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ap hug chapter 2

Four population clusters - East Asia, South Asia, Europe, and Southeast Asia
○ These clusters have…
■ Low-lying areas
■ Fertile soil
■ Temperate climate
Africa also has several concentrations of population, the two largest being on the west
coast between Senegal and Nigeria and the east coast between Eritrea and South Africa
The largest population cluster in the Western Hemisphere is in the northeastern U.S and
southeastern canada
Humans avoid clustering in certain physical environments
○ Too dry
○ Too wet
○ Too hot
○ Too cold
○ Too mountainous
A population cartogram displays major population clusters larger even if those areas
don’t contain much land area
Areas of Earth that humans considered too harsh for occupancy and have diminished
over time
The ecumene, the portion of Earth’s surface occupied by permanent human settlement
has increased
Population density - the number of humans living within an area
Tools to measure population density ○ Arithmetic Density
■ The total number of people divided by the total land area
■ Enables geographers to compare the number of people living in different
regions of the wold
■ Answers the “where” question
■ Other density measures are more useful at explaining why people are not
uniformly distributed across the Earth’s surface
○ Physiological Density
■ The number of people per unit area of arable land
■ Comparing physiological ad arithmetic densities helps geographers
understand the capacity of the land to yield enough food for the needs of
the people
○ Agricultural density
■ The ratio of the number of farmers to the amount if arable land
■ Helps account for economic differences
■ Developed countries have lower agricultural densities
● Technology and finance allow a few people to farm extensive land
areas and feed many people
Population growth
○ Population increases rapidly in places where more people are born than die
○ Population can increase or decrease as people move in or out
Natural increase
■ The percentage by which a population grows in a year
■ The term natural means that a country’s growth rate excludes migration
■ >95% of the natural increase is clustered in developing countries
■ Regional differences in NIRs mean that most of the world’s additional
people live in the countries that are least able to maintain them
Population growth in history
■ A change of only .10% can produce very large swings population growth
■ The natural increase rate affects the doubling time
● The number of years needed to double a population, assuming a
constant rate of natural increase
Births & deaths
■ Fertility
● The CBR is the total number of live births in a year for every 1,000
people alive in a society
○ The CBR provides a picture of society as a whole given
● The total fertility rate measures the number of births in a society
○ The average number of children a women will have
throughout her childbearing years
○ The TFR for the world as a whole is 2.4
○ The TFR attempts to [predict the future behavior of
individual women in a world of rapid change
■ Mortality
● Infant mortality rate (IMR)
○ The annual number of deaths of infants under one year of
age, compared with total live births
○ Expressed as the number of deaths among infants per
1,000 borths rather than as a percentage
○ Reflects the quality of a country’s health-care system
○ Lower IMRs are found in countries with well-trained
doctors and nurses, modern hospitals and large supplies of
● Crude death rate (CDR)
○ The total number of deaths in a year for every 1,000
people alive in a society
○ Expressed as the annual number of deaths per 1,000
○ Does not follow the same regional pattern as the NIR and
○ The combined CDR for all developing countries is lower
than the combined rate for all developed countries
The demographic transition
A process of change in a society’s population from a high crude birth and death
rates and low rate of natural increase to a condition of low crude tative and death
rates, low rate of natural increase, and higher total population
Authoritative demographic sources (Population Reference Bureau, The World
Bank, The United Nations) currently consider the demographic transition to
consist of four stages
■ Stage 1: Low Growth
● Very high CBR
● Very high CDR
● Very low NIR
● Most of human history was spent in stage 1, but today no country
remains in stage 1
■ Stage 2: High Growth
● Still high CBR
● Rapidly declining CDR
● Very high NIR
○ Rapidly declining death rates and very high birth rates
produce a very high natural increase
● Developing countries were pushed into stage 2 with the medical
○ Medical technology from Europe and North America
diffused into developing countries leading to improved
medical practices
○ Eliminated many of the traditional causes of death in
developing countries
● Countries in this stage - Mali, yemen, sub-saharan africa,
■ Stage 3: Moderate Growth
● Rapidly declining CBR
● Moderately declining CDR
● Moderate NIR
● CBR is still greater than the CDR
○ Family planning, people decide to have fewer children
● Countries in this stage - Turkey, Indonesia, Mexico, India, South
Africa, Columbia
■ Stage 4
● Very low CBR
● Low or slightly CDR
● 0 or negative NIR
○ CBR declines to the point where is equals the CDR and
the IR approaches 0 (zero population growth)
■ ZPG is defined as the TFR that results in a lack of
change in the total population over a long term
Women in stage 4 societies enter the labor force rather
than staying at home
○ People in stage 4 societies have access to a wider-variety
of birth-control methods
Countries - USA, China, Brazil, Canada, Korea, Argentina, most of
Why does Health Vary By Region
○ Medical Services
■ Developed countries use part of their wealth to provide publicly funded
medical care to all citizens
■ Medical Facilities
● In most developed countries, health care is a public service that is
available at little to no cost
○ Developed countries are hard-pressed ti maintain their
current levels of public assistance
● In developing countries, private individuals must pay more than
half the cost of health care
○ In some of the poor countries, threats to health and
sustainability are not so much financial as environmental
■ Health Care
● Developed countries spend more on health care
● Developed countries spend a higher percentage of their wealth on
health care
○ Health & Gender
■ Mothers at Risk
● Maternal mortality rate
○ The annual number of female deaths per 100,000 live
births from any cause related to or aggravated by
○ The worldwide maternal mortality rate in 2015 was 216,
amounting to more than 300,000 women
The most common cause of maternal mortality rate in poor
countries is heavy bleeding, followed by high blood
○ Developed countries have medical facilities, advanced
technologies, and trained personnel to limit the incidence
of life-threatening conditions during childbirth
○ Women who lack health insurance are four times more
likely to die of a pregnancy-related complication than those
with insurance
■ Baby Girls at Risk
● Gender-based sex selection
○ About 117 million females in Asia have gone “missing”
■ Abortion
■ They were killed in their infancy
■ They were raised in a remote area and were not
reported to census and health officials
○ Sex ratio
■ The number of males per 100 females in the
■ The standard biological ratio is characteristic of the
developed regions of north america and europe as
well as developing regions of latin america and
sub-saharan africa
○ The extremely low percentage of female babies in China
and India results from cultural preference on the parents to
have sons rather than daughters
■ Sons are regarded as more likely than girls to help
the family economically
○ The practice of sex selectin is creating the problem that the
men in these countries are unable to find women to marry
due to there being a surplus of males
Health & Aging
■ Caring for Older People
● Life expectancy - average number of years expected to live
● Potential support ratio (elderly support ratio) - number of working
age people (15-64) divided by number of of people ages 64 and
● Current potential support ratio is 9:1 meaning 9 people work for an
elderly person or child
● Ratio expected to decline, meaning as ratio gets smaller, less
people contribute to pensions , health care, and more to support
the elderly
■ Caring for younger people
Developing countries in stage 2 have higher percentage of young
people than countries in stage 4
● Consequence of higher CBR, TFR and lower life expectancy
Comparing old and young
● Population pyramid - bar graph that displays the percentage of an
area’s population for each age and gender
● Countries in stage 2 have a wider base than countries in stage 4
● Dependency ratio - number of people too young (under 15) or old
(over 65) to work compared to those in productive years
Epidemiology - branch of medical science concerned with the incidence,
distribution, and control of diseases that are prevalent among a population at a
particular time and produced by special cases not generally present in affected
■ Epidemiologic Transition
● Stage 1: Pestilence & Famine
○ Epidemics and pandemics are major causes of deaths as
well as accidents and attacks by animals and people
■ Epidemic
● Widespread occurrence of an infectious
disease in community of a particular time
■ Pandemic
● Epidemic that occurs over a wide
geographic area and affects a high
proportion of population at the same time
● Stage 2: Receding Pandemics
○ Improved sanitation, nutrition and medicine
○ Reduced spread of infectious diseases
○ Death rates didn't decline in industrialization
○ Cholera common in urban areas
● Stage 3: Degenerative diseases
○ Decrease in deaths from infectious diseases
○ Increase in chronic disorders (heart attacks and cancer)
● Stage 4: Delayed Degenerative & Lifestyle diseases
○ Major degenerative causes o9f death lingerm but life
expectancy of older people is extended through medical
○ Better diet
○ Reduced use of alcohol and tobacco
○ More exercise
○ Death rate increases
■ Use of prescription and illegal drugs
■ Consumption of non nutritious food
■ Sedentary behavior
■ Increased opioid related deaths
Why might population change in the future
○ Population futures
■ Possible demographic transition: stage 5
● Very low CBR, increasing CDR, declining NIR
● Several decades of low birth
○ Few women will age into child bearing years
● Japan will be the first country to be in stage 5, if made
■ China & India
● Pronatalist policy
○ Government policy that supports high birth rates
● Antinatalist policy
○ Government policy that supports low birth rates
● China’s population policies
○ The one child policy allowed each couple to only bear 1
child since 1980
■ Needed to have a permit to hae 1 child
○ Discoragation of births
■ Free contraceptives
■ Free abortions
■ Free sterilizations
○ China’s CBR declined from 18 in 1980 to 12 in 2018
○ NIR decreased from 1.2 to 0.5
● India’s population policies
○ More women able to attend school
■ More likely to learn employment skills
● Gain more economical control over life
○ Better education
■ Women understood their reproductive rights
■ Select better contraceptive methods
■ Lowering CBR through contraception
● In developing countries, demand for contraceptives is greater than
the supply
● Many oppose birth control methods for religious and political
○ Epidemiologic future
■ Reason for possible stage 5: evolution
● Infectious disease microbes have constantly evolved causing new
strains of viruses and bacteria
■ Reason for possible stage 5: poverty
● Infectious diseases are more common in poor areas
○ Unsanitary conditions
○ Unable to afford medicine
■ Reason for possible stage 5: increased connections
● As people travel, they carry diseases with them and are exposed
to diseases of other
● Pandemics spread in recent decades through the process of
relocation diffusion
Population & Resources
■ Neo-malthusians
● The gap between population growth and resources is wider in
some countries than malthusians anticipated
● According to Neo-malthusians, population growth is outstripping a
wide variety of resources
● Argues world face frightening future of billions of people in
desperate competition for food, water and energy
■ Neo-malthusians & critics
● Carrying capacity of food production gas increased more rapidly
than Malthus predicted
● Malthus was less accurate in population to quadruple in half a
● Africa may be exceeding carrying capacity
○ Rapid population growth led to some parts of land to not be
able to sustain life
● Extends working day for women, who have children to help
AP Human Geography
Unit 2: Population and Migration Patterns and Processes
1. ​Thomas Malthus and Malthusian Theory:​ While watching the crash course, take notes,
particularly on questions such as: who was Malthus? What was his theory? What was this theory
based on?
● Thomas Malthus was an anglican minister who wrote an essay on the principle of
● He explained that the slow population growth was the way thing were always going to be
● He reasoned that the same forces that checked the population of rabbits would limit
humans too (predators, harsh weather, epidemics and starvation)
● Uncontrolled reproduction was the central problem to Malthus
● “Humans could reproduce geometrically , capable of doubling population every 25 years.
But land on Earth is finite and at best, it could only be coaxed into producing small,
‘arithmetic’ increases in food.”
● Cycle of misery
○ Each generation would repeat the previous generation’s mistakes and the
population would dip low again, so human population would remain roughly
2.​ Hans Rosling:​ What is Rosling’s claim about overpopulation? Explain what he feels is the
solution to dealing with overpopulation.
Rosling claimed that overpopulation is a serious concern especially in less developed countries
and this situation could only improve if the developed countries helped them. His solution to
dealing with overpopulation is to continue to improve child survival to 90%
3. Ester Boserup:​ What was Boserup’s claim about overpopulation?
Boserup’s theory is that an increase in overpopulation will result in scientist trying to come up
with ways to increase food production
Copy and paste the graphs on slide 7 into the boxes below. Which one is Malthus’ theory?
Which one is Boserup’s theory
4. “A Modest Proposal” by Jonathan Swift: what is satire? What does Swift claim is the solution
to overpopulation?
Satire is the use of irony directed towards government, people, etc. so they could improve.. Swift
claims the solution to overpopulation is “cannibalism”. He “suggests” that infants should be
used as food since they are of no use to the labor force. However, he isn’t serious about the
consumption of babies as it’s supposed to be ironic in order to spread a message.
5. Malthus or Thanos:​ mark each statement with either an “M” or “T” depending on who you
think said the statement. (if you haven’t seen Avengers, this may be a little more tricky)
a. “The power of population is indefinitely greater than the power in the earth to
produce subsistence for man.” M
b. Science and a benevolent nature have allowed thousands of different species to
flourish beyond the capability of their environs to sustain them.” T_____
c. “Through the animal and vegetable kingdoms, nature has scattered the seeds of
life abroad with the most profuse and liberal hand. She has been comparatively
sparing in the room and the nourishment necessary to rear them.” M
d. “Perfectly balanced. As all things should be.” T
e. “There are many actors in this grand drama, and I appear to be the only
participant with a full grasp on the situation.” T
f. “The distress arising from a scarcity of provisions must fall hardest upon the least
fortunate members of the society.” M
6. Neo-Malthusians:​ How does the neo-Malthusian theory differ from the Malthusian theory?
The neo-malthusian theory expressed the idea of family planning while the Malthusian theory
believed in abstinence.
a. What is Goklany’s claim about the Neo-Malthusian worldview?
He believes that the neo-malthusian worldview is false and is very unlikely to happen in the
b. According to Goklany, what is the biggest threat to biodiversity?
Goklany believes the greatest threat to biodiversity is deforestation
***When you are done, answer the wrap up question on Google Classroom. You response
will be graded***