Do you already ride a jeep or a bus? Do you pay even if the driver does not notice you have not paid your fare? How does it feel when you deliberately do not pay your fare? Why do you think people pay their fare even if they can pretend to have paid already? How do people react toward a person who does not pay his or her fare? What values in our society influence the way we deal with these situations? What institutions do you think are responsible for making us feel the way we do? LESSON 2 Defining Culture and Society from the Perspectives of Anthropology and Sociology TOPIC 1 THE INTERPRETIVE DYNAMICS OF SOCIETY OBJECTIVES • Identify and explain the concept of society and its nature/characteristics; • Analyze the facticity of society which can be liken to the characteristic of a deity; • Differentiate the two types of institutions that reproduce the condition of social life; • Illustrate the application of three major sociological perspectives in understanding and analyzing society, and; • Describe the construction of society through the hidden rules of society. WHAT DO WE MEAN WHEN WE SAY SOCIETY In simple terms, it refers to a group of people sharing a common culture. It may also defined as an organized group or groups of people who generally share a common territory, language and culture, and who act together for collective survival and well-being. Its Nature: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Society consists of people. Mutual Awareness and mutual interaction Society depends on likeness. Society rests on differences too. Cooperation and division of labor Society functions interdependently too. Society is dynamic. Social Control To better understand the facticity of society, we can liken it to a deity or GOD… Society is … ALL-POWERFUL It agents control and runs the machinery of social control. Society is … ALL-KNOWING Its library keeps all possible knowledge and collects the people who form it. Society is … EVERYWHERE Its spies are scattered in the four corners of the land. IN OTHER WORDS, WE CAN’T ESCAPE FROM OUR SOCIETY… How Societies Persist? The problem of explaining how societies manage to exist over a long period of time is called reproduction by the French philosopher and sociologist, Louis Althusser. No society can endure over time if it does not support its very own reproduction. To do this, all societies require the creation of institutions to perpetuate the existence of society. There are two types of institutions that reproduce the condition of social life, namely, the ideological state apparatuses and repressive state apparatuses. •Ideological state apparatuses are institutions that are created and used by society to mold its members to share the same values and beliefs that a typical member of that society possesses. •Repressive state apparatuses – refer to those coercive institutions that use physical force to make members conform to the laws and norms of society. E.g. courts, police… WHAT MAKES SOCIETY POSSIBLE? INTRODUCTION Sociologists view society in different ways. Some see the world basically as a stable and ongoing entity. They are impressed with the endurance of the family, organized religion, and other social institutions. Other sociologists see society as composed of many groups in conflict, competing for scarce resources. To still other sociologists, the most fascinating aspects of the social world are the everyday, routine interactions among individuals that we sometimes take for granted. These three views, the ones most widely used by sociologists, are the functionalist, conflict, and interactionist perspectives. Together, these approaches will provide an introductory look at the discipline. FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE: A CONTEXT • The functionalist perspective views society like a living organism in which each part contributes to its overall survival. This perspective was developed primarily by Talcott Parsons (1902-1979), a sociologist at Harvard University. According to this view, any aspect of society which persists over time does so because it serves some purpose and in some way contributes to its livelihood. Even something such as crime or poverty may persist so long as it serves some purpose or “function.” For Functionalists, the parts of the society normally work together toward a common goal. Given this, it is permissible to have social classes and poverty in society, that is, it is acceptable to have the society divided into 2 – the rich and poor social classes, as the poor social class will do or perform the menial works for rich social class in society. Definition: •Structural Functionalism is the perspective which describes the society as a social system that has a social structure of its own, made up of different parts which are interconnected which works together in harmony to achieve balance or social equilibrium. RELIGION EDUCATION ECONOMY SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS FAMILY GOVERNMENT OUR SOCIETY IS LIKE THIS!!! Definition: •Conflict Theory sees society as an ARENA. It states that society is composed of different groups with their own interest to protect and each group is competing for power and resources. Definition: •Symbolic-Interactionism emphasizes that human behaviour is influenced by definitions and meanings that are created and maintained through symbolic interaction with others. Invisible Hand of Society Rules: •Are essential in the everyday conduct of the member of the society. •It becomes the arbiter of disagreements and people’s respect for rules gives them this organizing power over human actions over time. •However, NOT ALL RULES are visible, that is , written and understood by all. GENERALIZATION: 1. What is society? What are its nature/ characteristics? 2. How does society liken to the characteristics of a deity (God)? 3. How does societies persist? What are the institutions support its reproduction? 4. What makes society possible based on three major sociological perspectives? 5. How does hidden rules shape society? ANY QUESTIONS? FORMATIVE QUIZ Do Activity 2: True or False in your Aralinks-CLE REFERENCES: • Contreras, A. P. Ph. D. et al (2016). Understanding Culture, Society, & Politics. The Phoenix Publishing House, Inc. • Lanuza, G. M. & Raymundo, S. S. (2016). Understanding Culture, Society, & Politics. Rex Book Store, Inc.