Indigenous Peoples in Canada Indigenous peoples make up 4.5% of the Canadian population They are descendents from the original peoples that lived on the land that is now Canada before it was colonized. At the time Canada was colonized, these people have had land taken from them, given diseases, outrightly persecuted and killed. Many of the indigenous peoples have signed treaties (or peace agreements) with the government of Canada. This formally allows the government to use their land in exchange for annual payments and other benefits. First Peoples: The general term for indigenous peoples of Canada Inuit (in-you-it): The closely related peoples that live in the Arctic region of Canada Metis (may-tee): The term for indigenous peoples that were mixed with those of european descent. This photo shows Inuit women in gala dress. This photo shows the blending of two cultures. The father is of European descent and the mother May be Metis or First Nations. The baby in the Cradle board and the shawls that the women and Girls wear reflect the First Nations and Metis cultures.