Uploaded by ian barnett

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2020 SAT
A look at United States SAT scores and the possible
ways Richard Hattie's research on the ‘Influences and
Effect Sizes Related to Student Achievement’ can be
used as a guide for future performance
Ian Barnett
2,198,460 students took the SAT in 2019
1,144,586 Female
1,052,037 Male
1,837 Other
MALE 1055
1 01 9
1 1 86
All Statistics Courtesy of
SAT Suite of Assessments Annual Report
College Board
Data Analysis
A possible reason for the
"Other" category could be
due to transgendered
teens suffering from
depression. According to a
study published in the
Journal of the Endocrine
Society nearly two thirds
of transgendered teens
suffer from depression,
which Hattie lists as
having a negative effect
of -0.36 on the
achievement of students.
Data Analysis
Hattie cites "Family on Welfare/State Aid" as a
significant factor to student achievement and this is
eveident with students whose parents have no High
School Diploma, attaining an average of 919 on the
SAT; 132 points below the national average. A study
from the University of British Columbia (Breaking
the Cycle? The Effect of Education on Welfare
Receipt Amoung Children of Welfare Recipients
2004) found that high school dropouts were more
likely to be on welfare (0.24% for females and
0.16% for males). Also, a British study (Outcomes
in the Secondary School Years: Evidence from the
Longitudinal Study of Young People in England)
found that students from poorer families (linked
with educational attainment of parents) had much
lower expectations and education aspirations,
which Hattie cites as a significant influence on
achievement. The study also found that younger
people from poorer families tended to engage in
risky behaviours such as smoking, drug use and
truency which could lead to a higher chance of
school supension, another negative effect that could
impact student achievement. All of these factors
could be reasons to explain the low test results of
these students.
Data Analysis
Degree Level Goal could be an
indicator of "Self-Reported
Grades" which Hattie
ranked as the second most
influencial factor in student
achievement. This factor
takes into account the
expectations of the students
and how the teacher can push
the students to a level beyond
that expectation. Students
who had a degree goal of
Bachelor's Degree, Master's
Degree and Doctoral had
scores near or well above the
national average.
Data Analysis
Highest Scori ng Sc hool s
All three of the high schools with the
highest SAT results in the entire USA are all
Magnet schools, that draw students from
across a county, district or city. These
schools tend to receive more funding and in
turn can pay their staff hire salaries, which
may draw higher educated or more
specialised teachers.
Having more highly educated and more
specialised teachers would lead to having
more "Collective Teacher Efficacy" which is
the teachers collective belief in their ability
to positively affect and impact students; CTE
is the highest factor (1.57) related to student
Also, these schools would have the highest
achieving students from across an area,
which would mean that their "Self Reported
Grades" or their expectations would also be
much higher;
this would explain that high
test scores.
Without being able to do an in depth and
detailed analysis of these schools, I would
think it is safe to assume that other impacts
such as "Conceptual Change Programs" "Self
Efficacy" "Micro-Teaching" "Classroom
Discussion" and "Deliberate Practice" are all
implemented at these schools.
Data Analysis
Lowest Scoring Sc hool s
Second Start is a school that is
designed for students with identified
learning and/or emotional difficulties
that may have interfered in their
abilities to function effectively in
their previous learning environment.
Influences like "Surface Motivation"
"Retention" "Moving Between Schools"
may all be contributing to the low test
scores of the students as many of the
students may have been affected by
these factors before arriving at these
alternative schools.
"ADHD" is also cited as having the most negative
impact on student achievement, which could explain
why schools like Second Start and Frank M Tejada
Academy have such low test scores. Texas also has the
second highest number of active military personel,
which may contribute to students at Frank M Tejada
having low scores as "Parental Military Deployment"
has a negative impact of -0.16.
Data Analysis
Highest Scoring Public Schools
Massachusetts' teachers are the best paid
teachers in the United States, when
adjusted for cost of living, the 10th
lowest student-teacher ratio, has strong
teacher quality assessments and the 12th
highest high school graduation rates.
The high salary and relatively high
graduation rate, may contribute to
creating better "Collective Teacher
Efficacy" as teachers may feel like they
are able to positively impact their
students learning.
The relatively low student to teacher ratio
may also contribute to better "Teacher
Credibility" and "Teacher Estimates
of Achievement" as the teachers and
students would be able to better develop
All of these factors may be able to explain
why Masschusetts has one of the highest
test results in the USA.
Data Analysis
Lowest Scoring Public Schools
West Virginia recieves one of the highest amounts
of Federal grants received and financial assitance
and also has one of the lowest Gross Domestic
Product (per capita) in the USA. Hattie cites
"Family on Welfare/State Aid" as one of the most
negative (-0.12) influences on student
achievement. Which may also lead to a lack of
"Performance Goals" (-0.01) and
"Depression" (-0.36).
Oklahoma teachers have the
lowest salary and the 14th highest
student-teacher ratio, 29 to 1. The low
salary and large class sizes are a reason
for Oklahoma having one of the highest
teacher turnover rates (7th overall) in
the USA.
This high turnover rate may lead to a
lack of "Collective Teacher Efficacy"
as teachers are constantly leaving a
school, it makes it difficult to create
an atmosphere where you feel like you
may be able to positively impact your
students. Also, the large class sizes
may contribute to a lack of "Teacher
Estimates of Achievement" as teachers
and students are unable to develope
any kind of deep relationship. These are
two of the three most important factors,
according to Hattie, and without them
being present, student success will be
surely lacking.
In order for students to achieve their maximum potential, here
are a few recommendations that schools and teachers should
take into consideration. Being aware of these factors can help
you in creating the best possible learning environment for your
1.) Collective Teacher Efficacy
All teachers and staff at a school MUST believe that they are capable of positively affecting
the students in their school
When this is properly implemented, students levels of achievement increase regardless of
their socio-economic status
A single teacher to have a positive impact on their students BUT if it is a collective goal and
belief, the impact is far greater
Schools need to help their teachers have a TEAM mindset:
Together wE Achieve More
This will also encourage teachers to try new approaches to their lessons and also focus
more on the studens who need the most help
2.) Self Reported Grades
These are the expectations a student has on their own abilities and it can have a very
positive influence on their goals and achievements and can build the confidence needed to
move to more challenging tasks
Having students predict their goals and outcomes for units, on tests or assignments can be
a great tool as, according to John Hattie, they are usually far better at self assessment and
are better critics of themselves
Their goals should be recorded, in a journal or on a rubric, and the student is able to
refernce their goal and their results
This will also help the teachers in addressing what areas the students are struggling with
and they can work together to find the best ways to achieve their goals and go beyond
3.) Teacher Estimates of Achievement
This should go hand in hand with Self Reported grades, as this is the beliefs and
expectations that the teacher has of their students and is based on past experience
Even if your school does not employ Collective Teacher Efficay, you are still able to have a
positive impact on the students in YOUR class if YOU believe in their abilities and potential
Knowing what you're students are capable of and how they learn things is essential to
planning out lessons that can help the students achieve the most
Teachers and students spend about 1200 hrs a year in the class together, so the only way to
make that time as valuable and impactful as possible is by creating a postive TEAM
4.) Teacher Credibility
According to Hattie, teacher credibility is an important key to learning success as students can
be very aware of which teachers can make a difference. Everyone has had a teacher in school,
who regardless of how long it's been, you still remember their impact on you.
Four factors of credibility are trust, compentence, dynamism and immediacy. I believe that
trust is the most important key as without it you will never be able to reach any student,
regardless of your degrees or experience.
You are not an authoritarian who is above the students, you are all equals except you happen
to know a bit more than them and are trying to help them learn. Remove as many barriers to
your interactions with them. Don't stand behind a podium or lecturn, sit down in a group and
discuss as equals.
Negative Factors
1.) Family on Welfare
Having a student whose family is on welfare probably means that their home life is not the
most stable and they could be under a lot of outside stresses that can affect their learning and
their general attitude and behaviour.
Getting to know your students and understanding what is happening in their home life is
essential for teachers to connect with their students and build a foundation to help them
achieve their goals
2.) Depression
1 in 8 children suffer from anxiety/depression, so there is a very good chance that a student in
your class is as well, which can lead to students being disruptive or unresponsive. Be aware of
any changes in a students attitude in class and work in tandem with the student, parents and
school counselors to create the best possible learning environment for all students who suffer
from depression.
3.) ADHD
ADHD totally impacts the way a student is going to respond to any lesson as they will have a
difficult time focusing on the task that you are giving them. This will make it difficult for the
student to learn, but also may impact other students learning. Help the student by removing
as many distractions in class as possible and do your best to bring back their focus when you
think they have lost it.