Influence of Priming Conditions on the Performance of the Implicit Memory Student Name Course Name Institutional Affiliation Introduction The implicit memory is commonly known as the unconscious memory that utilizes the past events and experiences to create images without necessarily thinking about them. Past experiences enable the function and performance of the implicit memory regardless of the period back in time these experiences happened. Procedural memory is part of the implicit memory that makes it possible for an individual to perform many of the days to day activities such as riding a bicycle or walking without having to think about the activities. The procedural memory is recognized as the largest subset of the implicit memory, and it depends on the basal ganglia and the cerebellum (Parkin, 2016). The procedural memory majorly involves learning new motor skills. The other section or subset of the implicit memory is the priming memory which involves using stimuli such as words and pictures to recognize other stimuli such as words and picture in the future. For example, one remembers grass using the color green. Implicit memory tests Researchers use implicit memory to refer to the emotional activation of cases that do not involve the conscious recall of a memory. It is, therefore, more difficult to demonstrate the existence of the implicit than it is to demonstrate explicit memory that is a conscious memory. Researchers have come up with many different tests to demonstrate the implicit memory. Researchers investigating implicit memory give the participants a series of tasks to study and are later given the same tasks but in fragments and instructed to complete the tasks. In some tests, the information given to the subjects is incoherent to test if the subjects will remember the information consciously (Greenwald & Banaji, 2017). Some of the examples of implicit memory tasks include typing on a keyboard, brushing teeth, dialing a phone, recalling rules of a game, buttoning a shirt, cycling a bicycle, performing simple cooking tasks, and recalling words to a familiar song or a poem. Researchers have narrowed down the implicit memory tests into two distinct types; the perceptual and conceptual memory tests. Perceptual memory tests These implicit memory tests evaluate the performance of the perceptual system by introducing the impoverished test stimuli to which the participants are required to provide responses. Example of the perceptual memory test is word fragment completion, word stem completion, and word completion. When pictures are used study material in the perceptual memory tests, the participants are provided with fragmented forms of the pictures through a series of successively fuller fragments until the participants can identify the contents of the picture. The measure of the perceptual memory test tasks is priming. The factors affecting priming on perceptual implicit memory tests are different from the factors that affect performance on explicit memory tests. For example, modality has little or no impact on explicit memory tests while it has a great impact on implicit memory tests (Schacter, & Norman, 2014). Conceptually driven tests These are memory tests that depend on the meaning of events or concepts being remembered, and the important aspect of the tests is the meaning of the events rather than the event itself. For example, generating a word generally depends on the meaning of the given the word than the reading of the word itself. The general knowledge test is the most common conceptual implicit memory test (Schacter, & Norman, 2014). Method Forty-one participants were involved in the recognition implicit memory test that involved word identification. The main objective of the research study was to assess if people were faster in recognizing words with recent words as compared to non-primed words. The participants were used to test the hypothesis for the study which was that people would be faster than they have recently been exposed to in the first part of the experiment. Six men and thirty-five women aged between the age of 18 and 39 were involved in the experiment. Results The time the participants took to recognize the words the recently primed words were collected and recorded before priming and after priming. The following table shows the summary of the descriptive statistics where the periods are given in mean time per trial in milliseconds. Table 1: summary descriptive statistics Statistics Mean Standard Error Median Mode Standard Deviation Sample Variance Kurtosis Skewness Range Minimum Maximum Sum Count OLD 3713.411 73.07835 3624.852 #N/A 467.9298 218958.3 1.95221 1.07144 2421.302 2784.16 5205.462 152249.8 41 NEW 4059.626 62.88285 3929.731 #N/A 402.6467 162124.3 1.434689 1.243812 1779.546 3597.704 5377.25 166444.7 41 A paired sample t-test on the individual mean times for the condition before priming (Old condition) and after priming (New condition) was done, and the following results were obtained; old (M = 3,713.41, SD = 467.93) and New (M = 4,059.63, SD = 402.65). The t-test table for the two means is shown in table 2 below t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means Mean Variance Observations Pearson Correlation Hypothesized Mean Difference df t Stat P(T<=t) one-tail t Critical one-tail P(T<=t) two-tail t Critical two-tail Old New 3713.411 4059.626 218958.3 162124.3 41 41 0.864412 0 40 -9.42242 5.22E-12 1.683851 1.04E-11 2.021075 This information can be visualized in figure 1 below 5000 4500 Reaction Time (ms) 4000 3500 3000 old 2500 new 2000 1500 1000 500 0 Condition There was a significant difference between conditions groups as shown in the t-test results (t (40) = 9.422, p< .05). Discussion and conclusion The goal of the research study was to assess how fast an individual recognizes words before and after priming conditions. The t-test showed that the speed of recognizing words after priming (New) was higher than the speed of remembering the words before priming (Old). The results of the study were in line with the literature on the influence of priming on implicit memory. The performance of the participant in recognizing the words was significantly improved by the priming condition and this resulted to the differences in the means between the old and new mean times recorded for recognizing the words. From the results of the study, we accept the hypothesis of the study to conclude that people will be faster at identifying words they have been exposed to in the priming condition when compared to identifying words they have not seen before. Therefore, priming improves the performance of implicit memory. References Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (2017). The implicit revolution: Reconceiving the relation between conscious and unconscious. American Psychologist, 72(9), 861. Parkin, A. J. (2016). Memory: Phenomena, experiment and theory. Routledge. Schacter, D. L., & Norman, K. A. (2014). Implicit Memory, Explicit Memory, and False Recollection: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective. In Implicit Memory and Metacognition (pp. 241-270). Psychology Press. Rosén, A., Yi, J., Kirsch, I., Kaptchuk, T. J., Ingvar, M., & Jensen, K. B. (2017). Effects of subtle cognitive manipulations on placebo analgesia–An implicit priming study. European Journal of Pain, 21(4), 594-604.