to put the question mark. The first question has been done for
you. [You can check your answers from the key provided below].
(a)
This novel was written in 1946. (when)
Question: When was this novel written?
(b)
The briefcase was stolen at the station. (where)
Question: .....................................................................................................
(c)
The auditorium was constructed last year. (when)
Question: .....................................................................................................
63
(d)
The money was collected by students. (by whom)
Question: .....................................................................................................
(e)
I have bought six plants for my garden. (how many)
Question: .....................................................................................................
(f)
His house was destroyed by fire. (how)
Question: .....................................................................................................
(g)
The servant let out the secret. (who)
Question: .....................................................................................................
(h)
The interview letters were sent out yesterday. (when)
Question: .....................................................................................................
(i)
You have selected this book. (which)
Question: .....................................................................................................
(j)
A hundred guests have been invited. (how many)
Question: .....................................................................................................
(k)
The taxi driver turned up very late. (who)
Question: .....................................................................................................
(l)
It is his fault. (whose)
Question: .....................................................................................................
Answer Key:
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
k)
l)
Where was the briefcase stolen?
When was the auditorium constructed?
By whom was the money collected?
How many plants have you bought for your garden?
How was his house destroyed?
Who let the secret out?
When were the interview letters sent out?
Which book have you selected?
How many guests have been invited?
Who turned up late?
Whose fault is it?
64
3.
Find in List B the answers to the questions in List A.
List A
List B
(a)
Who was Ali Baba?
(i)
Early in the morning he heard the sound
of horses' hooves.
(b)
When did he hear the sound of
horses' hooves?
(ii)
He climbed up a high tree and hid
himself.
(c)
Where did he hide himself?
(iii)
Ali Baba was a poor woodcutter.
(d)
How did he remain unseen?
(iv)
The Captain of the thieves cried 'Open
sesame.'
(e)
What did he see?
(v)
He confided in his wife.
(f)
Why did he shake with fear?
(vi)
The branches let him remain unseen.
(g)
Which of the thieves cried 'Open
sesame'?
(vii)
Seeing forty thieves at a time made him
shake with fear.
(h)
Whom did he confide in?
(viii) He saw forty thieves on horseback.
Answer Key: a). iii, b). i, c) ii, d). vi, e). viii, f). vii, g). iv, h). v.
4.
Form questions based on the following statements: (Solutions have been provided)
(a)
(b)
(c)
She is a foreigner.
Is she a foreigner?
Raman is afraid of dogs.
Is Raman afraid of dogs?
He was a good student.
Was he a good student?
They are happy.
Are they happy?
He is going to Australia.
Is he going to Australia?
His passport is to be renewed.
Is his passport to be renewed?
Radha likes sweets.
Does Radha like sweets?
Naresh hates milk.
Does Naresh hate milk?
She loves singing.
Does she love singing?
He drives carefully.
Does he drive carefully?
It needs oiling.
Does it need oiling?
They love playing games.
Do they love playing games?
They cheat customers.
Do they cheat customers?
65
Supriya and Shyam work for the Do Supriya and Shyam work for the
same company.
same company?
Her children fall ill frequently.
Do her children fall ill frequently?
They practice for six hours every Do they practice for six hours
day.
everyday?
5.
Complete the right-hand column.
Student A wants to find out from
Student B if he:
Student A asks:
(a)
has got any relations in Delhi.
Have you got any relations in Delhi?
(b)
is studying hard.
....................................................
(c)
is good at football.
....................................................
(d)
was born in Delhi.
....................................................
(e)
has joined the hostel.
....................................................
(f)
belongs to a village or a town.
....................................................
(g)
would like to stand for election.
....................................................
(h)
knows typing.
....................................................
(i)
has a cycle.
....................................................
(l)
misses his family.
....................................................
Answer key:
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
6.
Are you studying hard?
Are you good at football?
Where were you born?
Have you joined the hostel?
Do you belong to a village or town?
Would you like to stand for election?
Do you know typing?
Do you have a cycle?
Do you miss your family?
Answer the following questions both in the negative and affirmative:
(a)
Do you like visiting relatives?
Yes, I do.
No, I don't
(b)
Do you like drinking tea?
Yes, ..............................................
No, ..............................................
(c)
Does he like reading magazines?
Yes, ..............................................
66
No, ..............................................
(d)
Does she like dancing?
Yes, ..............................................
No, ..............................................
(e)
Do they like watching football?
Yes, ..............................................
No, ..............................................
(f)
Do they go to bed early?
Yes, ..............................................
No, ..............................................
(g)
Does he work seriously?
Yes, ..............................................
No, ..............................................
(h)
Is this a good book?
Yes, ..............................................
No, ..............................................
(i)
Are his neighbours nice to him?
Yes, ..............................................
No, ..............................................
(j)
Has he made a mistake?
Yes, ..............................................
No, ..............................................
(k)
Have they built a boundary wall?
Yes, ..............................................
No, ..............................................
(l)
Will he be forced to resign?
Yes, ..............................................
No, ..............................................
(m) Was he a good student?
Yes, ..............................................
No, ..............................................
(n) Were they singing patriotic songs?
Yes, ..............................................
No, ..............................................
(o)
Did they provide blankets?
Yes, ..............................................
No, ..............................................
(p)
Did he file a complaint?
Yes, ..............................................
No, ..............................................
Question tags
It is quite common in conversation to make a statement and ask for confirmation. For
example, in the following two samples:
(a) You won't forget, will you?
(b) You will be careful, won't you?
'will you' and 'won't you' are question tags. It must be noted that when the statement is
positive, the question tag that goes with it is negative. However, if the statement is negative
the question tag that goes with it is positive.
67
Exercise 1 : Match each expression in List A with a question tag from List B.
List A
List B
(a)
You won't forget,
(i)
aren't they?
(b)
Our train leaves at 10 a.m.,
(ii)
shall we?
(c)
The students are having fun,
(iii)
aren't you?
(d)
Mohan is also leaving soon,
(iv)
will you?
(e)
I'll see you again,
(v)
won't I?
(f)
We shan't need tickets,
(vi)
won't you?
(g)
You will be careful,
(vii)
doesn't it?
(h)
Sheila isn't going along,
(viii)
isn't he?
(i)
You are about to leave,
(ix)
will they?
(j)
Your parents won't mind,
(x)
is she?
[Answer Key: a).iv, b). vii, c). i, d). viii, e). v, f). ii, g). vi, h). x, i). iii, j). ix. ]
ARTICLES
Read the following paragraphs carefully paying special attention to the italicized words:
Australia is a land of contrasts. It is geologically one of the oldest of land masses, yet it
ranks as one of the youngest of nations. It is half a world away from Europe, but its people
are largely of European descent and they follow a Western lifestyle. One of the most sparsely
populated of nations, it is also one of the most highly urbanized with 85 per cent of its people
living in cities.
Australia is a land of great distances, covering an area of 7,682,303 sq km, almost twice
the combined area of India and Pakistan. The flattest of all continents, Australia has an
average elevation of less than 300 m, compared with the world's mean of 700 m. The highest
point in Australia, Mount Kosciusko, has an elevation of only 2228 m.
Points for discussion
(a) Can you guess when we use 'a'/'an'?
(b) Can you say when we use 'a' and when 'an'?
(c) Can you specify the important uses of 'the'?
Explanation
1.
'A'/'an', and 'the' are articles. 'A'/'an' are indefinite articles and 'the' is a definite
article.
68
2.
Articles in English are not merely ornaments used to decorate the language. They
are meaningful. Compare the following sentences:
(a) I have a black and white dog.
(b) I have a black and a white dog.
The indefinite article: The indefinite article is used before a word denoting a non-proper
singular noun when it is mentioned for the first time but only if the noun is a countable noun.
Things we cannot count take no indefinite article and usually no plural.
The indefinite article can also be placed before 'Mr/Mrs/Miss/Ms' followed by the
surname, e.g. 'A Mr. Smith' meaning 'A man called Smith' and implies that he is a stranger to
the speaker.
'An' is used with words whose pronunciation begins with a vowel sound and 'a' is used
with words whose pronunciation begins with a consonant sound. What matters is the initial
sound and not the initial letter of the alphabet, e.g. a hair, an heir, an hour, an honourable
man, a university, a union, a European, an uncle, an MP.
The definite article: 'The' is used before nouns to represent a class of objects and also to
denote a definite person or a thing. The noun may become definite when (a) it is mentioned
for the second time, (b) a clause/ phrase is added to define it, and (c) it is the only one of its
kind and conveys the sense, 'you know which one I mean'.
Hence, 'the' is used before the names of seas, rivers, chains of mountains, groups of
islands (but not before a single mountain or single island), sacred/well-known books,
buildings, names of ships, newspapers, nations, communities, descriptive geographical
names, and in such phrases as 'the better of the two', etc.
Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks with 'the', 'a' or 'an':
.................... girl in .................... blue sari is ................ good friend of mine. I still
remember.............................. time I first met her. She was reading ................................ book
in ........................ university library........................ book had .................... unusual title.
........................ couple of my friends were with me in .. ................ library. I soon found out
that she was .................... history student like me. We both shared ..................... interest in
hunting out ........................ most uncommon books from ...................... shelves.
[Answer Key: The, the a, the a, the The, an, A, the, a, an, the the}
Exercise 2: Fill in the blanks the indefinite article 'a' or 'an', where necessary:
My mother is .......... ............... good cook. ......................... accomplished cook can make
.................... cake in .................... hour. I spend ....................... enormous amount of time just
collecting ......................... ingredients.
[Answer Key: a, An, a, an, An, the]
Exercise 3: Fill in the blanks with the definite article 'the', where necessary:
69
............................... winter season is ............. best season in .................................Delhi.
...................... sky is blue and it is sunny most of .................... time. I spend a lot of time in
.................... garden.
...................... Weather is always ................. best in ............... October................ garden
is ............................ place where I like to spend all ............................ day.
.......................... winter is ...................... best time to enjoy growing .......................
flowers............................ best flower is ........................ rose.
[Answer Key: The, the, ---, The, the, the, The, the, ---, The , the, ---. ---, the , ----, the,
the]
Exercise 4: Unnecessary use of articles as illustrated below must be avoided. Rewrite the
following sentences after making corrections:
(a) I advise you to keep him at an arm's length.
.......................................................................................................................................
(b) The principal asked us to take an action on it.
.......................................................................................................................................
(c) He likes an egg but I like a fish.
.......................................................................................................................................
(d) This is not a child's play.
.......................................................................................................................................
(e) Lalita has finally obtained an employment with a company in Bombay.
......................................................................................................................................
(f) The publicity campaign is an eyewash.
.......................................................................................................................................
(g) What a fun we had!
.......................................................................................................................................
(h) An information has been received that the wedding has been cancelled.
.......................................................................................................................................
(i)
These days one finds it difficult to make both the ends meet.
......................................................................................................................................
(j)
No news is a good news.
.......................................................................................................................................
70
Answer Key:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
j)
I advise you to keep him at arm’s length.
The principal asked us to take action on it.
He likes egg but I like fish.
This is not child’s play.
Lalita has finally obtained employment with a company in Bombay.
The publicity campaign is eyewash.
What fun we had.
Information has been received that the wedding has been cancelled.
These days one finds it difficult to make both ends meet.
No news is good news.
PREPOSITIONS
Underline the prepositions in the following passages:
On Christmas Day, in the year 1642, Isaac Newton was born at the small village of
Woolsthorpe, in England. Little did his mother think when she saw her new-born babe that he
would one day discover and understand many matters which had been a mystery ever since
the creation of the world.
Isaac's father being dead, Mrs Newton was married again to a clergyman, and went to live
in North Witham. Her son was left in the care of his good old grandmother. She was very
kind to him and sent him to school. In his early years Isaac did not appear to be very
intelligent but was chiefly remarkable for his skill in all mechanical occupations. He had a set
of little tools and saws of various sizes which he had made himself. With the aid of these
Isaac contrived to make many curious articles, at which he worked with so much skill that he
seemed to have been born with a saw or chisel in hand.
(From 'Sir Isaac Newton' by Nathaniel Hawthorne)
Points for discussion
1.
Discuss the use of 'to' in the following two sentences:
(a) Isaac contrived to make many curious articles.
(b) Isaac was sent to school.
2.
What type of word(s) follow the prepositions?
3.
List as many prepositions as you can. Compare your list with that of others in your
group.
Explanation: Prepositions occur before nouns, noun phrases or pronouns. They show the
link between these and another word or element in the sentence. Some prepositions may also
occur at the end of a sentence.
71
Prepositions may also be used as adverbs without a following noun or noun phrase or
pronoun.
There are prepositions which consist of only one word but there are others which may
consist of two or more words or a phrase.
Many verbs get strongly associated with certain prepositions in one of the following two
ways:
1.
with verb and prepositions keeping their basic meanings, e.g. 'He kept looking out of
the window for hours together.'
2
As a compound having an idiomatic meaning, i.e. when we cannot guess the
meaning from the two parts e.g. 'Look out Peter, that step is not safe!'
Every good dictionary lists compounds made with prepositions or adverbial particles
under the verb. Oxford Dictionary of Current Idiomatic English (Vol. 1) is particularly
useful, as it is exclusively devoted to this area.
Exercise 1 : Look at the pictures and complete the sentences given below:
(a) The dog jumped ............................ A ................... B.
(b) The dog is jumping ........................ A ...................B.
(c) You can see the arrow pass .......................... the ball.
[Answer Key: a). from, to ; b). from, towards ; c). through.]
Exercise 2 : Here is a series of drawings showing a girl participating in an obstacle race.
Study the illustrations and fill in the blanks in the sentences given below using the following
prepositions:
over, across, under, on, onto, off, near, away from
(a)
The girl is running ....................... the starting block.
(b)
The girl is climbing .................................... the wall.
(c)
The girl is jumping .................................... the ground.
72
(d)
The girl is running ........................................ the wall.
(e)
The girl is swimming ................................. the pond.
(f)
The girl is crawling .................................. the net.
(g)
The girl is ........................................ the finishing line.
(h)
The girl is standing ............................ the victory stand.
[Answer Key: (a). from, (b). over, (c), on, (d), away from, (e). across, (f). off, (g). near,
(h). on.]
Exercise 3: Look at pictures (a) to (e) and fill in the blanks in the following sentences using
'between', 'out of', 'into', 'in front of' and 'behind'
(a)
The letter-box is............................ the post office and Mr. Wagle's house.
(b)
Mr. Wagle is going ............................. his house.
(c)
Mr. Wagle is coming .......................................... the post office.
(d)
Mr. Wagle is ............................. the letter-box.
(e)
Mr. Wagle is ..................................... his house.
[Answer Key: (a). between, (b). into, (c). out of, (d). behind, (e). in front of. ]
Exercise 4: Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using suitable prepositions:
(a)
What did you do ......................... your birthday?
73
(b)
It is cool .................................. night.
(c)
It will be ready ........................ Thursday.
(d)
How do you go .................................... college?
(e)
Keep .................................... the grass.
(f)
You are ....................................... time.
(g)
The cup fell ..................................... the shelf.
(h)
He is .................................... Serious trouble.
(i)
I'll meet you ................................ the New Delhi Railway Station.
[Answer Key: a). on, b). at, c). by, d). to, e). off, f). on, g). off, h). in, i). at.]
Exercise 5: First underline the verb in List A. Next choose the appropriate preposition from
List B which goes with this verb and then complete the sentence choosing an appropriate
phrase from List C:
Example: I borrowed some money from the bank.
List A
List B
List C
(a)
When did you get rid
against
authority.
(b)
He has just recovered
to
voting.
(c)
The students can hardly wait
from
your servant?
(d)
She has to apologize
of
a long illness.
(e)
No student should abstain
for
the holidays to begin.
(f)
Deepak belongs
(g)
Young people rebel
being so rude.
at
a rich family.
Answer Key:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
When did you get rid of your servant?
He has just recovered from a long illness.
The students can hardly wait for the holidays to begin.
She has to apologize for being so rude.
No student should abstain from voting.
Deepak belongs to a rich family.
Young people rebel against authority.
74
Exercise 6: First underline the adjective in List A. Next choose the appropriate preposition
from List B which goes with this adjective and then complete the sentence choosing an
appropriate phrase from List C:
Example: The first few rows of the cinema hall were full.
List A
List B
List C
a)
It is different
of
school.
(b)
My beliefs are contrary
for
the company's products are good.
(c)
Few
to
what I had expected.
(d)
Vedant was late
the beliefs of others.
(e)
It was a bad decision
scented soap.
(f)
I am allergic
from
boycott the elections.
(g)
All the students absent
on
the list was my friend's name.
(h)
They were aware
all the rules of the game.
(i)
And last
that day were fined.
Answer Key: (adjectives are underlined and prepositions are italicized in the
answers given below.)
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)
g)
h)
i)
It is different from what I had expected.
My beliefs are contrary to the beliefs of others.
Few of the company’s products are good.
Vedant was late for school.
It was a bad decision to boycott the elections.
I am allergic to scented soap.
All the students absent on that day were fined.
They were aware of all the rules of the game.
And last on the list was my friend’s name.
Exercise 7: Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using suitable prepositions. (You can
check your answers from the key provided below):
(a)
This woman has been charged ......................... the murder of her husband.
(b)
The Prime Minister was accompanied .................... his wife.
(c)
We expect to come back .............................. a week.
(d)
I bought this pen ......................... two rupees.
(e)
At the age of 60, my mother still takes a bath .................................. cold water.
75
(f)
I go to my college ......................... foot. (on)
(g)
She prefers coffee ......................... tea. (over)
(h)
Applicants for this post must have a good command.......................... English.
(i)
The Seminar on Rural Development will commence ......................... Monday.
(j)
The Minister showed concern ......................... the rising incidents of violence in the
city.
(k)
All those present were fascinated ...................... her new hair style.
(1)
I shall get ................................... at the next bus-stop.
(m) My friend is very good ......................... writing radio plays.
(n)
Please do inform me ............................ the details of the training course.
(o)
John's marriage ............................ his first wife did not last long.
[Answer Key: a). with, b). by c). within, d). for, e). with, f). on, g). over, h). over, i).
from, j). at, k). with, l). off, m). at, n). about, o). with]
Exercise 8: Unnecessary use of prepositions as illustrated below must be noted and avoided.
Rewrite the following sentences after making corrections: (A few solutions have been given.
Try doing the rest on your own).
(a)
Just before elections you will find people discussing about politics.
Just before elections you will find people discussing politics.
.......................................................................................................................................
(b)
The candidates should contact on our office between 9 and 11 a.m.
The candidate should contact our office between 9 and 11 a.m.
.......................................................................................................................................
(c)
She has already approached to the bank for a loan.
She has already approached the bank for a loan. .
......................................................................................................................................
(d) Priya was awarded with a prize for the best essay.
.......................................................................................................................................
(e)
The police decided to investigate into the crime.
.......................................................................................................................................
76
(f)
My house is opposite to the post office.
.......................................................................................................................................
(g)
Science has greatly benefited to mankind.
.......................................................................................................................................
(h)
She said she would not bow down to their demands.
.......................................................................................................................................
(i)
The principal is going to call for a meeting of the staff to discuss about this matter.
.......................................................................................................................................
(j)
Students should contact with the class teacher for further instructions.
.......................................................................................................................................
(k)
The course comprises of seven study areas.
.......................................................................................................................................
(l)
The car hit against the tree.
.......................................................................................................................................
(m) In this poem the poet describes about his experience of nature.
.......................................................................................................................................
(n)
We were really surprised when he entered into the room.
.......................................................................................................................................
(o)
Can you find out some job for me?
.......................................................................................................................................
(p)
Please follow after me.
.......................................................................................................................................
(q)
We have already ordered for four cups of tea.
.......................................................................................................................................
(r)
Please list down the main points for discussion.
.......................................................................................................................................
77
(s)
He has come to meet with the principal.
.......................................................................................................................................
(t)
The students are making too much of noise.
.......................................................................................................................................
(u)
Why do you pick up a quarrel with everyone?
.......................................................................................................................................
(v)
We will not reach at the station in time.
.......................................................................................................................................
(w) He resembles with his father.
.......................................................................................................................................
(x)
After retirement, he intends to settle down in Shimla.
.......................................................................................................................................
(y)
She stitched up that dress.
.......................................................................................................................................
(z)
He was wearing a torn out shirt.
.......................................................................................................................................
CONJUNCTIONS
Unless/until
Mr. Sood told his students one day, 'It will not be possible for me to teach you unless you
bring your books with you to the classroom.(1) If you do not have your books in front of you,
you cannot follow the lesson.(2) Therefore, I shall not meet your class until each one of you
brings along the book.'(3)
Explanation 1: Look at the above passage. It illustrates the use of 'unless' and 'until'. In the
first sentence it can be seen that 'unless you bring your books with you to the classroom' is
the condition. Similarly, in the third sentence, 'until each one of you brings along the book is
the condition. The first part of these two sentences is in the future tense. Such sentences are
known as future conditionals, and 'unless' and 'until' do the job of joining or linking the two
parts of such sentences. 'Unless' has the meaning of 'if not’ as can be seen in sentence 2 in the
passage above. 'Until' has the meaning of 'till such time' as can be seen in sentence 3 in the
passage above.
78
Exercise 1: Fill in the blanks in the following sentences using 'unless' or 'until according to
the meanings given above:
(a)
You must wait ................... the traffic light changes to green.
.......................................................................................................................................
(b)
Do not get off a DTC bus ................................ it stops.
.......................................................................................................................................
(c)
You will not pass ........................ you work hard.
.......................................................................................................................................
(d)
Let us wait .................................. the rain stops.
.......................................................................................................................................
(e)
................................... bad weather stops me, I go for a walk everyday.
[Answer Key: a). until, b). until, c). unless, d). until, e). unless]
Explanation 2: Note that all the three sentences in the given passage have future tense in the
principal clause and present tense in the conditional clause. Thus, 'It will not be ... unless you
bring your books...' and 'I shall not meet.. until each one of you brings along...'.
Exercise 2: In the following sentences, put the verbs in brackets in to the correct tense:
(a)
I (stay) here until he answers me.
(b)
You will have to wait until he (come).
(c)
I (not move) from here until he changes his mind.
(d)
He will not go to the door unless he (hear) the bell.
(e)
I (not write) to him unless he writes to me.
[Answer Key: a). shall stay, b). comes, c). shall not, d). hears, e). will not ]
Exercise 3: Match clauses in List A with clauses in List B to make complete sentences:
List A
List B
(a)
You will not catch the train
until he comes.
(b)
Unless you are careful on the road
we will not have good crops.
(c)
We shall wait here
until I call him.
(d)
Unless it rains
you will not be safe.
(e)
He will not come in
unless you go early.
79
Answer Key:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
Unless you go early.
You will not be safe.
Until he comes.
We will not have a good crop.
Until I call him.
80
CONVERSING II
Unit-3a
From English at Workplace - 2
Speaking II : Word Stress
P.K. Satapathy
1.1. Introduction
Most of us speak English without a clue about pronunciation. We pick up our spoken
English from our friends, teachers, neighbours and people around us. Obviously we are
influenced most by people who are around us most of the time. Consequently our accent is
influenced mostly by our mother tongues. But if we listen to people who speak English with a
neutral accent then we can learn how to pronounce various words. To pronounce words
correctly we need to understand the various stress patterns used in English. The following
passage is one preliminary step in understanding these stress patterns.
1.2. The Syllable
“A syllable is a word or a part of a word that has only one vowel sound.” What
does this mean? Words in english, as you know, are made up of vowels and consonants. The
vowel sound in English is represented by the letters a, e, i, o and u. All words have at least
one vowel sound in them though they can also have more than one vowel sound. Thus a word
can have one or more syllables. For example the has one syllable, work place has two, the
sau rus has three syllables. The exercise that follows is for practice. Read the words aloud to
understand the syllable break-up:
1.
temporary
tem/po/ra/ry.
4 syllables
2.
strategy
stra/te/gy
3 syllables
3.
appreciation
a/ppre/ci/a/tion
5 syllables.
4.
truth
truth
1 syllable.
5.
vacation
va/ca/tion
3 syllables
6.
extraordinary
ex/tra/or/di/na/ry
6 syllables
7.
footnote
foot/note
2 syllables
8.
heavyweight
hea/vy/weight
3 syllables
1.3. Primary and Secondary Stress
Stress is nothing but the extra emphasis that you put on a word or one part of a word so
that it sounds louder than the rest of the word. This is marked in dictionaries with a vertical
bar ( | ) above and before the syllable that is stressed. And when we say that we stress a word
or a part of the word we are referring to the syllables. But when we have more than three
syllables, in a word we might stress one or two syllables more than the other. You will find
some examples of these as we progress in this lesson.
81
Thus the syllables, amongst the others, which are stressed in a word are called the
primary stresses. This is, however, not an easy task because the stress of many words change
in different contexts. And most importantly there is no straightforward way to decide on how
many possible levels of stress can be recognised. But the minimum possible range or pattern
is two: The stressed and unstressed. But in words with three or more syllables, often, two
syllables are stressed and one is unstressed. For example in a word like ‘amputation’ we have
four syllables: am/pu/ta/tion. In this word, the first and third syllables are stressed. The
stronger stress on the third syllable makes it the primary stress. Thus the weaker stress on the
first syllable makes it the secondary stress. In some words the primary stress is on the first
syllable while in others it could be on the second or third syllable. However, the point is, the
stress pattern is not fixed to any syllable. To know the correct pattern, or the pattern which is
widely accepted one needs to have a good ear, apart from using a pronunciation dictionary,
and practice to get it right. Try to enlist the help of your teacher and a pronunciation
dictionary and start practising.
In the following two syllable nouns the first syllable is stressed, and the second
unstressed. Using the stress pattern, say the words aloud.
•
|Ac/tion
•
|Ze/bra
•
|Don/keys
•
|Bo/ttles
•
|Fa/ther
•
|Moun/tains
•
|Foot/ball
•
|Dia/monds
•
|Co/tton
•
|Bu/tter
•
|A/pples
•
|Cli/mate
•
|Coun/try
•
|Ex/ports
•
|Swi/mming
•
|Ar/tist
•
|Free/dom
•
|Grate/ful
•
|Cen/ter
•
|En/vy
82
In the following two syllable words, the first syllable is unstressed and the second
syllable is stressed.
•
A/|bout
•
A/|bove
•
A/|go
•
A/|far
•
A/|loud
•
Be/|fore
•
Be/|friend
•
Be/|gin
•
Be/|tween
•
Be/|hind
•
Can/|teen
•
De/|gree
•
Con/|tain
•
De/|lay
•
E/|vade
•
Re/|serve
•
Gi/|raffes
•
For/|get
•
I/|dea
•
Ma/|chine
1.4. Stress-timed versus syllable-timed
The reason why we have a problem in pronouncing English words correctly is that we
follow the pronunciation pattern of our mother tongue. Most Indian languages do not use
stress patterns. Unlike English, in Indian languages all the syllables are stressed. You will
find an example of this in the Indianized pronunciation of the word “Gentleman”.We tend
tolay equal stress oh all three syllables gen/tle/man, whereas the dictionary will tell you that
only the first syllable is stressed. This passage (Passage c) is followed by some practice
exercises. You will do well to practice them with your friends.
In the following three syllable words, the first syllable is stressed and the other two
syllables are unstressed.
•
|Ad/jec/tive
•
|Ad/vo/cate
83
•
|Af/ter/words
•
|Al/ge/bra
•
|A/na/lyse
•
|A/ppe/tite
•
|Ba/che/lor
•
|Bo/ta/ny
•
|Cal/cu/late
•
|Che/mis/try
•
|Ci/ne/ma
•
|E/du/cate
•
|En/glish/man
•
|Feu/da/lism
•
|Fe/ver/ish
•
|Ha/ppe/ning
•
|Ha/ppi/ness
•
|Ki/tchen/ware
•
|Pho/to/graph
In the following three syllable words, the stress is on the middle (second) syllable.
•
A/|bun/dance
•
Ac/|coun/tant
•
Ad/|van/tage
•
A/|part/ment
•
Be/|ginn/ing
•
Bow/|leg/ged
•
Con/|tain/er
•
Co/|llec/tor
•
Dic/|ta/tor
•
Di/|rec/tion
•
E/|nor/mous
•
Ex/|cep/tion
•
Fan/|tas/tic
84
•
For/|ma/tion
•
Il/|le/gal
•
Mis/|ta/ken
•
Per/|cen/tage
•
Pro/|gre/ssive
•
Sa/|ta/nic
•
Tra/|di/tion
TEST YOURSELF
Pronounce the following words placing the stress on the correct syllable. Also indicate
primary stress by marking |[the vertical bar].
•
Delay
•
Center
•
Aloud
•
Artist
•
Adjective
•
Direction
•
Butter
•
Behind
•
Appetite
•
Mistaken
•
Advocate
•
Advantage
•
Climate
•
Degree
•
Ago
Reference
English at Workplace-2, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007. pp 10-13 Unit-3
85
Features of Connected Speech
Usha Anand
1. Introduction
In order to improve your spoken English, you should be able to monitor your speech. This
can be done by asking yourself various questions like, “Do my listeners follow what I say?”
In case there are problems, you could check out where the flaw lies. Is the speed too fast or
are you too slow? Is the pronunciation faulty? Do you speak clearly? Is the rise and fall of
your voice appropriate to your subject matter? You could make a written note of the problem
areas. When you work on these difficult areas of spoken language, you gain more confidence
in your interactive skills.
However, learning is an ongoing process and to reach a certain level of excellence, there
is yet another area to be explored which is “Connected Speech.” Let us see what this is all
about.
2. i. Tell Us What You Think
This warming up exercise has three students commenting on the kind of reading they get
to hear when their teacher asks them to read in class. Amit is so unhappy with the reading
skills of his classmates that he wishes the teacher would stop this practice. But we know that
is no solution. Yash has a more detailed observation to make. When he says that he can’t
make out whether it is Hindi or English that is being read, he is pointing to all the
shortcomings in students’ control over the spoken word. First and foremost, it is clarity of
voice and sound which is required. Then, finer control of accent, syllables, rising and falling
pitch, and generally, feeling, emotion and expression, all add to the quality of reading.
Instead of reading word by word, we must learn to understand the meaning of groups of
words, and read our sentences accordingly. Pausing at the right places and at right intervals is
very important. To get some idea of what reasonably good reading is, you could follow the
way newsreaders for radio and television say their sentences.
ii. Reading
The following ten sentences are mostly sentences that you hear repeatedly when you travel
either by the Delhi Metro or by Indian Railways. Notice how the announcers pause or control
their breath when they make long announcements. The slash ( / ) in the sentences indicates a
pause. Now read them aloud paying mind to the pauses and fullstops.
i)
Stand at ease.||
This is a short sentence which can be said in one breath without a major pause. Only
each word must be pronounced clearly.
ii)
Please mind the gap.||
It is spoken like the previous sentence but ‘the’ is not stressed because it is the least
important word of the sentence.
iii)
The next station is Rajiv Chowk.
The next station / is Rajiv Chowk.||
86
iv)
Change here for the Yellow Line and the Red Line.
Change here for the Yellow Line / and the Red Line.||
v)
The doors will open to the left.
The doors will open / to the left.||
vi)
Delhi Metro welcomes you.
Delhi Metro welcomes you.||
vii)
Please help us to keep the trains and stations clean.
Please help us/to keep the trains / and stations / clean.||
viii)
Please use the dustbins kept on the platforms to dispose off the litter.
Please use the dustbins / kept on the platforms / to dispose off the litter.||
ix)
Your attention please. Train number 2302 Rajdhani Express from New Delhi to
Howrah is running late by five hours.
The scheduled time of arrival is 1045 hours. The inconvenience caused is deeply
regretted.
Your attention please.|| Train number 2302 / Rajdhani Express from New Delhi to
Howrah / is running late by five hours.|| The Scheduled time of arrival / is 1045
hours.|| The inconvenience caused is deeply regretted.||
x)
Once upon a time there lived a king and a queen. The queen was very sad because
she didn’t have a child.
Once upon a time / there lived a king and a queen.|| The queen was very sad /
because she didn’t have a child.||
3.i. Rhythm
In connected speech we do not give importance to all words in a sentence. Some words
are stressed and the others are not. For example in the following sentences only the
underlined words will be stressed. The underlined words are content or meaning carrying
words. The other functional or grammatical words are not stressed.
Once upon a time / there lived a king and a queen.||
Please help us to keep the trains and stations clean.||
In the English language, the stressed words and syllables are pronounced carefully and
unstressed are said quickly.It is the stresses occuring at regular timing that gives English
language its rhythm and is called stress-timed rhythm. Russian and Arabic too are similar
languages. Most Indian languages, however are syllable -timed languages where all syllables
receive the same time and are evenly stressed.
3. ii. Weak Forms
When there are many unstressed syllables between stressed syllables, one has to say them
quickly and hence use the weak forms. All functional words like Articles, Conjunctions,
Pronouns and Auxiliary have weak forms. The use of weak forms is an essential part of
English speech. We use these forms all the time without even being aware of them. When a
87
vowel is pronounced very slightly, it is said to be a weak form. For example, in ‘Johnson and
Johnson’ or ‘Mahindra and Mahindra’ the “and” is not stressed. It is pronounced very slightly
and this is technically conveyed in a dictionary as |and|.
Sometimes, it is pronounced so slightly that it can even be represented by an “n”. For
example, wash n wear, cash n carry, rock n roll etc.
The regular pattern of stressed syllables and weak, unstressed ones, gives English its
typical stress-timed rhythm.
3. iii. The Nucleus
The most important detail in a sentence is a nucleus e.g.
i.
I live in ‘Seema’ Puri
ii.
I work for ‘Tata’ Steel
iii. His name is ‘Sameer’ Guha
The nucleus may not necessarily be at the end of a sentence. It could be anywhere,
depending on the speaker’s intention.
i.
“You” are the culprit
ii.
I’ll “kill” you. (expression of anger)
iii. ''Don’t '' tell lies.
3. iv. Intonation
This is a term used to refer to “the way the sound of your voice rises and falls when you
speak. Intonation can help you to understand what people are saying e.g. The dialect of the
area has a sing-song intonation. When you intone something, you speak or recite it slowly
and clearly, keeping most of the words on one musical note as, for example, in reciting
prayers or mantras. Changes in tone can be described as falling, rising or falling-rising.
The Falling Tone
When we start on a high pitch and come down to a lower level, we are using the falling
tone. We mark the falling tone by using a slanting line( \ ) before and above the nucleus.
We use Falling tone in:
A. Statements
Example: My |sister | works for | Tata \ Steel.
B. Questions with interrogative pronouns like what, who, whom
Example: | Where does your | father \ work?
C. Exclamatory sentences, Orders and Commands
Example: | How Extra \ ordinary!(Exclamatory)
|
Open your \ books. (Order)
88
Exercises
1) Write five sentences each of
a) Statements
b) Questions
c) Exclamatory sentences, orders and commands
2) Mark the stressed syllables, nucleus and falling tone as indicated in this unit.
Statements
1.
Anil studies at the IIT.
2.
Office begins at ten.
3.
The stock market has crashed.
4.
We are a joint family.
5.
An Indian student was killed. (in the US)
Questions
1.
Who is Veerappan?
2.
How did Netaji die?
3.
What time does the show begin?
4.
Who is your role model?
5.
Where shall we go this summer?
Exclamations and Orders
1.
What a beautiful painting!
2.
How sad!
3.
Well done!
4.
Clean the table.
5.
Finish your homework.
The Rising Tone
When our pitch starts at a low level and moves on to a higher level, it is described as a
rising tone.
A. Long Sentences
In a long sentence, you have two or more tone groups. The first tone group will use
the Rising tone and the second Falling tone
Example: If you |go to the /Trade Fair, don't |miss the \Delhi Pavillion.
B. Incomplete sentences
Example: I'd | rather not / tell him ( if I were you)
C. Questions asked in a friendly way:
Example: | How's your / brother? | Is he / Better?
89
D. Polite requests
Example: | Buy her some / flowers.
Notice that the rising tone is marked by a slash (/) below and before the nucleus. In
the falling tone, it was marked by a slash (/) above the nucleus.
The Fall-Rise Tone
The term is self-explanatory. When the voice falls from high to low and then rises to the
middle, it is described as the Fall-Rise Tone.
You know that the falling tone is marked by a slash (\) and the rising tone by a different
slash (/) The fall-rise tone is marked by (v) when it is used in a single syllable or word
eg.l
R
y?
e
l
a
V
Really
V
Dependable
V
Honest
l
D
e
e
l
p
b
e
a
n
d
H
t
o
s
n
e
These are simple words which ask a question or raise a doubt. However, the fall-rise tone
can be used in a more sophisticated way to convey special meanings which are not otherwise
uttered. They are left unsaid. For example,
•
He is Vefficient
•
Politicians are Vpatriotic.
•
He is Vreliable.
When pronounced in the fall rise tone, all these words mean more than their literal
meaning.
Reference
English at Workplace-2, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007. Pp 38-45 Unit-9
90
Unit-3b
CONVERSING II
From: Developing Language Skills I
Neeta Gupta
GETTING AND GIVING PERMISSION, AGREEING AND
DISAGREEING, WARNING AND PERSUADING
Getting permission is quite similar to making a request and only a thin line divides making a
suggestion from persuading people. Agreeing with others is easy (though too emphatic an
agreement is sometimes a sarcastic way of disagreeing). While disagreeing, however, we
have to be careful not to give offence to others as well as to leave a way open for them to
change their stand without loss of face, or to drop the subject if no agreement is possible. Too
pronounced a disagreement would not allow this, so we agree initially but add a ‘but’ after it,
‘Yes, but ... being the typical form of disagreement.
1 Asking permission
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Is it all right
Can/Could I.........., please?
Do I have your permission
to................................?
All right if.................?
Do you mind if ................?
Do/Will
you have any
objection to/if.......................?
All right if.................?
Might/May I ...................?
With/By your leave .............. .
to/if...........................?
Mind if I ...................?
With your permission ........... .
2 Giving and refusing permission
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Sure.
Of course.
Feel free to .......................... .
OK/Fine/All right.
Yes, certainly.
There seems to be no reason why
you can't/shouldn't .................... .
Yes,/(That’s) all right.
You’re welcome.
Sorry. That’s out of the question.
Yes, that’s fine.
Not at all.
Sorry. That’s not possible.
Sorry.
Sorry, you can’t No. I’m
afraid not. No way (I’m
afraid).
91
3 Asking for agreement
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Yes/OK/Right?
Don't you fell/think............?
Do/would you agree with/that
/...............?
Isn't that so?
Don't you agree?
I wonder if you would agree?
All right?
Don't you think so?
You wouldn't/don't disagree
with
............. is it/isn't it/ Wouldn't you say so?
isn't s/he/aren't they?
That.............., would/do you?
4 Agreeing
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Yes/Sure!
Yes, I agree!
Oh, I agree totally/ entirely /
absolutely!
Exactly/Certainly/
Precisely!
That's it!
That’s right/true.
I couldn’t agree more.
Oh, absolutely!
I'm exactly of the same
opinion
You're right!
How true.
That’s just
thinking.
what
I was
5 Disagreeing
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Yes, but................... .
(Oh) I don't agree.
I may be wrong, but ............. .
Oh, surely not.
Not really.
I'm sorry I just can't agree
with that/you.
You can't mean that.
I disagree.
I beg to differ.
You must be joking.
I can't/wouldn't agree with
that.
That's quite true, but.....
You can't be serious.
Rubbish/Nonsense.
That's wrong/not right,
surely.
Do you really think so?
92
6 Warning
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Watch out!
Look out!
I would be extremely careful
of/to/not to.................... .
Hey?
Be careful!
On no account should you/
we/one .................... .
Mind ................... .
Make sure you................
Sh-hh!
Take care (not) to ........... .
7 Persuading
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Come on
(now)................
Won’t you ..........., please?
Are you quite sure you
won’t reconsider ................?
Go on!
Why don't you .........., please?
Surely) the most sensible
thing would be to .............. .
Please!/Just this once. Do ................................. .
(For my sake.)
Samples
1
A : Mind if I make a phone call?
B : Not at all. Go ahead.
2
A : Can I borrow your book for the weekend, please?
B : Yes, of course.
3
A : Is it all right if I leave my children with you for the afternoon?
B : I’m afraid you can’t. I’m going out myself.
4
A : Do you mind if I pluck some flowers from this garden?
B : I’m afraid that’s not allowed.
5
A : Would you mind moving your car? It’s blocking the road,
B : Of course not. I’m sorry for the trouble.
6
A : I’ll be out for the day, Asha. There’s some food in the fridge. Do feel free to help
yourself to it.
93
B : Thanks a lot. Have a good day!
7
A : May I take my bag into the examination hall, please?
B : That’s out of the question. Bags are not allowed inside the hall.
8
A : Hey! Look out, there’s a car coming.
B : Gosh! That was close. Thanks.
9
A : Mind your head. The beam is rather low. You might hurt yourself.
B : Yes I know. I’ll be careful.
10 A : Take care to reach the place of interview on time. And good luck to you.
B : Thanks! I’ll take a three-wheeler and be there on time.
11 A : On no account should your answer exceed 300 words or you will be penalized.
B : Yes, sir. I’ll keep that in mind.
12 A : Come on, now. You can’t be serious. I’m sure you’ll change your mind once
you’ve had time to think.
B : Nonsense! I’ve already thought about it and I’m absolutely serious.
13 A : Why don’t you take your driving test again? I’m sure you’ll pass this time.
B : Nice of you to say that I need the encouragement!
14 A : Are you quite sure you won’t reconsider your decision?
B : I’m quite sure, sir. I’ve enjoyed working here, but I think it’s time to move on.
15 A : We’re having a little too much of cricket these days, don’t you think?
B : Yes, I agree. It’s become quite a bore now:
Tasks
1
What is the relationship between the speakers in the above dialogues? For instance in
Sample 1, A and B are friends while in 7, B is a person in authority. Try and imagine
the roles of A and B in greater detail. Can you also provide the contexts in which the
conversations occur?
(Answer: In 7, A is a student while B is the invigilator. The context for the
conversation is an examination for which A is appearing.)
2
After you have defined the roles of A and B can you tell which of the samples
illustrate asking for permission, which ask for agreement and which ones warn or
persuade?
(Answer: Permission: 1,2,3,4,5 and 7. Agreement: 9,10,11,15. Warn: 8,9.
94
Persuade: 6, 12, 13,14 )
3
You are visiting your aunt. You would like to use her telephone. What will you say to
her?
(Answer: Auntie, may I use your telephone?)
4
You want to invite a friend home for lunch. Which of the following will you say to
your mother:
(a) Excuse me, mother. Do you think I could invite Kapil for lunch today?
(b) With your permission, I should like to invite Kapil for lunch today, mother.
(c) I was wondering if I could invite Kapil for lunch today, mother.✓
5
The office clerk wants to leave early one afternoon. He says to his boss: OK if I leave
early this afternoon?
Will he get the permission? What should he have said?
(Answer: He will not get permission. He should have said: ‘Excuse me sir. May I
leave early this afternoon today? I have some personal work’).
6
You want a book lying on a table which you cannot reach easily. How will you ask
the following to hand it to you:
(a) your mother?
(Answer: Mother can you please hand me that book on the table?)
(b) your younger brother/sister?
(Answer: Hey Bro/Sis! Give me that book on the table.)
(c) a guest in the house?
(Answer: Uncle, can you please hand me that book on the table?)
7
There is a discount sale on and your friend Sunita wants to go shopping while you
want to go and see a film. Keeping this context in mind supply the missing lines in the
following dialogue:
You :
It’s a very good film you know. It won three national awards.
Sunita : .................................................................................................................
(Answer: But I don’t want to see a film. I want to go shopping for a new dress.)
You :
But you already have so many dresses. Why do you want more?
Sunita : ....................................................................................................................
(Answer: They are all outdated. I want to buy something of the latest fashion.)
You :
Look, it’s the last show today. If we don’t make it now, we will never see it.
95
Sunita : .............................................................................................................
(Answer: OK. I’ll go only on one condition that after the movie we will go
shopping.)
8
You and your friend, who is on a diet, pass by an ice-cream parlour. You want to have
an ice-cream, your friend wants to pass it by as quickly as she can. What will you say
to persuade her to join you?
(Answer: Come on! Surely you can forget your dieting for one day? )
9
In a restaurant, a waiter carrying a tray full of food is not looking in the direction in
which he is going. You are afraid he will bump into your friend. How will you warn
your friend?
(Answer: Look out!)
10
You catch your little nephew playing with a box of matches. How will you warn him
against it and persuade him to give the matchbox to you.
(Answer: Hey little fellow. Matches are very dangerous. You can burn yourself.
Please give the matchbox to me).
11
Supply the missing lines in the following conversation:
A : What did you think of last Sunday’s film?
B:
........................................................................................................................ .
(Answer: Oh I enjoyed it. It was quite thrilling!)
A:
That’s quite true, but ...................................................................................... .
( Answer: I somehow felt there was too much violence in it.)
B:
......................................................................................................................... .
(Answer: Yeah, I agree. They could have scaled that down a little bit.)
96
You are talking to a senior colleague at work about technology. He says, ‘The point is
we can’t become totally dependent on imported technology.’ Which of the following
will you say to him:
12
13
(a)
I couldn’t agree more. ✓
(b)
That’s it!
(c)
Oh, surely not.
(d)
You must be joking.
You, your sister (who is a nursery school teacher) and your mother are discussing
how best to bring up children. Your sister believes in a strict upbringing, you prefer
leniency, while your mother prefers to mix both methods, depending upon the
situation. Can you imagine a conversation between the three? Some expressions you
might use are given below:
Sister
You
Mother
strict discipline
spare the rod and spoil
the child
tight control
child’s rights
no violence
plenty of love
and affection
learn self-control
balance is needed
firm but gentle
Answer:
Sister: Parents these days are being very lenient with their children.
You: Why do you say that? Children surely need a lot of love and affection.
Sister: Children need strict discipline. The way I see it, it is now a case of ‘spare the
rod and spoil the child.
You: Children also have rights you know and I don’t believe in physical
punishment at all. They should not be hit! Don’t you agree mother?
Mother: Well, children need to learn self-control. A balance is needed. Parents
should be firm but gentle.
97
INVITING, SUGGESTING, ACCEPTING AND REFUSING
In informal speech, there is little difference between invitations and suggestions. Most
informal invitations are usually suggestions that can be easily refused if they do not appeal to
the person to whom the invitation is made. Formal invitations and suggestions usually have a
longer introduction. Very often a refusal too begins like an acceptance only it ends
differently.
1 Inviting
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Let's .................. .
Shall we ........................?
We would be (very) pleased if
you could .......................... .
Like to ...............?
Would you like to ................?
I'd (very much) like you to
............................................ .
Why don't you .............?
Would you care to /for ...........?
We should be delighted if you
could.................................... .
What about ..............?
Do ............................... .
I was/We were wondering if
you'd like to ......................... .
You must ................ .
Won't you ........................?
It would be nice if ................ .
Come and ................. .
I'd like to invite you to ......... .
2 Suggesting
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Let's .................. .
Shall we ........................?
Can/Could/May/Might I
suggest ........................ .
Fancy .................. .
You could .................. .
I'd like to suggest ................ .
What about .................. .
I suggest that .................. .
You may/ might like to ........ .
How about .................. ?
We might as well ............... .
Have you considered ........... ?
Why don't we ............. ?
Would you care to ...............?
We'll .............. shall we?
Shall we?
Surely s/he/ they/
could.....................
I'd say that ................. .
98
Try ....... ................. .
I think you'd better ……
3 Accepting an invitation or suggestion
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
(Thanks) I'd love to
that
would
wonderful/very nice
Sounds great!/Fine.
(Thank you) I'd like to/ that.
OK! All right.
That sounds like a very nice It would give me/us great
idea.
pleasure to
Yes, fine. Thanks.
Yew I will, with pleasure.
be I'd/We'd be delighted
to.......................................... .
That's really (very)/nice/most
kind of you.
I won't say no.
4 Refusing an invitation or suggestion
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
That would be great, Thank you (very much), That's very/ extremely kind of
but....................
but.................................. .
you, but ......................... .
I’d love to, but ........... .
Sorry, I can’t.
thanks anyway).
I'd like to, but .................. .
(But I wish I could, but ............. .
Oh, I’m sorry.
I won’t be .................
I'm awfully sorry, but ......... .
Unfortunately, ..................... .
Thank you very much for
asking (me), but ................. .
Samples
1
A : Like to come for a drink? We have a few minutes before the bell goes.
B : Love to.
2
A : How about meeting on Monday to finalize the details?
B : Fine, what time?
A : Would eleven o’clock be all right?
B : Yes, great!
99
3
A : Hello, Savitri! How are you?
B : Fine, thanks, Rati. And you?
A : Oh, all right. Listen Savitri, we’ve got two spare tickets for the Bharatanatyam
recital this evening and I was wondering if you and Atul would like to come.
B : That would’ve been great, but we’re going out for dinner tonight. Thanks all the
same.
4
A : Mrs Bhasin, my daughter is getting married next Monday. We would be
delighted if you and Mr. Bhasin could join us in the celebrations and stay for
dinner that evening.
B : It would give us great pleasure, Mrs Jones. Thank you very much.
5
A : Why don’t you drop in tomorrow evening and we’ll have a game of chess.
B : Sounds great! Five o’clock then.
6
A : Let’s first decide how much we want to spend and then look for the gift.
B : Good idea.
7
A : I suggest that you speak in English as often as you can if you really want to
improve.
B : I’d like to, but so few of my friends really know any English. A: Try talking to
your teachers if your friends won’t respond.
8
A : We might as well go home now. We’ve been round this park four times and still
haven’t found the house.
B : I’m sure you’re right, but perhaps we could try once more just to be absolutely
certain.
9
A : If I might make a suggestion, I think there should be more classes for English
than have been allotted at present.
B : Yes, but where do we fit them in? The timetable’s already packed.
10 A : Mr. Mahajan, I’d like to invite you for the release of my book by the President on
Wednesday next at 4.30 p.m. at Rashtrapati Bhavan. I hope you will be able to
make it.
B : Yes, indeed! I will. With pleasure.
Tasks
1
Invite your friend to come and watch a cricket match with you next Sunday at the
Feroze Shah Kotla Ground.
(Answer: Hey Atul, guess what! I’ve got tickets for the cricket match this Sunday
at the Feroze Shah Kotla Ground! Let’s go together. It’ll be fun!)
100
2
Your sister is getting married. You are asked to invite:
(a) your friend
(b) your teacher
(c) a very old family friend
What do you say to each one of them?
Answer
2
a)
Inviting a friend: ‘You must come for my sister’s wedding! Here’s your
card.’
b)
Inviting your teacher: ‘I’d be delighted if you could come for my sister’s
wedding this Sunday. Please take this card, it has all the details for venue and
time.’
c)
Inviting a very old family friend: ‘Do come for my sister’s wedding this
Sunday. This is the invitation card. It has all the details for time and venue.’
Your friend Rashid invites you to spend an evening at Appu Ghar. Your exams are
near so you don’t want to go. How will you decline?
(Answer: I’d love to Rashid, but my exams are near and I have to study. Let’s
plan it for some other time.)
4
Here are some one-sided dialogues. Supply the missing lines:
(i) A : ................................................................................................................
(Let’s go out for dinner today.)
B : Oh, that would be great!
A : Around eight o’clock.,
B : ................................................................................................................
(Eight o’clock is fine and we can have Chinese which we both like.)
A : ................................................................................................................
(Oh yes! That would be lovely!)
(ii) A : ................................................................................................................
(Hey, let’s go for a movie today. )
B : Oh, I'm sorry, but..............................................................................................
(I have to finish my assignment for tomorrow.)
A : ................................................................................................................
101
(You can surely work on it after we come back.)
B : ................................................................................................................
(No, no. A movie will distract me too much and I won’t be able to finish my
work. Let’s go some other day.)
5
Jasjit is a student at one of the local colleges. Robert is a foreign student who joined
the college only recently. Jasjit and Robert have just been introduced. Jasjit wants to
invite Robert to his birthday party. With the help of the clue below devise a dialogue
and act it out with the help of your partner: (Solutions are provided)
Jasjit
(a)
Robert
Greets Robert.
(i)
(Hello Jasjit! I’m good.)
(Hi Robert! How are you?)
(b)
Invites Robert to his birthday party.
(ii)
(You must come for my birthday
party tomorrow.)
(c)
(d)
(e)
Gives time.
Accepts invitation, asks about
time.
(I’d love to. What time is the
party?)
(iii)
Asks about place.
(It’ll start around 7 p.m. )
(Where are you having it?)
Apologizes for not mentioning (iv)
place. Gives address.
Accepts apology. Offers to bring
something.
(Oh I’m sorry. I should have told
you this right in the beginning.
It’s at my place. A-130, Model
Town.)
(No need to say sorry. Shall I
bring some snacks?)
Rejects offer.
(v)
(No, no. That’s all taken care of.
You just come yourself.)
6
Returns greeting.
Thanks Jasjit for the invitation.
(Thanks. I’ll surely be there.)
Jasleen : Hi, Sumit! Like to come to a picnic next Sunday? It’ll be great our friends
are coming and there’ll be lots of good food.
Sumit
: Unfortunately, Miss Jasleen Singh, on that particular day I shall be
engaged in the task of cleaning up my room. However, it is very kind of
you to invite me.
Which of the following ways is Jasleen likely to react in:
(a) Why is he being so formal? After all, we’re friends.
102
(b) What a rude answer!
(c) What’s wrong with him? Staying in the hostel has done something to him.✓
7
As you leave for college you find that your elder brother who goes to work by scooter
can’t start it. You suggest he check the fuel and the spark plug. What actually say to
him?
(Answer: What’s wrong big brother? Scooter not starting? I think it might help if
you check the fuel and the spark plug.)
8
A business meeting has gone on longer than you thought it would. You would like to
meet again the next day, rather than continue now. Which of the following would you
say:
(a) Let’s go home now and meet again tomorrow at ten.
(b) I’d like to suggest that we disperse now and meet again at ten tomorrow to thrash
out the matter. ✓
(c) Hey, stop it! We’ve had enough for the day.
9
It’s a lovely day and you don’t feel like studying. How will you suggest to your friend
that the day be spent exploring the Qutub?
(Answer: Hey Anjali. It’s such a lovely day. I don’t feel like studying at all. Why
don’t we go to Qutub and have a picnic there?)
10 ‘Fancy a cold drink?’
Would you say this to:
(a) your father’s colleague who has come over to help you with your studies?
(b) your cousin who has been showing you around Bombay, which you are visiting
for the first time? ✓
(c) an old lady who has just fallen off the bus she was trying to board and who looks
very shaken?
How would you make the offer to the other two?
( Answer:
a)
Uncle, would you like to have a cold drink?
c)
Auntie, please have this cold drink. It will help you calm down.)
UNIT 8 : LIKES AND DISLIKES
Expressing likes and dislikes comes naturally to most of us. In informal speech, most of us
tend to use rather strong language to convey the intensity of our feelings even when talking of
ordinary things. In formal speech, however, people are more restrained and try not to give
offence while expressing their preferences.
103
1 Expressing likes
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
I'm crazy. mad
I (really) like/ love/
about............................. . enjoy................ .
I have a special / particular
fondness for ...................... .
You can't beat ............. .
........................... is one of my
favourites.
I'm very keen on ................. .
...................... is really ............................
great/terrific.
wonderful/really good.
Wow/Lovely!
is What I particularly
enjoy/specially like/am fond
of is ......................
I have always liked/
loved/enjoyed ...............
There’s nothing I like/ enjoy
more than ...................... ..
I'm (really) very fond of .........
2 Expressing dislikes Informal
Informal
I can’t stand/bear/
tolerate ..........
Anytime/Anywhere
I (really) hate/ dislike/ don’t
like ......
Formal
I have to admit I (rather)
dislike............................... .
Oh no!
I'm afraid I dislike/don't
like.............................. .
I'm sorry but I (really) don't like
it at all.
I specially dislike................ .
Oh God!
It's absolutely
terrible/awful/ dreadful.
I never could put up
with...................... .
I don't think ..................... is
particularly good/ pleasant/
enjoyable.
I'm not very keen
on................................... .
I find it difficult to get on
with........................... .
3 Asking about likes
Informal
Don't you like/love/
enjoy..................?
Anytime/Anywhere
What do you think
of......................................?
Formal
Don't you find ...................... .
(very/extremely) enjooyable?
Isn't/Aren't ...................
great/terrific?
Do you like/love
enjoy...................................?
May I ask you if you like/ are
fond of ...........................?
Don't you think .............. How do you like ...............?
is nice/ peasant?
Are you keen on ................?
104
Samples
1
A: I’m crazy about films. I never miss a new picture.
B: Yes, but you can’t beat theatre for real entertainment.
2
A: Are you keen on football? We’re going for a game on Sunday morning and you
could join us if you like.
B: There’s nothing I would enjoy more. Football is one of my favourite games.
3
A: Raghu, your aunt from America is arriving tomorrow on a two-week visit.
B: Oh God!,
4
A: How do you like working with Sheila?
B: I can’t stand her, she’s so artificial. But one can’t choose one’s colleagues, can one?
5
A: Are you keen on skating?
B: Skating is really terrific. I love it.
6
A: Now that we know about your professional qualifications, Mr. Narain, do tell us
something about your other interests.
B: Reading is one of my favourite pastimes. I’m really fond of books.
7
A: What do you think of our new sales executive, Mr. Hussain?
B: He’s rather good. What I particularly like about him is that he’s so full of
enthusiasm.
8
A: How do you like the new budget, Salim?
B: I’m afraid I don’t like the new taxes levied on entertainment.
Tasks
1
Can you guess the relationships between the speakers in the above dialogues?
2
You and your friend are at a restaurant. You are placing the order. How will you ask
your friend what he would like to eat?
( Answer: What would you like to have?)
3
Your friend has had her hair styled in the latest fashion. You don’t think it suits her.
What will you say in answer to her question: ‘Isn’t my new hairstyle great?’
(Answer: I’m sorry. I don’t like it at all. It doesn’t suit you.)
4
Your friend has bought a new music cassette. You think it’s terrific. What do you say
to him?
( Answer: Wow! This music is really great!)
105
5
Complete the following conversation:
A : He’s a really great batsman, isn’t he?
B : ......................................................................................................................
(Answer: I really don’t think so. He is too slow and slows down others too.)
A : You must be joking. I think he’s fantastic.
B : ......................................................................................................................
(Answer: Well, I think if he picks up runs faster he would be good.)
6
Supply the missing lines:
A : ......................................................................................................................
(Hey! Did you finish the book I gave you the other day? Did you like it?)
B : Well, the first part is terrific. I really like that and the bit that follows is quite good
too. I’m afraid I don’t like that section in the middle all that much, but then I can’t
stand all those big words that mean very little anyway. I’m not keen on the ending
either, but that I’m sure can be improved.
A : ......................................................................................................................
(Oh well! I enjoyed it immensely when I read it. The way I see it, there can be no
other ending for this book.)
7
One day a close friend says to you: ‘You know, Ravi, what I particularly enjoy about
the summer are the mangoes. I have a special fondness for the Dussehri though the
Alphonso is one of my favourites too. I’m specially keen on the ripe yellow variety. I
have to admit I rather dislike the other summer fruits specially the water melon. May I
ask you if you too are fond of mangoes and whether you dislike water melons as well?’
What do you think:
(a) Has he gone crazy?
(b) Why is he being so formal?✓
(c) His English is rather good.
8
You are shopping for T-shirts in an expensive, fashionable store. The salesman has
already shown you 10-15 pieces. You don’t like any. You also think they are
overpriced. What do you say to him?
(Answer: I’m afraid I don’t like any of these. I know you have shown me quite a
few but somehow I don’t like the colours and the designs and they also seem
to be a bit overpriced really. )
9
Devise a conversation between Mrs Ahmed and her friend Mrs Wagle according to the
clues given below: ( Solutions are provided in bold text)
106
Mrs Ahmed
(a)
Mrs Wagle
Asks how she looks.
(b)
(How do I look Mrs Wagle? )
Says the sari is lovely but she
doesn’t like the jewellery.
(Your sari is lovely but the
jewellery is so so.)
(c)
Says it is very expensive jewellery.
(d)
(But this is very expensive
jewellery!)
(e)
Says it doesn't go with the sari.
(It may be expensive but it is
not going with the sari.)
Asks what she should do.
(f)
(What should I do then?)
Suggests she wear something
else or do without the jewellery.
(You can either change your
sari or don’t wear the
jewellery at all.)
10 To whom would you say this:
‘You can’t beat one-day cricket matches for excitement.’
(a) to a friend who asks you what you enjoy most?
(b) at a formal interview when you are asked what your favourite sport is?
(c) to your neighbour in the bus, who is listening to the cricket commentary on his
transistor radio?✓
107
REGULATING SPEECH
To carry on a conversation, even if we are only listening, requires that we make responses to
show that we are paying attention. To do this, we must know how to show understanding,
surprise and attention. Sometimes we may miss or not understand what other people are
saying so we must know how to ask them to repeat themselves. At other times we may have
to explain or clarify something that we have said and which the other person may not have
understood. Sometimes we may have to attract the attention of people who may be otherwise
busy or inattentive and we must know how to do this, too, without giving offence. This unit
teaches us how to regulate speech, our own as well as that of others.
1 Drawing attention and interrupting
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Sorry to but in,
but............................
Look/ Listen!
Sorry, but ..................
Sorry to interrupt,
but...................................
Excuse me!
(Please) Ma'm/ Sir!
May I have your attention
please?
Pardon me..................... .
Could I just mention/make a
point ............................?
Pardon the interruption,
but...................................
2 Paying attention and showing surprise
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Oh?/ Oh/ Yes!
Well, well
Do you/ Has it/ Does it?
Does it?
Oh my gosh/God1
Goodness me!
Don't tell me1
No!
Really!/Really/ What?
Indeed!
I see.
Is that so?
Exactly/Right.
How interesting!
I know what you mean.
Not really.
3 Getting someone to repeat or slow down
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Sorry?
Pardon (me)?
I beg your pardon?
What/When/Where/Who? Sorry, but could you please
repeat that/ the last bit/ that
name/ the sentence?
Eh?
Sorry, what did you say?
What was that (you said)?
108
I'm sorry, but would you
mind repeating what you just
said, please?
4 Repeating yourself in other words
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
All/What I/m trying to
say is ...........................
What I'm getting at
is.............................
All/ What I meant was .............
Perhaps it would be better/
more accurate to say .............
If I can rephrase
that.......................................
To put it differently ...............
What I mean is .......................
In other words.........................
Let me put it another way.
5 Giving examples
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Look at .......................
Like ............................
(for example).
Take ...........................
........................... for example.
For instance/For example,
take...................................
Let me give an example..........
To illustrate this point.............
.............. such as ..................
To give an example................
What I mean is .....................
Samples
1
A : Hey, Naresh! You’ve left your book behind.
B : Oh, thanks, Alok.
2
A : Excuse me. Aren’t you Mr. Wagle’s neighbour? I think I’ve seen you before.
3
A : Pardon me, sir. Could I interrupt you here for a moment? I didn’t get that last
point you made. Would you mind repeating it, please?
4
A : Look, that’s your bus, isn’t it?
B : So it is. I must be off. Bye.
5
A : Sorry to interrupt, but there’s someone on the phone for you.
B : Oh, thanks, Gautam. Excuse me, Adil. I’ll be back in a moment.
6
A : May I have your attention please? Flight SQ 208 is now ready for boarding.
Passengers are requested to proceed to the aircraft.
7
A : Pardon me, Mr. Chairman, but I think that we have forgotten a rather important
point. Unless we bring down the price of our product, sales will not pick up.
B : Yes, but that would leave a very narrow margin of profit for us.
109
8
A : Hey, have you heard the latest? Gita and Anil are getting married next month.
B : Really?
A : Yes, and then Gita’s going to give up her job.
B : Don’t tell me!
9
A : Excuse me. Could you shift a little, please? Hey, Pravinder, there’s just enough
space for you to squeeze in.
10 A : I think that the age for voting should be lowered.
B : Do you?
A : Yes, I think that young people mature faster these days.
11 A : Hello, Anjana! When did you come back from Kashmir?
B : Yesterday. We stayed a fortnight in Srinagar and the weather was absolutely
great! And guess whom we bumped into there? The Chawlas!
A : No!
12 A : Excuse me, sir. Could you repeat the last bit again, please?
B : What I said was that when we interrupt others, we always say ‘Excuse me or
’Sorry’ first.
13 A : Could you say that again, more slowly and a little louder, please?
B : Yes, ma’am. The meeting is scheduled for next Thursday at 2.00 p.m. in the
conference room.
14 A : Where did you say the shop was?
B : It’s in a little lane in Shanker Market right opposite the Super Bazar.
15 A : All I mean to say is that I am not interested, but if you are so keen you can go
ahead.
16 A : Now what exactly did you mean by that?
B : Well, let me put it this way. You must insure your car, not because you’re not a
good driver but because a lot of other people on the road may not be very good
drivers.
A : In other words, I must pay for the foolishness of others.
17 A : Vacations don’t have to be spent in bed all day. One could do many interesting yet
relaxing things. Take for instance photography, or cookery, or activities such as
judo, playing tennis or even learning a new language.
B : But aren’t all these rather expensive hobbies?
110
A : Not necessarily. And there are others that require even less money. To give an
example, clay modelling. You don’t have to spend a paisa on it.
18 A : There are many things that one could do to improve the efficiency of this office.
Let me give an example. If tea could be served in office itself, we would save
between half an hour to forty-five minutes of each employee’s time everyday.
Tasks
1
2
3
Read Sample 8 again. What would you say is B’s attitude to the news that Gita is going
to give up her job? Is she:
(a)
surprised? ✓
(b)
disappointed?
(c)
unconcerned?
Read Sample 11 again. The attitude of A to the Chawlas is:
(a)
she likes them very much.
(b)
she doesn’t like them at all.✓
(c)
they really don’t matter to her.
Supply the missing lines in the following dialogue: (Answers are provided in italics).
Mujahid : Hello, Anil. How are you?
Anil
: .......................................... ............................................................................
(Answer: I’m fine. What about you?)
Mujahid : I had a miraculous escape yesterday.
Anil
: .......................................... ............................................................................
(Answer: Oh no! What happened?)
Mujahid : I fell off a bus and would have got killed if someone had not pushed me
away from the path of a speeding truck in the nick of time.
4
You go to the staff-room to ask your teacher about an assignment you handed in last
week. He is talking to Mrs Varma of the English Department. You have already waited
five minutes trying to catch your teacher’s attention. How will you interrupt him?
(Answer: Excuse me sir, may I have a minute of your time?)
5
When would you say this:
‘Could I just mention that tea is served.’
(a)
to the chief guest at an official function?
(b)
to your best friend at a party?
111
(c)
6
to guests who have come to stay at your home for the first time?✓
You are travelling through Bharatpur to attend a business meeting at Jaipur with your
boss, Mr. Ghosh, in his car. On the way you see a Siberian crane. You want to draw the
attention of your boss to the bird. Which of the following would you say:
(a) Hey! Look!
(b) Sorry to interrupt you, Mr. Ghosh, but isn’t that a Siberian crane? ✓
(c) May I have your attention please, Mr. Ghosh? There is a Siberian crane flying
ahead.
7
Given below is a conversation on telephone. The line is very bad and the other person
cannot hear properly. Supply the missing responses:
A : ............................................ and she was taken to the hospital last night.
B : .......................................... ............................................................................
( Answer: What? I can’t hear you clearly. Can you say that again? )
A : I said, ‘she was taken to the hospital last night’.
B : .......................................... ............................................................................
(Answer: Who was taken to hospital? Please speak louder.)
A : (Speaking very loudly into the receiver) I SAID ILA WAS TAKEN TO THE
HOSPITAL LAST NIGHT. CAN YOU HEAR ME NOW?
B : Yes I can. What did you say?
8
Here is a dialogue between two friends who will be travelling from Bombay to Delhi on
the Rajdhani Express. Supply the missing lines following the directions given in
brackets:
A : Now, when exactly does our train leave?
B : At five past four in the evening.
A : (Ask him to say that again)
(Answer: What did you say? Can you repeat it?
B : At five past four in the evening. At least that’s what’s given in the timetable. But
you know what our trains are like. Never on time.
A : (Shows he is listening.)
(Answer: Hmmm. I know.)
B : And we may not reach Delhi before noon.
A : (Agrees.)
Answer: Yes, you’re right.)
112
9
Two foreigners on their first visit to India, are talking to each other. Supply the lines
following the directions given in brackets:
A : I must say, the Indian style of hospitality is unique.
B : What do you mean?
A : (Say it another way: ‘No other people are so insistent in their hospitality.’)
(Answer: Well, I haven’t seen any other people who are so insistent in their
hospitality.)
B : I still don’t get you.
A : (Gives examples: They are always trying to make you eat and drink even if you
don’t want to. They won’t let you do anything for yourself.)
( Answer: For instance, they are always trying to make you eat and drink
even if you don’t want to. They also won’t let you do anything for
yourself.)
B : (Shows surprise.) I don’t think I agree. I’ve had rather pleasant experiences
myself. (Illustrates: He found people open and friendly and was very well looked
after.)
(Answer: You really think so! Well, I’m afraid I can’t agree with you. my
experience has been quite pleasant always. I’ve found Indian people to
be very open and friendly and they always looked after me well. )
113
ENDING A CONVERSATION: SAYING GOODBYE
Ending a conversation normally involves two steps: signalling that the conversation is
coming to an end, and the actual leave taking. Signals of ending usually consist of thanking a
person or making an excuse or apology. It is important to be able to recognize these signals,
for in formal situations it is considered rude to ignore them. It is normally the superior in age
or status who signals the end of a conversation. On the telephone, it is the caller who does so.
Parting salutations, like greetings, are set phrases and do not necessarily mean what they
say. People who meet regularly generally take leave informally. Formal leave takings are
more eleborate. People who will not meet each other for long periods usually shake hands
too. On leaving a party or a gathering, one must seek out the host and hostess, thank them and
bid them goodbye.
1 Pre-closings
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Thanks for a (really)
lovely.......................
Well, I'd better be going.
Well, it was (really) nice
talking to you.
Well, I must leave/be
off. Great seeing you.
We must get together
again soon.
(Sorry, I've) Got to go
now. Come over/Drop
in some time.
OK then........................
I'm sorry but I've (really) got to
go.
Thank you so much
for............................................
I'm sorry I can't stay any longer.
I have ...............................
It's been very nice/ interesting
talking to you,
but...........................................
It's been pleasure.
Thank you very much for
your attention/interest/
support.
Well, I think that's all. Thank
you for seeing me.
I hope you'll excuse m,
but..............................
2 Responses
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Yes, J('ve) enjoyed it
(tto).
Right then.
Good/Nice to see you.
It's been a pleasure.
You're welcome.
The pleasure has been mine.
Same here.
Sure/Yes, I will.
Not at all.
Thank you for coming.
Informal
Anytime/Anywhere
Formal
Bye!
See you soon/ later/
Bye-bye!
Good night!
Goodbye!
Hope to see you soon again
3 Closings
114
tomorrow/next week.
Look after yourself.
Until next time then.
So long.
Take care.
.............. such as ..................
To give an example................
some time. Bye-bye!
I look forward to seeing you
soon/again. Goodbye!
Note: In responding to closings we generally repeat the same expression that has been used
by the ‘leave taker’, except for ‘Take care’ and ‘Look after yourself’ where the
response is ‘And you/You too’.
Samples
1
A : Well, Naaz. I’d better be going or I’ll miss the special.
B : Bye, Kiran! See you tomorrow.
A : Bye!
2
A : Dr. Pandit, when can I come and discuss my problem with you?
B : Would three o’clock this afternoon be all right?
A : Yes, that would be fine. Thank you very much. I’ll see you at three.
B : Well, goodbye till then.
A : Goodbye, sir!
3
A : O my gosh! It’s five o’clock. I’d better rush. Mum will be wondering what
happened to me.
B : We must get together again soon.
A : Yes, we must. Bye now!
B : Bye!
4
A : Excuse me, Mr. Sinha. Here is the report that you wanted.
B : Ah yes. Thank you, Mrs D’Souza.
A : Er, I was wondering, sir, if I could leave an hour earlier today. My son is rather ill
and needs to be taken to the doctor.
B : Oh, what is the matter with him?
A : He’s been running temperature for the past few days, and the doctor had asked for
certain tests to be done. I must pick up the reports before the hospital closes at five
o’clock today.
B : Well, all right. But do be on time tomorrow morning. I have some important
papers that I want typed urgently.
115
A : Thank you, sir. I will. Goodbye, Mr. Sinha!
B : Goodbye, Mrs D’Souza!
5
A : Thanks for a really lovely evening, Meera. It was nice meeting old friends again
and the food was absolutely delicious.
B : I’m glad you enjoyed yourself. Do drop in again, whenever you have time.
A : Yes, I will. Good night, Meera, and thanks once again.
B : Good night and take care.
6
A : Does that solve your problem?
B : Yes, sir. You’ve been most kind.
A : I’m glad to have been of help. Feel free to drop in again if there’s anything you
need.
B : Thank you very much, Dr Singh.
A : Well, goodbye, Rakesh! I hope you are working hard for your exams.
B : Yes, I am, sir. Goodbye, sir! And thank you once again, sir.
A : Goodbye!
7
A : Hi, Rakesh! Fancy bumping into you here!
B : Oh! Hello, Sudha! Nice to see you again after such a long time. Shopping?
A : Yes, buying some vegetables. And you?
B : I’ve come to see Dr. Bali who has a clinic here. I’m sorry I can’t stay. I’m already
late for my appointment.
A : Drop in at my place after your consultation.
B : Yes, I will. Bye!
A : Bye!
8
A : And that brings me to the end of my report. Thank you very much gentleman for
your attention. I am now ready to answer any questions that you may have.
9
A : Anything else you’d like to discuss?
B : Well, I think that’s all. Thank you for seeing me.
A : Goodbye!
B : Goodbye, sir!
10 A : That’s the whistle for your train. Goodbye and take care of yourself.
B : Yes, I will. Don’t forget to write and look after yourself too.
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A : Yes, I will. Goodbye!
B : Goodbye!
11 A : Talking to you has been a great pleasure. Thank you very much for sparing me so
much of your time.
B : Not at all. The pleasure’s been mine. Thank you for coming.
Tasks
1
A : Ghosh, it’s late. I’d better be going.
B : Yes, you should. You’ve already taken up too much of my time.
Who is saying something inappropriate? What should he have said?
(Answer: ‘B’ is being impolite hence what he says is inappropriate. He should have
said something like : ‘ Bye then. We must get together again soon.)
2
An important client who has come from another city is leaving after negotiations. As he
leaves he says:
Thank you for looking after me so well. I look forward to seeing you again soon.
Goodbye! You reply:
(a) What for?
(b) I hope not.
(c) It’s been a pleasure having you with us.✓
(d) Sure. Bye!
Choose the correct reply and say why the other replies are inappropriate.
3 You are talking to your English teacher about your performance in the last test, but you
now want to end the conversation because you are getting late for the next class. What will
you say to her/him?
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(Answer: Thank you very much for your suggestions, sir. I’ll try and work on
them and improve my performance in the next test. Thank you for seeing me.
Goodbye, sir.).
4
You’re talking to an elderly gentleman at the bus-stop as you wait for your bus. He talks
incessantly about the lack of seriousness in today’s youngsters. You’re bored and
want to end the conversation. Fortunately your bus arrives just then. What will you
say to the gentleman?
(Answer: Ok. Goodbye uncle. Here comes my bus! It was a pleasure talking to
you.)
5
You’re going home after college. How will you take leave of:
a) your best friend?
(Bye Rakesh! See you tomorrow.)
b)
The college principal?
(Goodbye, sir.)
c) a teacher who is friendly with you?
(Bye, ma’am.)
6
To which of these people would you say ‘Good night’:
(a) To a person whom you won’t see till the next morning. The time now is 3 p.m.
(b) To a person who has just now invited you for a late night movie. The time now is 7
p.m, and the movie begins at 9.30 p.m.
(c) To a person of whom you are taking leave at 8 p.m. and won’t see till next
morning.✓
7
You are saying goodbye to your host and his family after having stayed a week with
them. The host’s part of the conversation is given below. Fill in your part of the
dialogue:
Host : Not at all. We enjoyed your stay with us very much. The pleasure was ours. Do
come again.
You : ................................................................................................................................
( Answer: I would love to visit again but you must come and visit me now soon.
My place in the hills is beautiful in summer.)
Host : Yes, we will.
You : ................................................................................................................................
( Answer: I shall look forward to your visit then. OK. Bye!)
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Host : Bye-bye! Have a nice journey,
8
Here is a piece of incomplete conversation. Supply the missing parts:
A : ............................. And that’s the way the film ended.
B : Oh, I nearly forgot. I’ve got to see ................................ in a few minutes.
A : ..............................................................................................................................
B : ................................................................................................................................
9
Read the conversation given below:
A : It’s half past four already!
B : Goodness me! The last special leaves at quarter to five. I must leave. I don’t think
I’ll be able to show you the photographs.
A : I hope not. Now off you go and don’t worry about me.
Is this conversation appropriate, or is there something wrong with it? Can you improve it?
(Answer: The last line of the conversation is not correct. ‘A’ should have said something
like: ‘ Oh that’s too bad. Maybe we will look at the photographs some other
time. Bye! See you tomorrow!)
10. Your office had some serious problems. You invited a specialist to solve them. He is
now going back after solving the problems. You and your boss are seeing him off:
You
: Well, we hope you have a pleasant journey back, Mr. Dangwal.
Your boss
: And thank you for everything you have done. Goodbye!
The specialist : Hardly done anything boys. Have a nice time. And hope to see you
again.
Your boss is surprised at what the specialist says. Why? What should the specialist have
said?
(Answer: The specialist’s reply is very informal while the situation is a formal one.
He should have said: ‘I’m glad I could help. Hope things go on smoothly from
here.)
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Unit-4
WRITING SKILLS
From A Foundation English Course for Undergraduates: Work Book I
Nalini Prabhakar
Describing Places
1. TRIPURA
Look at the facts about Tripura:
Tripura
: an Indian state
Location
: Bangladesh on three sides, Assam and Mizoram on the fourth
side
Area
: 10,486 square km
Capital
: Agartala
Population
: 2,053,058
Dress
: men – dhoti
women – one piece of cloth from waist to knees and another
around the chest
Crops
: rice (chief crop), jute, cotton and oil-seeds.
Industry
: tea, handloom
Occupation
: men – farming, fishing
women – milking, weaving
Centres of attraction : a) the palace of the Maharaja of Tripura
b) Rudra Sagar lake
Based on the facts given above is the following description of Tripura, the second smallest
state in India:
Tripura is an Indian state. It is surrounded by Bangladesh on three sides and Mizoram
and Assam on the fourth side. Agartala is its capital. It has an area of 10,486 sq. km and a
population of 2,053,058. Rice is the chief crop. It also grows jute, cotton, and oil-seeds. Tea
and handloom are the main industries.
Men do farming and fishing and women do weaving and milking. They eat rice. Men
wear dhoti and women wear one piece of cloth from waist to knees and another around the
chest. The palace of the Maharaja of Tripura and Rudra Sagar lake are important places of
tourist interest.
120
2. MANIPUR
Write a paragraph about Manipur based on the information given below:
Manipur
:
an Indian state
Location
:
Nagaland in the North, Burma in the East and Assam in the
West.
Area
:
22,327 sq. km.
Capital
:
Imphal
Population
:
1,420,953
Occupation
:
agriculture
Crops
:
rice, wheat, turmeric, tobacco.
Dress
:
men – white dhoti
women – a sarong
industry
:
handloom
Food
:
vegetables and fish
Places of interest
:
a) Lok Tak lake
b) Keibul Lamjao – the only floating park in the world.
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3. ANDAMAN AND NICOBAR ISLANDS
(Union Territory)
Based on the facts given below, write a description of Andaman and Nicobar Islands:
Location
:
a group of 300 islands in the Bay of Bengal
Area
:
8,249 sq. miles
Capital
:
Port Blair
Population
:
1,88,741
Main occupation
:
farming and fishing
Dress
:
Men – a loin cloth
women – a lungi and a jacket
Crops
:
rice, coconut, arecanut*
Industry
:
plywood and matches
Food
:
coconuts, bananas, pork, fish, poultry
Hobbies
:
singing, dancing and wrestling
Places of interest
:
the old Cellular jail
* supari
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GRAMMAR : SIMPLE PRESENT TENSE
a.
Complete the following description about Leeds by choosing the correct words
from those given within brackets:
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LEEDS
Leeds is a city in the western part of England. About 500,000 people _live (live, lives) in
Leeds. The people of Leeds __make___ (make, makes) woollen cloth that is very famous, for
they have been spinning wool for six hundred years. In other factories, they _make___
(make, makes) leather goods, machines and furniture. Farmers _live__ (live, lives) nearby, in
the fertile valley of Aire River, and miners _work__ (work, works) in iron mines near Leeds.
In the Leeds Town Hall a music festival is held every three years. It _attracts__ (attract,
attracts) people from all parts of England.
b.
Complete the following passage on The Biggest Desert by choosing the correct words
from those given within brackets:
THE BIGGEST DESERT
The world’s largest desert is the great desert of North Arica—the Sahara. ‘Sahara’ in
Arabic___means______ (mean, means) wilderness. It _stretches__ (stretch, stretches) right
across Africa from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea. From east to west, it _covers___
(cover, covers) more than 3,000 miles.
The desert does not simply ‘stop’. Indeed desert conditions _disappear__ (disappear,
disappears) so gradually that nowhere to the south does it have precise boundaries.
The Sahara is one of the hottest regions of the world and on average _receives_ (receive,
receives) only 17 days of rain a year. When it does rain, delicate herbs and
flowers___grow______ (grow, grows) rapidly and then_disappear__ (disappear, disappears)
almost as quickly as they__come__ (come, comes).
GRAMMAR: PREPOSITIONS (AT, IN, ON)
Look at the following chart and note the use of the prepositions — at, in, on:
TIME
EXAMPLES
AT
exact point of time, noon, at 4 p.m., at 7 o’clock, at noon, at night, at
night, midnight dawn
midnight, at dawn
IN
Years, months seasons, in 1955, in December, in 5 years, in 2
hours, minutes, etc.
months, in winter, in spring, in 5 minutes
IN THE
parts of the day
in the morning, in the evening, in the
afternoon
ON
days
on Wednesday, on Sunday, on Independence
Day, on Republic Day.
(Adapted from The Situational English)
123
Exercise:
Now fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the words given below:
at, on, in
1.
We give gifts to each other __on__ special occasions.
2.
We do not go to college __on_______ Sunday.
3.
I’ll see you __in_______ the evening.
4.
Neena will leave for Bombay ___on_____Thursday evening.
5.
Pt. Nehru was born ___on______ 14th November, 1889.
6.
The train will be leaving __in_______ a few minutes.
7.
__On____ Sunday evening we saw a movie _on____ the TV. ____at___ 5 ‘clock.
8.
I have been invited to a wedding ___on______ 25th November.
9.
We normally go out __on_______ New Year’s Day.
10.
I’ll see my uncle ___on______ Monday ___at______ noon.
11.
The President gave away the awards ___on______ Republic Day.
12.
I first visited Bombay __in_______ 1980.
13.
We go for a walk ___at______ night.
14.
I have invited my friends to my house ___on______ Friday.
15.
Our plane reached Paris ____at_____ 9 p.m.
VOCABULARY: MATCHING WORDS AND DESCRIPTIONS
1.
airport :
_______
a place where aeroplanes set out and come to land
2.
stadium
_______
an enclosed area of land for games
3.
theatre
_______
a special building where plays are acted
4.
sky scraper _______
a very tall building
5.
museum
_______
a building in which objects of cultural, historical and
scientific interest are kept and displayed
6.
church
_______
a building for public Christian worship
7.
temple
_______
a building used for worship of gods and goddesses by the
Hindus
8.
mosque
_______
a building in which the Muslims worship Allah
9.
fort
_______
a building constructed for military defence
10. prison
_______
the place in which persons who have done wrong are
locked up
11. palace
_______
a large building, often a home for kings and queens
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Describing Activities
1. AT THE BEACH
Vocabulary
beach
palm
coconut
a number of
splashing
coconut seller
lying
several
catching fish
fishing net
sailing
at a distance.
This is a beach. There are coconut and palm trees along the
beach. Some men are swimming in the sea. A number of boys are
splashing water at one another. Some children are playing with
sand. The coconut seller is selling coconuts. A man and a
woman are drinking coconut water. The man is old, but the
woman is young. Another man is lying on the sand. A boy and a
girl and some children are sitting under an umbrella. Several
fishermen are catching fish with their fishing nets. The fishing
nets are old and dirty. A ship is sailing at a distance. The ship
belongs to the Indian Navy.
125
A COLLEGE CANTEEN
Vocabulary
sales counter
queue
snacks
sandwiches
cash counter
fat, thin
serving
standing at
sitting at
waiter
making payment
ice-cream
salesman
This is a picture of a college canteen. Describe the scene
using canteen. Describe the scene using words/phrases listed on
the left. You may use some other words too. You may begin the
paragraph thus:
This is a college canteen. Some students are standing at the
sales counter in a queue to place their orders. There are three
students sitting at the table. They are being served by the waiter.
The food being served is piping hot. One student is standing at a
little distance from the table and is having an ice-cream. One
student is making payment at the cash counter. One student
seems to have just entered the canteen. He is waving his hand by
way of greeting to someone in the canteen.
126
3. AT THE RAILWAY STATION
Vocabulary
Passengers
getting down
boarding
porters
luggage
carrying
couple
bench
bookstall
hawkers
tea stall
Two scenes , sea beach and college canteen have been
done for you. Now try and describe this picture of a railway
platform using the words listed on the left.
_
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GRAMMAR : SIMPLE PRESENT AND PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE
Fill in the blanks using the most appropriate words given in the brackets:
1.
He __is doing__(does, is doing) his home work; don’t disturb him.
2.
They always _pay__(pay, are paying) their employees by cheque.
3.
I can’t attend the party because it _is raining__(rains, is raining)
4.
He _is taking_ (takes, is taking) tuition in English, as he wants to improve his
knowledge of the language.
5.
His mother _is knitting__ (knits, is knitting) a pullover for him; it will be completed
soon.
6.
We’re sorry you can’t see Arun. He _is sleeping__. (sleep, is sleeping)
7.
He never ___carries___ (carries, is carrying) a raincoat, but he _is carrying__
(carries, is carrying) one now because it is likely to rain heavily.
8.
They usually _spend__ (spend, are spending) their summer vacation in Shimla, but
this year they _are spending__ (spend, are spending) their vacation in Nainital.
9.
Mr. Rao usually __buys___ (buy, is buying)only The Times of India but today he
_is buying___(buys, is buying) The Statesman.
10. ’What are you doing, Reema?’
’I ___am reading__ (read, am reading) a story book.’
11. My friend ___is giving__ (gives, is giving) a party next week.
12. I believe he _is leaving__ (leaves, is leaving) for Bombay sometime next month.
13. Listen! someone __is knocking__ (knocks, is knocking) at the door.
14. The maid usually _cooks___ (cooks, is cooking) the food. Today I _am
cooking___(cooks, am cooking) the food myself.
GRAMMAR : ARTICLES
Read the following sentences:
A man and a woman were walking along a street.
The man was narrating a story to the woman.
Here the speaker says a man and a woman in the first sentence because this is the first
time he is talking about them. A man and a woman here means some man and some women
about whom we do not know anything. But in the second sentence, the speaker says the man
and the woman, because the listener now knows which man and which woman the speaker is
talking about. It is the same man and the same woman about whom something was said
earlier.
When we refer to something or somebody for the first time, we do not use ‘the’, but
when we refer to the same thing or the same person again, i.e., the second or third time, we
use ‘the’.
128
Here are some more examples:
a.
A girl and a boy were good friends. One day the girl said to the boy, ‘come let’s
play.’
b.
My father bought a pen. The pen writes well.
c.
There lived a merchant called Ali Hassan. One day the merchant had a strange
dream. In the dream, an old man appeared before him.
d.
An old man and an old woman lived in a small hut, by a river, near a forest. One
day the old man left the hut and went into the forest to gather wood.
The old woman went to the river to wash clothes.
Exercise:
Use ‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the’ in the blanks:
1.
I saw _an__ accident this morning _A__ truck had collided with __a__ car. The was
badly damaged.
2.
I saw ___a____ film last week. _The__ film was about _a______ doctor and
___a____ beautiful girl. __The_____ doctor was in love with _the______ girl, but
___the____ girl loved __a_____ rich businessman. So _the______ doctor killed
__the_____ businessman and married _the______ girl.
Exercise:
Complete the following paragraphs by using ‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the:
1.
__An_____ actress was being courted by a man. She wanted _the______ man to
give her_an______ expensive present. At last _the______ man suggested __a_____
ring but she didn’t think it good enough and said, ‘I really want something for my
neck.’ The next day a small parcel arrived from _the_ best shop in the city.
__The_____ actress called her friends together so that she could open __the_____
parcel in front of them and they could see how lucky she was. Of course, she
expected __an_____ expensive necklace. But when she opened __the_____ parcel
there was only ___a____ piece of rope in it.
2.
Gaurav is__an_____ engineer. He works in _an______ oil refinery in Bombay. He
works in _the______ refinery for five days and then goes to his village in Nasik.
__The_____ village is not very far from his factory. He does __an_____ important
job and is paid Rs. 15000 per month.
Gaurav works twelve hours ___a____ day during his five days in the refinery,
Although __his_____ work is important, it is __a_____ rather boring job. He has
___a____ friend with whom he shares his room. _The______ room is quite big and
airy. ___The____ friend is from Delhi. __The_____ two boys like each other very
much. __The_____ boys are not allowed to drink alcohol so they have milk or tea
with their meals.
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VOCABULARY : MISCELLANEOUS WORDS
Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the words given below:
rest, reward, wealth, damage, contest, mercy, awake, shore, artificial, plenty
1.
We tied our boat and went on _shore______ .
2.
The judge had _mercy______ on the guilty man and did not punish him.
3.
Have you enough money for the ticket? Yes, I have plenty.
4.
The policemen received a __reward_____ of Rs. 500/- for his bravery in catching
the thief.
5.
I must have a __rest_____ for a few minutes, I am tired.
6.
A rich man has great _wealth______
7.
After the man lost his leg in the accident, he had to wear an _artificial__ one.
8.
There was no _contest___for the President’s post.
9.
Last night’s storm caused great _damage______ to the trees.
10. Is the baby _awake______ or asleep?
130
Describing Famous People
1. ABRAHAM LINCOLN
Look at the following facts about Abraham Lincoln, the sixteenth President of the United
States of America:
Name
Abraham Lincoln
Born
12 February 1809, Kentucky, U.S.A.
Education
(i) no schooling – mother taught him to read and write.
(ii) passed the Bar Examination in 1836.
Married
Mary Todd, 4 November 1842
Job
Practised Law for 24 years in Springfield, Illinois. became the
sixteenth President of the United States of America, 4 March 1861.
Died
Shot by John Wilkes Booth, 14 April 1965, died on 15 April 1865.
Here is a paragraph describing Abraham Lincoln, based on the facts given above:
ABRAHAM LINCOLN
Abraham Lincoln was born on 12 February 1809 in Kentucky in U.S.A. He didn’t go to
school, but his mother taught him to read and write. He passed the Bar Examination in 1836.
He married Mary Todd on 4 November 1842. He practised Law for 24 years in Springfield.
He became the sixteenth President of America on 4 March, 1861. He was shot by John
Wilkes Booth on 14 April, 1865. He died the following day on 15 April.
2. LAL BAHADUR SHASTRI
Look at the following facts about Lal Bahadur Shastri and write a paragraph about him:
LAL BAHADUR SHASTRI
Name
Lal Bahadur Shastri
Born
1904
Education
Studied at Benaras Hindu University, Kashi Vidyapeeth
Married
at the age of 23
Positions held
i) Union Minister for Railways, Communication, Commerce and
Industry
ii) Union Minister for Home Affairs
iii) Prime Minister of India from June 1964 to January 1966
Died
January 1966
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3. DR. ZAKIR HUSSAIN
Look at the following facts about Dr. Zakir Hussain and write a paragraph about him.
DR. ZAKIR HUSSAIN
Name
Dr. Zakir Hussain
Born
Hyderabad 1897
Education
i) Aligarh University;
ii) Studied Economics at Berlin University – got a Ph. D.
Positions held
i. Vice-Chancellor of Jamia Millia
ii. Governor of Bihar – 1957-62
iii. Vice-President of India 1962-67
iv. President of India 1967-69
Interests
i. wrote in Urdu, English and German
ii. translated Plato’s Republic into Urdu May 1969
Died
May 1969
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GRAMMAR : SIMPLE PAST TENSE
1.
Complete the following passage about the famous Italian painter Leonardo da Vinci,
filling in the appropriate forms of the verbs given in the brackets:
When Leonardo da Vinci was about 25 years old, he won (win) the patronage of Lorenzo
the Magnificent, the richest and most powerful man in Florence. During the following five
years he painted (paint) pictures of many subjects, especially religious subjects.
Sometime during the 1480s, Leonardo _moved_____ (move) to Milan to do painting
and sculpture for Duke Ludovico, ruler of Milan. Leonardo _stayed_____ (stay) in Milan
almost twenty years. There he _painted_____ (paint) the picture that is considered his
greatest work.
2.
Complete the following passage about Hitler by filling in the appropriate form of the
verbs given in the brackets:
In jail, Hitler _wrote_____ (write) his book Mein Kampf. He _glorified_____ (glorify)
the use of force by a great leader. He __ridiculed____ (ridicule) peace and democracy. He
_preached_____ (preach) extreme hatred against the German Jews who were blamed for all
the ills of Germany. He ____admired__ (admire) war. His ideas __found____ (find) favour
with the army, the industrialists, the big land-owners and anti-republican politicians. They
_began_____ (begin) to look upon Hitler as the saviour of Germany.
3.
Complete the following passage about Raja Rammohan Roy, the central figure in
India’s freedom struggle, by filling in the appropriate forms of the verbs given in the
brackets:
Raja Rammohan Roy _founded_____ (found) the Brahmo Samaj in 1828. He
_spread_____ (spread) the concept of ‘one God of all religious and humanity.’ He
_advised_____ (advise) people to read the scriptures themselves and not depend on the
Brahmans.
Raja Rammohan Roy _attacked_____ (attack) the caste system as inhuman. He
_stood_____ (stand) for equal rights for women and __advocated____ (advocate) the right of
widows to marry. He supported______ (support) Macaulay on the introduction of English
education in India. He _believed_____ (believe) in the spread of modern knowledge and the
modernization of Indian society.
4.
Complete the following passage about Rudyard Kipling, the most popular English
writer of his time, by filling in the appropriate form of the verbs given in brackets:
Kipling’s father was an artist and in charge of a museum in Bombay. Kipling was born in
Bombay in 1865. He ___went_______ (go) to school in England, then __lived________
(live) in India for about ten years. He _wrote___ (write) many stories about life in India.
Kipling__married___ (marry) an American girl, and for a few years he _lived__ (live) in
Brattleboro Vermont. While there he __wrote________ (write) some of his best stories.
Millions of children have enjoyed The Jungle Book. Kipling _received__(receive) the Nobel
Prize for literature in 1907. He ___died__ (die) in 1935.
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GRAMMAR : PREPOSITIONS
Look at the following pictures and note the use of: to, from, in, into, under, on, near
Anju is going to school.
Anju is coming back from school.
There is some water in the jug.
He threw the ball into the well.
The cat is under the table.
The books are on the table.
The letter box is near the tree.
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Complete the following paragraph by filling in the missing preposition:
Meena went __to_______ office __at______ 9 a.m. When she reached her room, she put
her books __on______ the table and her purse __in___ the drawer. She poured
water__into___ the glass ___from___ the jug. She sat ___at______ her table which was
__near_______ the window.
VOCABULARY: MISCELLANEOUS VERBS
Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with the verbs given below:
lifted, extinguished, defeated, examined, conquered, satisfied, increased, protect
1.
We cheered when our team _defeated___ the other team.
2.
He wore a hat to _protect__his head from the sun.
3.
People want more money because prices of all items have _increased__.
4.
She __lifted___ the baby out of his cot.
5.
The firemen extinguished___ the fire with water.
6.
The teacher __examined____ the class on everything they had learnt during the last
three months.
7.
Alfonso de Albuquerque _conquered___ Goa and made it the headquarters of his
administration.
8.
When we had __satisfied___ our hunger we started to work again.
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Describing Events
A HOUSE ON FIRE
Vocabulary
house on fire
crowd
neighbours
outside
fire-engines
soon after
at the site
hose pipes
ladders
put out
ambulance
climbed
injured
hospital
One day when Ashok returned home from school, he saw his
neighbour’s house on fire. There was a big crowd standing outside the
house. Soon after, two fire-engines arrived at the site. The firemen
climbed a big ladder and put out the fire with the help of hose pipes.
They took out the injured persons from the house, carried them to the
ambulance and then took them to the hospital.
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A THEFT
Anita had gone shopping. When she returned home and opened the door, she found there had
been a robbery in her house. What happened next is shown in the pictures:
Vocabulary
cupboard
clothes
lying
window-pane
broken
rang up/dial
thief
policemen
arrived
scattered
followed
scent
arrested
handcuffed
Look at the pictures carefully and describe what happened.
You may use some of the words/phrases given on the left.
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
______________________________________________________
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GRAMMAR : SIMPLE PAST AND PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE
Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate words given in the brackets:
1.
As soon as I saw my old friend, I __recognised___ (was recognizing, recognized)
him.
2.
Anil broke his tooth while he _was eating__ (ate, was eating) betel nuts.
3.
The child __was trembling_____ (trembled, was trembling) when the grandmother
told him a ‘ghost story.’
4.
The thief _ran__(ran, was running) when he saw a policeman.
5.
All the time he _was writing_______ (wrote, was writing) his letter, his younger
brother kept shouting.
6.
He entered the bus while it __was moving______ (moved, was moving).
7.
He __was listening______ (listened, was listening) to the radio when I telephoned
him.
8.
The doctor __was seeing____ (saw, was seeing) another patient, while I _waited__
(waited, was waiting) outside in the waiting room.
9.
When the Principal entered the class, all the students _got up_______ (got up, were
getting up).
10. When I entered the room the child _was sleeping__ (slept, was sleeping).
Fill in the blanks with the correct forms of the verbs given in the brackets:
When Savita __arrived______ (arrive) at the station, her husband was _waiting__ (wait)
for her. She was __wearing__(wear) a blue sari and was _looking__(look) very pretty. As
soon as she __saw__ (see) him she __waved___ (wave) her hand and _shouted___ (shout)
something, but he couldn’t hear what she __said__ (say) because everybody was
__making__(make) such a noise.
GRAMMAR : SIMPLE PAST AND PAST PERFECT TENSE
Fill in the blanks with the most appropriate words given in the brackets:
1.
After the doctor had given____(gave, had given) an injection, the pain became
much less.
2.
The train __had left__ (left, had left) much before he __arrived__ (arrived, had
arrived) at the station.
3.
They __had waited__(waited, had waited) for thirty minutes before the bus arrived.
4.
The child __went___(went, had gone) to bed after he _had taken__ (took had taken)
the food.
5.
She __had finished______ (finished, had finished) her graduation before she
__got___ (got, had got) married.
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6.
His finger _began__ (began, had begun) to bleed as soon as he _ cut__ (cut, had cut)
it.
7.
The patient _had died___ (died, had died) before the doctor _arrived__ (arrived, had
arrived).
8.
He _had checked__ (checked, had checked) the number in the telephone directory
before he __dialled_ (dialled, had dialled) it.
9.
She _started__ (started, had started) working as an air hostess immediately after she
_had left__(left, had left) college.
10. She had difficulty sleeping because she _had seen__ (saw had seen) a horror film on
television.
GRAMMAR : ARTICLES
Complete the following paragraphs by using ‘a’, ‘an’ or ‘the’:
1.
___A_____ lion was disturbed in his sleep by __a______ mouse. _The__ lion
wanted to kill __the______ mouse. __The______ mouse begged for mercy which
was granted. Sometime later __the______ lion was caught in ___a_____ net.
_The_______ mouse bit __the______ net with its sharp teeth and got __the______
lion released.
2.
One day ___a_____ fox invited ___a_____ stork to dinner. Wishing to amuse
himself, he placed ___a_____ little quantity of soup in ___an_____ oval shallow
dish. __The______ stork, having ___a_____ long beak, was unable to take any,
while __the______ fox licked up every drop, laughing all the time at his clever
trick. ___The_____ stork felt indignant and resolved to take revenge. In __a______
few days he asked __the______ fox to dine with him. When __the______ dinner
was served __the______ fox was upset to find food served in ___a_____ glass jar
with __a______ long thin neck. ___The_____ stork thrust her bill into __the______
jar and ate ___a_____ hearty meal. __The______ hungry fox could get nothing to
eat; he could only lick the brim of __the______ jar. __The______ fox was thus paid
back in his own coin for having set ___a_____ bad example himself.
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Describing Programmes and Giving Directions
1. A PROGRAMME
Mr. and Mrs. Sharma are going to Goa during the summer vacation. Their programme is
given below:
1 May 1988
:
leave for Bombay by the Rajdhani Express.
2 May 1988
:
reach Bombay, stay at Vikas Hotel on Marina Beach
3-4 May 1988
:
sightseeing, shopping
5 May 1988
:
leave for Goa by ship
5-14 May 1988
:
stay in Goa, visit various places, go shopping
14 May 1988
:
leave for Delhi by air
14 May 1988
:
arrive in Delhi.
The above information is given in the form of a paragraph.
Mr. and Mrs Sharma Sharma have decided to go to Goa during the summer vacation.
They will leave for Bombay on 1 May 1988 by Rajdhani Express. They will reach Bombay
on 2 May and stay at Vikas Hotel on Marina Beach. They will stay there for two days. They
will go shopping and sightseeing on 3 and 4 May. The next day they will leave for Goa by
ship. They will stay there from 5-14 May. On the 14th afternoon they will leave for Delhi by
plane and reach Delhi the same evening.
Exercise
Dr. Rajindra Prasad College, Jaipur is celebrating its Annual Prize Distribution Day on
15 April 1989. The Minister of Education, Mr. N.N. Rao had agreed to be the Chief Guest for
the occasion.
Look at the programme for this day, as given below, and write this information in the
form of a news item:
Programme:
10.00 a.m.
:
Arrival of the Chief Guest, Mr. N.N. Rao, Minister of Education.
10.15 a.m.
:
Welcome speech by the Chairman of the college.
10.30 a.m.
:
The Annual Report by the Principal
11.00 a.m.
:
Prize Distribution by the Chief Guest
11.45 a.m.
:
Address by the Chief Guest
12.00 noon
:
Tea
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
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___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
Raju’s family is planning to spend their autumn break in Rajasthan. Their itinerary is
given below.
1 October 1989
:
9.30 p.m. :
departure from Old Delhi Station
2 October 1989
:
5.30 a.m. :
arrival at Abu Road Station
6.30 a.m. :
arrival at Mount Abu (by bus)
9.00 a.m. :
departure for Udaipur (by bus)
4.00 p.m. :
arrival at Udaipur
5.00 a.m. :
departure for Jaipur (by bus)
11.00 a.m. :
arrival at Jaipur
4 October 1989
6 October 1989
:
:
8 October
:
9.30 p.m. :
departure for Delhi (by train)
9 October 1989
:
5.30 a.m. :
arrival at Old Delhi Station
Write the information in the form of a paragraph:
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
141
2. TELLING THE WAY
Read the following directions carefully:
Come out of the Railway Station to the
Main Gate. You are on Reading Road. Turn
left and walk straight until you reach the first
crossing. The turn right. Now you are on
Shivaji Road. Again walk straight until you
reach the dead end. Turn right on to Moti Lal
Road, walk a few yards, the fourth house on
your left is my house.
Exercise:
A friend of Raman is coming to Delhi by bus. Raman has sent him the road map so that
he can reach Raman’s house himself.
Write down the directions from the Bus Stand to Raman’s house.
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___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
3. DRAWING A MAP
Ritu needs some post cards. She sends her younger brother to the post office. She
gives the following directions to him. Can you draw a map to help her brother?
Go out of the gate, turn left and walk straight along M.G. Road. After a few yards you
will reach the intersection of M.G. Road and Moti Lal Road. Cross Moti Lal Road and walk
straight along M.G. Road. Cross the next intersection also and continue to walk along M.G.
Road. After the next crossing, walk on till you come to Daya Nand Lane. Turn right on to
Daya Nand Lane. The second building on your left is the Post Office.
A MAP
GRAMMAR : SOME LINKERS
Read the following sentences carefully and note the use of the words underlined:
1.
You must work hard if you want to get good marks.
2.
Go home and rest.
3.
She is tall but her sister is short.
4.
She is very honest so she cannot cheat.
5.
The baby is crying because she wants milk.
Exercise:
Fill in the blanks using the words given below:
and, because, if, so, but
1.
I am wearing this uniform __because__ I am on duty.
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2.
Rama wanted to go to Calcutta on Monday __but__ he could not go. His father fell
ill __and__ was taken to hospital.
3.
Once a hare laughed at a tortoise _because__he moved very slowly. The tortoise
said that he was slow __but___ was sure he would beat the hare in a race. The hare
ran fast __and__was soon in the middle of the field. He then went off to sleep.
___But__ the tortoise continued to plod along __and__won the race.
GRAMMAR : PREPOSITION (REVISION)
Fill in the blanks with suitable prepositions:
1.
Sneh met with an accident last week. She is still ___at_______ the hospital.
2.
I am leaving by the 8 o’clock train. Can you meet me __at___the station?
3.
When are you going __to________ Bombay?
4.
The prisoner ran away ___from_______ the prison.
5.
Why did you come late __for________ the party?
6.
Don’t telephone me in the evening. I shall not be ___at_______ home.
7.
When Anju came back from school she kept her bag ___on_______ the table and
her coat ___in_______ the wardrobe.
8.
He is swimming __in________ the lake.
9.
There is a park __near________ my house.
10. February comes ___between_______ January and March.
This is a letter written by Taruna to Manju. Some words have been left out. Complete
the letter by filling in the missing prepositions.
39, Railway Colony,
Jaipur-302004
15 September, 1989
My dear Manju,
My autumn vacation will begin ____from______ 8th Oct and we are planning to go
___to_______ Bombay ___for_______ Diwali. We shall start __from________ Delhi
______on____ Saturday and will reach there ___on_______ Sunday morning ___at_______
8 a.m. We will stay ___in_______ Bombay for a week. ___On_______ Monday evening we
will go ___to_______ the beach and will return late ___at_______ night. After spending a
week there, we shall leave for Delhi _on_________ 15th Oct.
Are you planning __to________ go anywhere during the holidays? Do write
___and_______ let me know how you are.
Yours sincerely
(Taruna)
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Unit-5a
APPLYING FOR A JOB
From: English At the Workplace
Getting Ready for a Job
Anil Aneja
How to Look for a Job
Normally, one comes to know of the availability of a vacancy in an institution or in a
company through newspaper advertisements. These advertisements contain various kinds of
information relating to the nature of the available job, qualifications required in order to
apply for a particular job, salary and other requirements. In some advertisements those
seeking jobs are asked to send their CV (Bio-data) to a particular address, while in some
other advertisements the candidates are asked to simply walk in for an interview on the
specified date and time.
When you are looking for a job, you must go through the advertisements carefully and should
be able to understand the advertisement clearly. Only then you would know whether the jobs
which are advertised are of your interest or not. It follows then that before you start reading
the job advertisements you should be very clear in your mind as to the kind of job you are
looking for, the working conditions and also the kind of salary that you expect. This will help
you save a lot of precious time and you won’t have to waste your time pursuing jobs which
are not to your interest.
Understanding an Advertisement
It is important to carefully go through an advertisement in order to understand what your
employer is looking for. Only when you know the precise job requirements you can decide
whether you should apply for that particular job.
Preparing a CV/ Bio-Data
Once you have decided which job to apply for, you need to prepare a Bio-Data to
introduce yourself to the prospective employer. Preparing a Bio-Data or Curriculum Vitae is
an art in itself. Bio-Data is an important document which is meant to tell the employer the
important facts about you in brief. So it is important for your Bio-Data to be precise, clear
and not very long. At the same time you should not leave out any important detail pertaining
to you. Job-seekers often make various kinds of mistakes while preparing their Bio-Data or
CV.
Points to Remember While Preparing CV
You are expected to list your personal, educational and professional details in a precise
and neat manner in a CV. But that does not mean that you should write occupations of your
family members as shown in the first sample. Nor should you write an essay on yourself in a
CV as has been done in the second sample. Preferably you should write the bio-Data in the
column form so that it is easy to read and the information does not get jumbled up. Please
145
note that CV writing styles keep changing rapidly, so you should constantly update yourself.
But broadly speaking, your CV should contain the following:
1.
Your Name;
2.
Father’s/Mother’s Name;
3.
Your Date of Birth;
4.
Your Nationality;
5.
Your Gender (some jobs have specific gender requirements: male only or female
only);
6.
Your Permanent Address;
7.
Your Address for Communication;
8.
Your Phone Number;
9.
Your email id;
Under educational details you should mention each qualification in a separate line. The
following details should be included: Name of Examination: e.g. AISSC or B.A., year of
Passing; Name of Institution or University; Result.
You should also mention if you have won any important awards or took part in important
sporting events. Your professional details should include the name of the Company where
you have worked or are still working, years of employment, designation and salary. Also,
include a brief job profile. If you are not working, then you could include your interests and
what kind of job you would like to have and why.
Most CVs end with the names and addresses of two persons who know you well and
who can be contacted by the prospective employer to get information about you.
Now in the light of above points study the CVs which are given in your book and note
the mistakes.
Preparing for the Interview
If your Bio-Data has been accepted by your prospective employer, the next step in your
job search is the interview. An interview is the most important part of securing a job, because
in a short period you have to convince your employer that you are the best person for that
particular job. Therefore everything that you say and every gesture that you make is
important. One reveals one’s qualities not just through words, but often more significantly,
through expressions, gestures and even dress.
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Unit-5b
Writing Skills
From Everyday English 2
Neeta Gupta
This Unit on ‘Writing Skills’ summarizes for you the various steps involved in the writing
process. Read these steps carefully. Since this is the last Unit in course in your textbook, you
may recall that the steps described here have already been dealt with in the preceding units.
What we need to do therefore, is to revise all that we have learnt about the writing process till
now.
Writing is an effective means of communication. It is a more formal way of expressing our
thoughts than speaking. The language of writing is also different from the language of
speaking. Since writing gives us more time to think and plan, a good piece of writing must
include the following features:
1.
It should be simple, clear and concise.
2.
It must have a clear objective.
3.
It should be coherent (properly organized), ideas should be linked with each other).
4.
It must have logical sequence (each paragraph must contain one idea).
5.
It must have a variety of sentence types and a good vocabulary in order to avoid
monotony.
6.
The writer must have an idea of the reader who is going to read the piece of writing.
Writing Process
The process of writing involves various stages. These stages are however not fixed, but
the writer constantly keeps going back in order to go forward.
The various stages of writing are:
1.
Generating ideas, keeping in mind the purpose (why we are writing) and the reader
(who we are writing for).
2.
Jotting down points/ideas.
3.
Writing the first draft.
4.
Revising the draft (writing or deleting items, organizing material, rearranging ideas,
etc) 5. Writing the final draft
6.
Editing (correcting spellings, grammatical errors, etc).
Different Forms of Writing
1.
Descriptive: giving descriptions of people, places, things, etc.
147
2.
Narrative: telling a story or giving an account of events that happened in the past.
3.
Expository: explaining or interpreting things.
4.
Argumentative: giving an opinion in favour or against something.
Writing Letters
Letters are most commonly used forms of written communication. We write letters to
communicate with the people who are away from us. Letters are written for different
purposes. Some of these are:
• to inform
• to request
• to inquire
• to invite
• to place orders
• to complain
• to direct
• to apply for job, admission, etc
Letters can be broadly classified in two kinds:
1. Informal letters (Personal letters)
2. Formal letters (Business letters)
Personal letters are written to friends, family members and relatives. They can be written
for anything, to say hello, to enquire about someone’s health, to offer help, to congratulate,
etc. The tone of personal letters is informal.
Business letters must be written more carefully in a formal manner so that they achieve
the desired result.
After summarizing the steps involved in the Writing Process, Unit 21 narrows down its
focus to the process of writing letters, particularly Business Letters. The format of a business
letter is already provided below:
II. Formal or Business Letters
In a formal or business letter too it goes without saying that you have to be careful about
spellings, grammar and punctuation as well as write clearly, be precise, keep the paragraphs
short and use good quality paper. In addition to all this there are certain rules to be followed
while writing a formal letter and the same are briefly described below. Formal letters follow
the block format in which all of the writing is kept to the left hand side of the page close to
the left margin. There are other formats available but this is the one most usually followed.
148
1.
Your Address: This is the return address of the person writing the letter so that if the
person receiving it wants to reply he/she can easily find out where to send that reply.
In case you are writing on a company letter-head then this is not needed.
After writing your address you leave a line blank.
2.
Date: Write the date on which the letter was written. The most popular format is that
of Month, Day, Year eg: January 15, 2007.
Now once again leave a line blank.
3.
Inside Address: This is the address of the person you are writing to along with the
name of the person receiving it along with their title and company name. eg:
Director…………………
or
Manager……………………
Leave a blank line between the inside address and the salutation.
4.
Salutation:
Address
the
person
as
Dear
Mr./Mrs./Ms.;
Dear
Director…………………… or To Whom It May Concern if the recipient is unknown.
Note that there is a comma after the salutation. For example:.
Dear Mr. Raghav,
Leave a blank line between the salutation and the subject line (if there is one) or the
main text or body of the letter.
5.
Subject Line (Optional): The subject line is optional but if included it should clearly
specify the subject of the letter in one or two lines only.
After the subject line you once again leave a blank line between the subject line and
the main text.
6.
Main text: This is the main body of the letter which carries the subject matter. Write
it neatly and skip a line between each paragraph. Be careful about spellings, grammar,
punctuation etc. keep it short but clear.
Once you are through with the matter you leave a blank line again before you write
the formal closing.
7.
The formal closing: This usually ends with Yours Sincerely/Sincerely yours/Thank
you and so on. If you have begun your letter with Dear Sir/Madam then you will end
it with Yours faithfully/Yours truly/Truly yours. Put a coma after the end of the
closing. Remember that only the first letter of the closing is written with a capital
letter.
8.
The Signature Line: Now skip two or three lines and then write clearly the name to
be signed. Women may indicate how they wish to be addressed by placing
Miss/Mrs./Ms. or similar title within parenthesis before their name. eg (Mrs.) Mehta.
The signature line may include a second line for a title if appropriate.
149
eg: (Mrs) D. Kapoor
Director Marketing.
9.
Signature: The signature has to be placed in the space between the formal closing
and the signature line. The signature should start directly above the first letter of the
signature line.
10.
Enclosures: If the letter contains any other documents then write Encl. or Enclosures
and then put the number of the documents included apart from the letter.
Sample: The sample format provided here is the one that is usually followed in business
letters and is known as the block format. The advantage with this style is that there is no
indenting to be followed in the whole letter because everything is pushed to the left hand
margin. There are many other styles followed but this is by far the most popular and the
easiest to remember.
Business Letter : Block Format
Return Address (Line 1)
Return Address (Line 2)
Date : (Month/Day/Year).
Mr./Mrs./Ms./Dr. (Full name of the recipient)
Title/Position of the Recipient.
Company Name
Address (Line 1).
Address (Line 2).
Dear Ms./Mr./Mrs. (Last Name);
Subject:
Main Text (Paragraph 1) ………………….………………………………………
…………...…………………………………………………………..................................….
..………………………………………………………………………………
Main Text (Paragraph 2)……………………......……………………………….......
………………………………...…………………………………………………..............….
..………………………………………………………………………………
Closing (Yours sincerely),
Signature
Your Name
Your Title
Encl:
150
Having gone through the rules and the formats provided above you would now have a better
idea about writing formal or informal letters. These days however the written form of
communication can be sent across not just as a simple letter on paper but as telefax or even as
an e-mail. Unit 10 begins by giving you a few examples of different types of letters that can
be written and then follow a set of exercises to help you understand the art of writing good
letters. Read the sample letters that have been provided and then go through the exercises,
most of which have been solved for you in this study material.
Here is an application for a job. The numbers refer to those given in the format.
25 Park Street
Nehru Nagar
(1)
New Delhi 110081
18 January 2006
(2)
The Personnel Manager
Infosys Pvt Ltd
(4)
Bangalore-5
Dear Sir
(5)
Subject: Application for the job of Assistant Manager (6)
I saw your advertisement in The Hindustan Times dated 10th January 2006 for the post
of Assistant Manager. I would like to be considered for this post.
I am 22 years old and a first class graduate in Computer Science from Delhi University. I
have also done a diploma in web-designing.
I have worked for six months in a company and I have handled various responsibilities
independently.
(7)
I look forward to working in your company.
I assure you that given an opportunity, I shall serve the company to the best of my
ability.
Thank you.
Yours truly
(8)
S/d.
(9)
Neha Verma
151
Exercise 1: You see an advertisement for the position of Sales Executive for TEXAL company
in the Times of India dated 20th October 2020. Send an application for the post.
Solution: In this exercise you are required to write out a letter of application as well as a biodata that needs to be enclosed with the application. Make a note of the details that have been
provided in the question for the same shall be used for writing out the letter.
Details provided are as follows:
1.
It has to be a letter of application.
2.
The application is for the post of a Sales Executive.
3.
The company’s name is Texal Company.
4.
Your letter is in response to an advertisement that appeared in The Times of India
dated 20th January 2006.
Your letter of application
23, West Street
Dev Nagar
New Delhi-110042
21-October- 2020
The Personnel Manager
Texal Company
Delhi-110082
Dear Sir,
Subject: Application for the post of a Sales Executive
This is with reference to your advertisement in The Times of India dated 20th
January 2006, for the post of a Sales Executive. I would like to be considered for this post. I
am enclosing my detailed bio-data for ready reference.
I assure you that given an opportunity, I shall serve the Company to the best of my
ability.
Thank you,
Yours Truly
S/d
ABC
152
Note 1:
When we begin a letter with ‘Dear Sir/Dear Madam’, we close it with ‘yours
faithfully/yours truly’. When we write "Mr/Ms + Surname/first name?, we write
yours sincerely.
Note 2:
Some other expressions for the opening of job applications are:
o Kindly refer to your advertisement...
o This is with reference to...
o I understand that there is a vacancy... (when the source of information is not
known)
Note 3:
Some other expressions for closing the main body of the letter are:
o I would appreciate it very much...
o I would be grateful if...
o I would request you to consider...
Try doing the Exercises given below:
Exercise 1: You are interested in doing a course in fashion designing. You see an
advertisement in The Hindustan Times dated 12th January 2020. The institute is Delhi
Fashion Academy, 5, Ambedkar Marg, New Delhi. Write an application to the Director of the
Institute inquiring about:
•
•
•
The duration of the course
The fee of the course
Whether a certificate will be issued at the end of the course.
Exercise 2: Write an application to the Principal of your college requesting him/her to grant
financial help. Give reasons why you deserve the grant.
153
A Sample of bio-data (Curriculum Vitae) is given below:
Curriculum Vitae
Mohit Verma
Address
121 Meera Apts
Paschim Vihar
New Delhi 110063
Objective
Tel 252634221
(M) 9812376432
email: [email protected]
To work and grow in the area of computer operation with a vision to
accumulate and consolidate knowledge and new techniques and to take
up fresh challenges.
Professional Experience
1.
2
3.
Educational Qualifications
1.
2.
3.
Additional Achievements
Professional Qualification
Personal Details
Note 1:
We begin with the most recent job and the highest qualification for Professional
Experience and Educational Qualification
Note 2:
Personal details will include date of birth, names of mother and father, nationality and
marital status.
154
List of Suggested Readings
o Unit 1:Reading and Comprehending –II
▪ A Foundation English Course for Undergraduates: Book II, Delhi:
University of Delhi, 1992.
pp. 1 - 7 Units 1 & 2; pp. 19 - 21 Unit 6; pp. 47 - 49 Unit 13; pp. 61 63 Unit 16 & pp. 75 -79 Unit 19
▪
Everyday English 2, Delhi: Foundation Books, 2006. pp. 14 - 29
Units 3 - 5; pp. 91 – 101, Units 16 - 17 & pp. 121 - 128 Unit 21
o Unit 2:Basic Grammar Rules II
▪ Developing Language Skills I Delhi: Manohar, 1997. pp. 183 - 186
& pp. 209 - 216 Units 1, 6 & 7 of 'Grammar'
o Unit 3:Conversing II
▪ English at the Workplace II, Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2007.
pp. 10 - 13 Unit 3 & pp.38 – 45 Unit 9
▪ Developing Language Skills I, Delhi: Manohar, 1997. pp. 26 - 45 Units 6
- 10 of 'Oral Communication: Speech Patterns'
o Unit 4:Writing Skills – II
▪ A Foundation English Course for Undergraduates: Workbook I,
Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1991. pp. 32 - 63 Units VI - X
o Unit 5:Applying for a Job
▪ English at the Workplace, Delhi: Macmillan, 2006. pp. 67 - 75 Unit 11
▪ Everyday English 2, Delhi: Foundation Books, 2006. pp. 121 - 128
Unit 21
155
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