Chapter 8 Louisiana Purchase and War of 1812 Negotiations ● In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson instructed James Monroe and Robert Livingston to negotiate with France for the purchase of New Orleans. ● Instead, the French offered to sell all of Louisiana. ● Monroe negotiated the purchase of the entire territory without having true authorization. The Deal ● The US Senate ratiﬁed the treaty for the Louisiana Purchase, and the territory was transferred from France to the United States on December 20, 1803. ● The Louisiana Purchase more than doubled the size of the United States. ● The US paid $15 million for 823,000 square miles of land which would become all or part of 15 states. Aaron Burr ● Louisiana became a haven for outlaws and ﬁlibusterers such as Aaron Burr, the former vice president who had killed Alexander Hamilton in a duel. ● Burr’s exact plans are unclear, but before they could be carried out, General Wilkinson betrayed Burr. ● The former vice president was tried and acquitted of conspiracy. Territorial Period ● In 1810, the Spanish still controlled Spanish West Florida (today’s Florida Parishes) but many English-speaking migrants living there wished to join the United States. ● They revolted declaring themselves the Republic of West Florida. ● Three months later they were incorporated into the Louisiana Territory. Free People of Color ● The presence of free people of color created tension in the area. ● In 1804, the importation of slaves was made illegal. ● In 1809, Claiborne made an exception when he allowed the entrance of a large group of Haitian refugees including 3,000 slaves. Statehood ● On April 30, 1812, Louisiana became the 18th state admitted to the Union. ● The War of 1812 was caused by tensions between the British and Americans. ● Speciﬁcal the British impressment of US sailors and British refusal to abandon forts along the US border as promised. War of 1812 ● By mid-1814, after little territorial change, both sides entered into peace negotiations; however, the ﬁghting continued. ● In 1814, General Andrew Jackson was ordered to take his troops toward New Orleans in anticipation of a British attack. War of 1812 Battle of New Orleans ● The Battle of New Orleans, which took place on January 8, 1815, solidiﬁed Andrew Jackson’s position as a military hero. ● Despite numerous disadvantages, Jackson achieved a decisive victory. Battle of New Orleans Early Statehood ● Creoles of Louisiana began to work with Americans in common struggles but viewed themselves as a distinctive group. ● The state’s politics tended to focus on local issues. ● In spite of winning the popular vote in 1824, Andrew Jackson lost the presidency to John Quincy Adams when the election was decided in the House of Representatives. Early Government ● This angered many Americans, including many Louisianians. ● It led to a huge voter turnout in the 1828 presidential election, which Jackson won by a large margin. ● The election of Jackson, a hero of the common man, changed the way Louisianians felt about politics. ● They began to take an increasing interest in national affairs.