Uploaded by Camila Yen Aleo


Core Subject
1st Semester, S.Y. 2020-2021
STUDENT: _______________________________________
YEAR & SECTION: _____________________
DATE: October 1-31, 2020
Subject Description
This course develops critical thinking and problem-solving skills through
quantitative research.
Content Standard
The learner demonstrates understanding of: the criteria in selecting,
citing, and synthesizing related literature; the ethical standards in writing related
literature; the formulation of conceptual framework; the research hypotheses (if
appropriate); the definition of terms as used in the study.
The learner demonstrates understanding of: quantitative research designs;
description of sample; instrument development; description of intervention (if
applicable); data collection and analysis procedures such as survey, interview,
and observation; guidelines in writing research methodology
Performance Standard
The learner is able to: select, cite, and synthesize judiciously related
literature and use sources according to ethical standards; formulate clearly
conceptual framework, research hypotheses (if appropriate), and define terms
used in study; present objectively written review of related literature and
conceptual framework.
The learner is able to: describe adequately quantitative research designs,
sample, instrument used, intervention (if applicable), data collection, and analysis
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Learning from others and reviewing the Literature
Learning Objectives:
By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to:
select relevant literature;
cite related literature using a standard style;
synthesize information from relevant literature;
illustrate a conceptual framework;
follow ethical standards in writing a literature review; and
present a written review of literature and conceptual framework.
Lesson 1: Kinds of Variables and Their Uses
A variable is any element or entry which can be measured for quantity or
quality. When conducting a quantitative study, you are expected to measure or
figure out the relationship between your variables. You may also manipulate or
control these variables, depending on the kind of research you are conducting.
Two General Types of Variables
A. Quantitative Variables
- It can be measured numerically.
- They are the variables used primarily in quantitative research.
- They can be classified under two types: discrete and continuous.
1. Discrete variables
 Counts of individual items or values.
 They can only be denoted by positive whole
 Some examples of discrete variables are group sizes,
number of students in class and number of different
tree species in a forest.
2. Continuous variables (interval variables)
 They are measured in ranges and can be denoted
by non-whole numbers.
 They can have positive or negative values and can
also be expressed as fractions.
 Temperature is an example of continuous variable.
3. Ratio variable
 It is a special type of continuous variable.
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This type of variable cannot have a negative value.
When the value of a ratio is zero, it means that there
is none of that variable.
Some examples of ratio variables are age, height,
weight, distance, and test scores.
B. Qualitative Variables (Categorical Variables)
- Despite lacking numerical value, these variables can still be used in
quantitative research. They involve assigning values to specific
categories or groups (e.g., blood type, color). Categorical variables
are of two types: dichotomous and nominal.
1. Dichotomous variables
 Those that have only two distinct categories or values
 An example of a dichotomous variable is the
response to a “yes/no” question.
2. Nominal variables
 They have more than two categories or values.
 Examples: hair color, marital status, blood type,
mode of transportation, source of income, and
 Ordinal variables are variables that exhibit the characteristics of both
qualitative and quantitative types. Ordinal variables have values that can
be ranked or ordered. These values can be numerical like quantitative
variables. However, they can also be arranged into specific non-numerical
classes like quantitative variables. For instance, frequency is described as
rare, seldom, sometimes, almost always, or always; values of ratings are
denoted as A+, A, B+, or B.
Variables According to Purpose or Role
1. Dependent Variable
o It is the variable examined for changes. It is also considered to be
the presumed effect in experimental research.
2. Independent Variable
o It is the variable that is considered to affect the dependent variable.
As such, it is presumed cause in the experimental research. This
means that it is the variable that the researcher manipulates to see
whether it causes changes on the dependent variable.
3. Extraneous Variable
o It is any variable not categorized as dependent or independent
variable in a study. It is an undesired variable that can influence the
results of an experiment. A special type of extraneous variable is
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confounding variable which is a variable that a researcher fails to
control and threatens the validity of an experiment’s procedure. This
means that it is possible that the confounding variable has a
relationship with the dependent variable and not the independent
Let us give an example to better differentiate the types of variables based
on their purpose.
You are conducting a study on the effects of using Microsoft Word
on the writing performance of students. The independent variable is the use
of Microsoft Word, while the dependent variable is the students’ writing
performance. One possible extraneous variable in this study is the time and
venue of writing. Conducting the test in a non-air-conditioned room may
negatively affect the students’ writing performance. If this variable is not
controlled, it may become the main factor behind the poor writing
performance of students, and not the use of Microsoft Word. Then, it cease
to an extraneous variable, and becomes a confounding variable.
Lesson 2: What is a Literature Review?
A literature review is an academic text that provides an overview of a
particular topic. It helps identify what is known and not known about a certain
subject of study. It involves the use of higher order thinking skills such as the review,
evaluation and synthesis of several scholarly works. These scholarly works includes
journal articles, professional books, online sources and specialized references.
A literature review is an integral part of any research paper and serves
several functions. First, it establishes the relevance of the study. Second, it further
helps in establishing the research gap that the study intends to fill. Third, a literature
review provides important information about your topic and the concepts related
to it. Fourth, it presents the contradictions between and among previous literature.
Fifth, it justifies your research methodology, as its effectiveness may be determined
by a survey of previous studies relevant to your research. Finally, it presents and
discusses your theoretical and conceptual frameworks which are the backbone
of your study.
Writing the Literature Review
Writing the literature review involves three stages: searching for relevant to the
study, analyzing these scholarly works, and drafting the literature review.
Literature Search
Literature search is the stage in which the researcher systematically looks for and
selects reference materials relevant to the study. Remember that the quality of
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your paper is influenced by the quality of references you use. The following are
some of the points to remember in conducting your literature search:
1. Identify the topics and concepts that you need to incorporate into your paper.
Your research title and specific research questions and objectives can be a good
source of these topics or concepts.
2. Specify the type of resources that you will use. Will they be mainly articles or a
combination or articles, books and other periodicals?
3. Search for scholarly work by visiting your school library or popular online
database. These include the following:
Science Direct
Google Scholar
Taylor and Francis
Sage Publications
Eric Journal
As much as possible, include only the references published in reputable
journals and publishers and those written by experts who specialized in your
selected topic. Include also the land mark studies, articles, reports, or books
related to your topic.
4. Use relevant keywords to find your desired source.
Example topic: Effects of Online Games on the digital Literacy of Teenagers
Key words: Online games, Digital literacy
5. When conducting literature search online, use links that are considered reliable.
These are the sites that end in .gov, .mil, and .edu, for example. Sites that end in .com
and .org are also acceptable as long as they are associated with recognized
companies and organizations. Some of these sites are www.un.org (United Nations),
www.unesco.org (UNESCO), www.edition.cnn.com (Cable News Network), and
www.rd.com (Reader’s Digest).
6. You may also utilize Boolean searching strategies in conducting your literature
search online. Boolean searching strategies use certain keywords to limit and focus
one’s online search of a certain topic. The following are some of the Boolean
searching strategies that you can use:
a. use AND if you want to search for profiles and texts that contain the terms
connected by AND (e.g., university AND colleges).
b. use OR if you want to search for profiles and texts that contain the terms
connected by OR (e.g., universities OR colleges).
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c. use NIOT if you want to exclude a particular term in your search ( e.g.,
university NOT colleges)
d. use quotation marks if you want to search for a specific phrase (e.g.,
“Top Philippine University”).
Conduct an online search via Google for articles about the effects of caffeine on
one’s health. Follow the steps provided. Write your answer on a one whole sheet of
Step 1: Encode the following terms in Google search tab: effects of caffeine on
psychiatric patients. What results does it show? List them below.
Step 2: Encode the following terns in Google search tab: caffeine AND psychiatric
patients. What results does it show? List them below.
Step 3: Encode the following terns in Google search tab:.pdf AND caffeine AND
psychiatric patients. What results does it show? List them below.
Step 4: Proceed to Google Scholar and encode the following term in its search tab:
effects caffeine on chronic psychiatric patients. What results does it show?
What are the specific advantages of utilizing the Boolean searching strategies in
conducting literature search online? Explain.
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Lesson 3: Evaluation and Analysis of the Selected Works
This stage is performed once you have selected all your potential
references. In this stage, further screen the selected references for reliability and
usefulness. This stage also further ensures that the materials you will use in your
paper are only those that are closely related to your topic. The following are
strategies you can use in evaluating and analyzing your selected references:
1. Obtain an overview of the reference you selected. This will help you
determine the relevance of its content to your research. For example, for
research articles, you may perform a brief survey by reading the abstract
of each article; for books, you may look into the preface to see their
summary and find out the author’s intention in writing it.
2. As much as possible, refrain from using references published by predatory
journals of publishers as they do not guarantee quality. Predatory publishers
and journals are those that publish research papers for financial gain and
do not follow the ethics in producing an academic work.
3. When evaluation research articles, find out if they are published by a
reputable publisher journal and when written by legitimate scholars in your
field of study. You may refer to the Thomson Reuters Master Journal list
(https://ip-science.thomsonretuters.com/mjl/) or Scopus Source List
(https://www.elsevier.com/solutions/scopus/content) for the list of
reputable journals.
4. Refrain from using materials that do not directly explain the concepts
related to your study.
5. As much as possible, use references that have been published within the
last five years, unless you are writing a historical paper, which may entail
the use of sources from earlier periods of time.
6. Group the references according to the categories you used during your
literature search. You may use online tools (e.g., Zotero) in tagging (or
Labeling) and classifying these references.
7. If a material appears to be relevant to your topic, current (i.e., published
in the last five years), and reliable, continue reading its content. However,
if the material does not meet these standards, exclude it from your literature
8. Carefully read each of the materials you will incorporate into your
literature review. Note down the key information in these materials.
Determine which information you can include in your literature review.
9. Use a concept map if you want to see the relationship, similarities and
differences among the materials you have read.
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Lesson 4: Important Skills in Drafting Literature Review
1. Synthesizing. This skill involves the review of several references that talk
about the same subject and consolidating them into one cohesive text.
2. Note-taking. It involves writing information from a source text and
integrating this information into your current study. Two of the most common forms
of note-taking in writing academic works are summarizing and paraphrasing.
A. Summarizing. It is a form of note-taking that involves condensing a
lengthy piece of source material. It can be done in two ways: an outline or
a non-outline form.
Below are the strategies you can use for effective summarizing.
1. Read the text carefully and fully understand its content.
2. Annotate the text, if desired. Through annotation, you will be able
to jot down the important ideas in your source material.
3. Take note of the author’s name, title of the text, and its year of
publication. Write these information in the first sentence of the summary.
4. If you are summarizing that contains multiple paragraphs, begin
by identifying the main idea of each paragraph and write them using your
own words.
5. Afterwards, combine these sentences into one coherent
paragraph using appropriate cohesive devices.
6. Avoid adding comments to the summary as it may change the
tone and meaning of the original text.
7. Avoid repeating ideas unnecessarily.
8. Compare your summary to the original text to ensure accuracy.
9. Cite your source materials.
B. Paraphrasing. It is a form of note-taking that involves rewording ideas
from the original text in a more detailed word. Since paraphrasing focuses
on the details and not only on the main idea, the length of a paraphrased
text is almost the same as that of the original text. Paraphrasing is typically
done to simplify a text.
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Read the following texts and use them in writing a paragraph about the causes of increase
the dropout rates at the high school level. Write your answer on a one whole sheet of
1. Hoiand (2010): One factor that may have caused an increase in the number of dropouts
among high school students is financial difficulties. If the students do not have sufficient
money, they will be unable to pay for their tuition and will have difficulties in managing
their daily schooling expenses. Another factor that may impact the continuity of the
students’ education is the example set by their parents.
2. Garcia (2006): According to several studies, the most common causes of droppingout among high school students are as follows: (a) financial condition of students, (b)
migration and transfer of residence, (c) lack of parental support, and (d) peer pressure.
3. Trent (2003): Three main reasons for dropping out of school are parental engagement,
the student’ academic performance and the family’s economic needs. Their effects are
not immediately seen but are the result of a process.
4. Rosas (2000): The reasons behind the increase in dropout rates can be classified into
school-related and family-related factors.
Lesson 4: Citing Sources
American Psychological Association (2019).
Publication manual of the American Psychological Association. (7th ed.).
American Psychological Association.
What is referencing?
You need to acknowledge other people’s ideas and reference the sources
that you have used in your assignments. This is done in two parts:
a brief citation which appears within the text and refers to
1. the full reference which is listed at the end of your work.
Everything cited should appear in the Reference List, in alphabetical
order, by author’s surname.
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Websites - with an organization
Author or organization. (Year or last updated). Title of site or page. URL
British Psychological Society. (2019, November). BPS calls for
child wellbeing to be at the heart of politics. https://www.bps.org.uk/news-andpolicy/bps-calls-child-wellbeing-beheart-politics
Websites - with an author
Author or organization. (Year or last updated). Title of site or page. URL
Hyman, I. (2012). Remembering the Father of cognitive
psychology. https://www.psychologicalscience.org/
In Text Citations
Always include the author’s surname and the year of publication.
Include page numbers only for quotations.
Authors can be:
part of the text
e.g. Cottrell (2008, p.156) argues that “….
supporting the point — put at the end of the sentence
e.g. New methodologies ….. approach (Williams, 2009).
Multiple authors
1 or 2 authors are always cited.
If 2 authors insert ‘&’ OR ‘and’ between the names e.g.
Bates and McCann (2019) says…
New research indicates….update this method (Bates & Mccann, 2019).
3 or more: first author plus et al. Eg
Smith et al. (2019) says that ….
Recent changes …. outcomes (Brown et al., 2016).
Reference List
All authors must be included in the Reference List.
Exception: If 21 or more authors, insert an ellipsis (…) after the 21st and
before the final author
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The most common bibliographic elements are listed below.
Surname, initial.
Always first. List authors in the
order they are named on the
See p.4 for multiple author details
Rounded brackets. Full stop after 2nd
bracket eg (2019).
Title of article or chapter.
No quote marks
Used for a chapter in a book OR
journal article.
Title of
Capitalize the 1st letter of first word
and any proper nouns.
(number ed.).
Only used if not the 1st. eg. (2nd ed.).
Year of
Title of article/
Capitalize first letter of every word,
except for linking words.
Volume no. in italics
Issue details
Numbers as figures eg. 17(6),
(Issue number)
Publisher’s name
Eg. McGraw-Hill
No additional formatting for articles
p. or pp. used for book chapters only
URL of DOI (Digital
Object Identifier)
URL if no DOI
If no DOI give the web address but
ONLY if from a non-database URL
References are constructed from a combination of the bibliographic details.
Here are a few examples of the most used information sources. Check the full
manual for any other materials.
 Note that all lines after the first line are indented.
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Journal article - with a DOI
Author. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume
number(s) doi
(Issue), page
Hoelterhoff, M., & Chung, M. (2015). Death anxiety resilience: a mixed methods
investigation. Psychiatric Quarterly,
88(3), 635-652. https://doi:10.1007/s11126-016-9483-6
Journal article – Print or in academic database with no DOI
Author. (Year). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume
(Issue) Page
Wright, S. K., & Hale, D. S. (2014). Developing language in subcultures. Theory &
Psychology, 24(4), 204-224.
Books — Print or Ebook
Author. (Year). Title. (Edition.). Publisher.
Howitt, D., & Cramer, D. (2017). Understanding statistics in psychology with SPSS.
(7th ed.). Pearson.
Chapter of an edited book
Author. (Year). Title of the chapter, In Editor of
the book (Edition, Page Numbers). Publisher.
the book (Ed.), Title of
Hope, L. (2015). Eyewitness testimony. In: D. A. Crichton, & G. J. Towl (Eds.),
Forensic psychology (2nd ed., pp.45
64). Wiley.
ACTIVITY 3.3 Write your answer on a one whole sheet of paper.
A. Create a reference list based on the following bibliographical information.
Use the documentation style required by your teacher.
Article Title
Daniel E. Ford,
Douglas B.
Maurice M. Ohayon,
Robert E. Roberts,
Jurgen Zelley,
Salvatore Smirne,
Robert G. Priest
Epidemiology study
of sleep disturbances
and psychiatric
disorders: An
opportunity for
Prevalence and
patterns of
problematic sleep
among older
and Issue
Journal of the
262 (11)
Journal of the
Academy of
Child and
39 (12)
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Robert E. Roberts,
Catherine R.
Roberts, Wenyaw
Eric O. Johnson,
Thomas Roth,
Naomi Breslau
Robert E. Roberts,
Catherine R.
Roberts, Yu Xing
Daniel J. Buysse,
Jules Angst,
Alex Gamma,
Vladeta Ajdacic,
Domique Eich,
Wuld Rossler
Robert E. Roberts,
Hao T. Duong
One-year incidence
of psychiatric
disorders and
associated risk factors
among adolescents in
the community
The association of
insomnia with
anxiety disorders and
Exploration of the
direction of risk
Are Mexican
American adolescents
at greater risk of
suicidal behaviors?
Journal of Child
Psychology and
50 (4)
Journal of
40 (8)
Suicide and Lifethreatening
37 (1)
Prevalence, cource,
and comorbidity of
insomnia and
depression in young
Journal of
31 (4)
Depression and
insomnia among
adolescents: A
Journal of
148 (1)
B. Supply the correct in-text citation using the documentation style required
by your teacher. Choose from your answers in Part A. Use the
corresponding reference for each item as basis for the citation to be
written in each blank (e.g., reference no. 1 to item no. 1, and so forth).
Depression and insomnia are considered major problems affecting many teenagers (1)
__________________. According to some studies, the prevalence of insomnia among
teenagers ranged from 4.4 percent to 13.4 percent for the past year (2,3)
_____________________________ and averages 10.7 percent throughout their lifetime (4)
____________________. Regarding the prevalence of depression among teenagers, it
ranges from two to eight percent for one year and 12 to 18 percent during their lifetime
(5) ______________________.
In addition, several researchers found an epidemiologic link between insomnia and
depression, particularly among adults (6) _____________________ and teenagers (7)
_______________________. The findings in this study also showed a strong positive
relationship between insomnia and depression.
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Lesson 5: Ethical Standards in Writing the Literature Review
Writing your literature review does not only entail naming your sources and
mentioning the ideas that they contain. Writing the literature review requires
honesty, objectivity, and other ethical principles observed in scholarly work. The
following are ways to observe ethical standards in writing your literature review
and your research as a whole:
Report the findings in your cited studies objectively. Refrain from distorting
the findings of other research works.
Avoid injecting editorial comments or manipulating the ideas in a certain
study just to make it support your own claims.
Always cite your sources as a way of acknowledging the studies relevant
to your own and practicing intellectual honesty.
Refrain from fabricating information or making up data and reporting them
as actual data from a certain research work.
Avoid plagiarism.
- Plagiarism refers to using ideas and information created by other
people but without attribution to them. There are different levels of
plagiarism which may vary from one institution to another. The
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) in New Jersey
recognizes the five levels of plagiarism.
Level 1 is the gravest level of plagiarism. It involves copying a full
paper word for word, without acknowledging the source.
Level 2 involves lifting large portion of a research work (up to 50%)
without citing its source.
Level 3 involves copying specific portions of another work without
citing it. These portions include sentences or paragraphs.
Level 4 involves not only the failure to cite another work used in a
certain study but also the failure to correctly paraphrase the portions
of this used work.
Level 5 is the lowest level of plagiarism according to IEEE. It involves
incorrectly citing a certain source and copying heavily from it.
NOTE: The penalties against plagiarism may vary among countries or
institutions. Plagiarism sanctions may range from oral warnings to suspensions. In
some cases, however, committing plagiarism may result in a student’s expulsion
from an academic institutions.
--- END OF CHAPTER 1 ---
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Chapter Task
A. Conduct a preliminary research about a topic (to be announced on group
page) by visiting the library or the internet. Here are the guidelines for
this task.
1. Obtain 10 copies of at least 10 reference materials that are relevant to the
topic and it should be taken from reliable sources (e.g., Google Scholar,
books, scholarly journals, and other reputable print and online sources).
2. Take note of the bibliographic information of the materials you gathered.
These include the following:
a. author and title of the source
b. date and place of publication
c. edition and name of publisher (for books)
d. volume and issue number (for periodicals)
e. link where the material can be accessed (for online sources)
3. choose reference materials that will also help you establish the need to
conduct the study or justify your research topic
4. Photocopy or print these materials and bring them to your classroom. A
soft copy reference materials can also be used.
B. Using the available resources, come up with your tentative general research
problem and general research question.
1. General research problem:
2. General research question:
C. Based on your general research problem and research question, list three to
four specific research questions. When formulating these questions, consider
the kind of quantitative research you plan to conduct.
1. __________________________________________________________
2. __________________________________________________________
3. __________________________________________________________
4. __________________________________________________________
D. List at least three agencies or organizations and groups of people that will
benefit from the results of your research. Briefly explain how each of them
will benefit from the studies.
E. Indicate the scope and delimitation of your study by specifying the items that will be
covered by your research and the areas that will be excluded.
1. Areas that will be covered (1-5)
2. Reasons for the inclusion of each item (1-5)
3. Areas that will be excluded (1-5)
4. Reasons for the exclusion of each item (1-5)
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Learning Objectives
By the end of the lesson, the students should be able to:
Choose an appropriate quantitative research design;
Describe the sampling procedure and sample;
Construct an instrument and establish its validity and reliability;
Describe the intervention, if applicable;
Plan the data collection procedure;
Present a written research methodology.
Identify the quantitative research design appropriate for each of the following research
titles. Justify your answers in three to five sentences. Go back to the first module
notes about types of quantitative research. Follow the format below. Write your
answer on a one whole sheet of paper.
Quantitative Research
1. Relationship between school stressors and personality of senior high school students
2. Effects of Exercise on the Anxiety Levels of Bipolar Patients
3. Measuring the Quality of Sleep among Senior Citizen
4. The Level of Academic Achievement of Young Adults from Dysfunctional Families
5. Effects of Classical Music on the Quality of Sleep among Infant
Lesson 1: Samples and Sampling Methods
Sampling refers to the process of systematically selecting individuals, units
or groups to be analyzed during the conduct of the study. The reason for getting
samples is to get information about the target population. Thus, it is the goal in
research to make sure that the samples selected represent the target population.
Being able to do this will increase the generalizability of your findings.
Generalizability refers to the extent your findings can be applied in other context.
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There are four ways that you can use to determine the sample size for your study:
heuristics, literature review, formulas, and power analysis.
1. Heuristics refers to the rule of thumb for the sample size used in a study.
Below are suggested sample size in the different quantitative research
design (Lunenburg and Irby, 2008). The survey indicated in the table refers
to a research design and not to a research instrument (i.e., questionnaires
used in surveys).
Research Design
Ex post facto
Number of
100 to 200
30 or more
2. Literature Review. You may want to read the studies similar to yours and
check the sample size that they used. These studies can serve as a
reference in proving the validity of the sample size that you plan to use.
3. Formulas. The formula below by the National Education Association in the
United States can be used to compute for the needed sample size. Each
variable in the formula has set value you can use for the computation.
𝑠 =1+
𝑥 2 𝑁𝑃(1 − 𝑃)
𝑑 2 (𝑁 − 1) + 𝑋2 𝑃(1 − 𝑃)
s = required sample size
𝑥 2 = table of chi-square for q degree of freedpm at the desired
confidence level (1.96)²
N = population size
P = population portion (0.5)
d = degree of accuracy expressed as a portion (0.5)
The table below provides the ideal sample size for a specific population of
based on the formula above. As seen in this table, an increase in the population
signals an increase in the sample size. However, the increase in the population also
signals a decrease in its percentage that is included in the sample.
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4. Power Analysis is considered as the most precise. This strategy is founded
on the principle of statistical power. Statistical power refers to the
probability of rejecting a false null hypothesis, thus suggesting that there is,
indeed, a relationship between independent and independent variable.
Lesson 2: Types of Random Sampling in Quantitative Research
In quantitative studies researchers often use purposive sampling or
the deliberate selection of samples based on their characteristics.
Purposive sampling, however, may not sufficiently represent the target
population in the study. In contrast, quantitative studies often employ
random sampling. Random sampling (probability sampling) involves the
selection of a group of participants form a larger population by chance.
Through random sampling, the researcher is expected to obtain samples
that will represent the population where they are taken.
1. Simple Random Sampling
All individuals are in a given population have an equal chance of being
selected. It is considered the best way to obtain a representative sample.
One technique that you can use in simple random sampling is the fish
bowl technique wherein you select participants by drawing out names
from a transparent glass bowl.
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2. Stratified Sampling
It is similar to simple random sampling in that the members of the
population can all be selected by chance. However, in stratified
sampling, the population is divided into subgroups (or strata). The samples
are then selected from these subgroups, and not from the population as
a whole. The stratified sampling techniques is best used when the
characteristics of the subgroups may influence the variables being
measured. This mean that the data obtained can be also grouped into
different classes, creating more nuances in the analysis.
3. Cluster Sampling
It involves the grouping of the population into subgroups or clusters.
However, these clusters are not created based on specific characteristics
or traits; thus, they are not heterogeneous.
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4. Systematic Sampling
Participants are selected from a list based on their order in the population
or on predetermined interval. This interval is obtained by dividing the
population size by the sample size of the study. For instance, you need a
sample size of four participants from a population of 12 individuals. Using
systematic sampling, you may decide to select every third person in the list.
Take note that you are not required to begin with selecting person #3. You
may begin with any of the first three individuals (person 1, 2 or 3).
Succeeding samples, however, should be consistently selected using the
specified nth value (i.e., every third).
Lesson 3: Instruments in Quantitative Research: An Overview
Instruments are tools used to gather data for a particular research topic.
Some instruments used for quantitative research are tests (performance-based or
paper-and-pencil), questionnaires, interviews, and observations. Three ways of
developing an instrument for quantitative.
1. Adopting an instrument
- This means that you will utilize an instrument that has been used in
well-known institutions or reputable studies and publications. Some
popular sources of instruments include professional journals and
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websites, such as Tests in Print and the IRIS Digital Repository.
Adopting an instrument means that you do not have to spend time
establishing its validity and reliability since they have already been
tested by their developers and other researchers.
2. Modify an existing instrument
3. Create your own instrument
Instrument Validity
Validity refers to the degree to which an instrument measures what it is
supposed to measure.
For example, in measuring the speaking proficiency of students, speaking
performances have greater validity than multiple choice tests. This is because
multiple choices tests do not necessarily require students to demonstrate their
speaking skills. Speaking performances on the other hand, oblige students to show
their actual oral communication skills. Thus, there is a guarantee that this is the
variable that is being measured.
 Types of Validity
1. Face Validity – when it appears to measure variables being studied.
Hence, checking for face validity is a subjective process. It does not
ensure that the instrument has actual validity.
2. Content Validity – refers to the degree to which an instrument covers a
representative sample (or specific elements) of the variable to be
measured. Similar to face validity, assessing content validity is a subjective
process which is done with the help of a list of specifications. This list of
specifications is provided by experts in your field of study.
3. Construct Validity – it is the degree to which an instrument measures the
variables being studied as a whole. Thus, the instrument is able to detect
what should exist theoretically. A construct is often an intangible or
abstract variable such as personality, intelligence, or moods. If your
instrument cannot detect this intangible construct, it is considered invalid.
4. Criterion Validity – refers to the degree that an instrument predicts the
characteristics of a variable in a certain way.
Two types of Criterion Validity
a. Concurrent Validity – when it is able to predict results similar to
those of a test already validated in the past. In some instances,
concurrent validity is said to be ensured when two instruments are
employed simultaneously. An example of testing concurrent
validity is whether an admission test produces similar to those of the
National Achievement Test.
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b. Predictive Validity – when it produces results similar to those of
another instrument that will be employed in the future. An example
of testing predictive validity is employing college admission tests in
mathematics. This may be used to predict the future performance
of the students in mathematics.
Instrument Reliability
Reliability refers to the consistency of the measures of an instrument.
Reliability is an aspect involved in the accuracy of measurement.
 Four types of Reliability
1. Test-Retest Reliability – is achieved by administering an instrument twice
to the same group of participants and then computing the consistency of
scores. It is often ideal to conduct the retest after a short period of time
(e.g., two weeks) in order to record a higher correlation between the
variables tested in the study.
2. Equivalent Forms Reliability – is measured by administering two tests
identical in all aspects except the actual wording of items. In short, the
two tests have the same coverage, difficulty level, test type, and format.
An example of a procedure involving equivalent forms reliability is
administering a pretest and a posttest.
3. Internal Consistency Reliability – is a measure of how well the items in
two instruments measure the same construct. There are three ways of
measuring the internal consistency reliability. The split-half coefficient (or
split half reliability) is obtained by administering a single instrument aimed
at measuring only one construct.
4. Inter-rater Reliability – measures the consistency of scores assigned by
two or more raters on a certain set of results.
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Lesson 4: Planning the Data Collection Procedure
Now that you have learned important factors to consider in developing
your research instrument, you can now plan the steps you will take in your actual
data gathering. These steps are typically clustered into three phases: before,
during and after the data collection.
1. Develop your data collection instrument and materials.
2. Seek permission from the authorities and heads of the institutions or
communities where you will conduct your study.
3. Select and screen the population using appropriate sampling techniques.
4. Train the raters, observers, experimenters, assistants, and other research
personnel who may be involved in the data gathering.
5. Obtain informed consents from the participants. An informed consent form is a
document that explains the objectives of the study and the extent of the
participants’ involvement in the research. It also ensures the confidentiality of a
certain information about the participants and their responses.
6. Pilot-test the instruments to determine potential problems that may occur
when they are administered.
1. Provide instructions to the participants and explain how the data will be
2. Administer instruments, and implement the intervention or treatment, if
3. As much as possible, utilize triangulation in your method. Triangulation is a
technique for validating data using two or more sources and methods.
1. Immediately encode or transcribe and archive your data.
2. Safeguard the confidentiality of your data.
3. Later, examine and analyze your data using the appropriate statistical tools.
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Read the following steps and arrange them in their correct sequence, 1 being the first
step and 10 being the last. Copy and answer on a one whole sheet of paper.
____ Each of the ten senior high school students will be called for a one-on-one data
collection session.
____ Each participant will individually meet with the researcher ten times a five-month
____ The data collection will be observed by two experienced English teachers to
ensure the proper implementation of the new teaching approach.
____ The new approach to teaching vocabulary will be implemented.
____ The participants will answer the reading comprehension questions after reading
the article.
____ The participant will be interviewed to determine how he/she dealt with unfamiliar
____ The participant will read the article that contains English words that are difficult to
____ The reading comprehension test and interview will be administered after the
implementation of the new teaching approach.
____ The participant will be given the chance to have a preview of the comprehension
____ The results will be encoded and the recorded and the recorded interview will be
transcribed for analysis.
A very quick guide To APA referencing (7th edition, 2019). (2019).
Barrot, J. S. (2017). Practical Research 2 for Senior High School. C & E
Publishing, Inc.
Presentation on theme: “Sampling Design and Procedure”— Presentation
[Simple Random Sampling]. (n.d.). Other Effective Sampling Methods.
[Statistics for Rookies: Learn Data-Driven Decision-Making the Fun Way].
(2018). Big Data Zone. https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl
Prepared by:
Approved by:
Subject Teacher
Head Teacher
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