2020 SAT PERFORMANCE A look at United States SAT scores and the possible ways Richard Hattie's research on the ‘Influences and Effect Sizes Related to Student Achievement’ can be used as a guide for future performance Ian Barnett 2,198,460 students took the SAT in 2019 1,144,586 Female 1,052,037 Male 1,837 Other 1,051 MALE 1055 FEMALE 1048 OTHER 967 RESULTS TOTAL PARENTAL EDUCATION LEVEL NO HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMA 91 9 HIGH SCHOOL DIPLOMA 981 ASSOCIATE'S DEGREE 1 01 9 BACHELOR'S DEGREE 1114 MASTER'S DEGREE 1 1 86 DOCTORAL NO RESPONSE 833 EDUCATIONAL LEVEL GOALS CERTIFICATE ASSOCIATE'S DEGREE BACHELOR'S DEGREE MASTER'S DEGREE DOCTORAL OTHER UNDECIDED 899 872 1036 1114 1153 893 1047 All Statistics Courtesy of SAT Suite of Assessments Annual Report College Board Data Analysis STUDENTS THAT IDENTIFIED AS 'OTHER' SCORED 967 A possible reason for the "Other" category could be due to transgendered teens suffering from depression. According to a study published in the Journal of the Endocrine Society nearly two thirds of transgendered teens suffer from depression, which Hattie lists as having a negative effect of -0.36 on the achievement of students. Data Analysis STUDENTS WHOSE PARENTS HAD NO HIGH SCHOOL EDUCATION SCORED 919 Hattie cites "Family on Welfare/State Aid" as a significant factor to student achievement and this is eveident with students whose parents have no High School Diploma, attaining an average of 919 on the SAT; 132 points below the national average. A study from the University of British Columbia (Breaking the Cycle? The Effect of Education on Welfare Receipt Amoung Children of Welfare Recipients 2004) found that high school dropouts were more likely to be on welfare (0.24% for females and 0.16% for males). Also, a British study (Outcomes in the Secondary School Years: Evidence from the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England) found that students from poorer families (linked with educational attainment of parents) had much lower expectations and education aspirations, which Hattie cites as a significant influence on achievement. The study also found that younger people from poorer families tended to engage in risky behaviours such as smoking, drug use and truency which could lead to a higher chance of school supension, another negative effect that could impact student achievement. All of these factors could be reasons to explain the low test results of these students. Data Analysis STUDENTS WITH HIGH LEVEL DEGREE GOALS SCORED THE HIGHEST Degree Level Goal could be an indicator of "Self-Reported Grades" which Hattie ranked as the second most influencial factor in student achievement. This factor takes into account the expectations of the students and how the teacher can push the students to a level beyond that expectation. Students who had a degree goal of Bachelor's Degree, Master's Degree and Doctoral had scores near or well above the national average. Data Analysis Highest Scori ng Sc hool s All three of the high schools with the highest SAT results in the entire USA are all Magnet schools, that draw students from across a county, district or city. These schools tend to receive more funding and in turn can pay their staff hire salaries, which may draw higher educated or more specialised teachers. Having more highly educated and more specialised teachers would lead to having more "Collective Teacher Efficacy" which is the teachers collective belief in their ability to positively affect and impact students; CTE is the highest factor (1.57) related to student achievement. Also, these schools would have the highest achieving students from across an area, which would mean that their "Self Reported Grades" or their expectations would also be much higher; this would explain that high test scores. Without being able to do an in depth and detailed analysis of these schools, I would think it is safe to assume that other impacts such as "Conceptual Change Programs" "Self Efficacy" "Micro-Teaching" "Classroom Discussion" and "Deliberate Practice" are all implemented at these schools. Data Analysis Lowest Scoring Sc hool s Second Start is a school that is designed for students with identified learning and/or emotional difficulties that may have interfered in their abilities to function effectively in their previous learning environment. Influences like "Surface Motivation" "Retention" "Moving Between Schools" may all be contributing to the low test scores of the students as many of the students may have been affected by these factors before arriving at these alternative schools. "ADHD" is also cited as having the most negative impact on student achievement, which could explain why schools like Second Start and Frank M Tejada Academy have such low test scores. Texas also has the second highest number of active military personel, which may contribute to students at Frank M Tejada having low scores as "Parental Military Deployment" has a negative impact of -0.16. Data Analysis Highest Scoring Public Schools Massachusetts' teachers are the best paid teachers in the United States, when adjusted for cost of living, the 10th lowest student-teacher ratio, has strong teacher quality assessments and the 12th highest high school graduation rates. The high salary and relatively high graduation rate, may contribute to creating better "Collective Teacher Efficacy" as teachers may feel like they are able to positively impact their students learning. The relatively low student to teacher ratio may also contribute to better "Teacher Credibility" and "Teacher Estimates of Achievement" as the teachers and students would be able to better develop relationships. All of these factors may be able to explain why Masschusetts has one of the highest test results in the USA. Data Analysis Lowest Scoring Public Schools West Virginia recieves one of the highest amounts of Federal grants received and financial assitance and also has one of the lowest Gross Domestic Product (per capita) in the USA. Hattie cites "Family on Welfare/State Aid" as one of the most negative (-0.12) influences on student achievement. Which may also lead to a lack of "Performance Goals" (-0.01) and "Depression" (-0.36). Oklahoma teachers have the lowest salary and the 14th highest student-teacher ratio, 29 to 1. The low salary and large class sizes are a reason for Oklahoma having one of the highest teacher turnover rates (7th overall) in the USA. This high turnover rate may lead to a lack of "Collective Teacher Efficacy" as teachers are constantly leaving a school, it makes it difficult to create an atmosphere where you feel like you may be able to positively impact your students. Also, the large class sizes may contribute to a lack of "Teacher Estimates of Achievement" as teachers and students are unable to develope any kind of deep relationship. These are two of the three most important factors, according to Hattie, and without them being present, student success will be surely lacking. Recommendations In order for students to achieve their maximum potential, here are a few recommendations that schools and teachers should take into consideration. Being aware of these factors can help you in creating the best possible learning environment for your students 1.) Collective Teacher Efficacy All teachers and staff at a school MUST believe that they are capable of positively affecting the students in their school When this is properly implemented, students levels of achievement increase regardless of their socio-economic status A single teacher to have a positive impact on their students BUT if it is a collective goal and belief, the impact is far greater Schools need to help their teachers have a TEAM mindset: Together wE Achieve More This will also encourage teachers to try new approaches to their lessons and also focus more on the studens who need the most help 2.) Self Reported Grades These are the expectations a student has on their own abilities and it can have a very positive influence on their goals and achievements and can build the confidence needed to move to more challenging tasks Having students predict their goals and outcomes for units, on tests or assignments can be a great tool as, according to John Hattie, they are usually far better at self assessment and are better critics of themselves Their goals should be recorded, in a journal or on a rubric, and the student is able to refernce their goal and their results This will also help the teachers in addressing what areas the students are struggling with and they can work together to find the best ways to achieve their goals and go beyond 3.) Teacher Estimates of Achievement This should go hand in hand with Self Reported grades, as this is the beliefs and expectations that the teacher has of their students and is based on past experience Even if your school does not employ Collective Teacher Efficay, you are still able to have a positive impact on the students in YOUR class if YOU believe in their abilities and potential Knowing what you're students are capable of and how they learn things is essential to planning out lessons that can help the students achieve the most Teachers and students spend about 1200 hrs a year in the class together, so the only way to make that time as valuable and impactful as possible is by creating a postive TEAM atmosphere 4.) Teacher Credibility According to Hattie, teacher credibility is an important key to learning success as students can be very aware of which teachers can make a difference. Everyone has had a teacher in school, who regardless of how long it's been, you still remember their impact on you. Four factors of credibility are trust, compentence, dynamism and immediacy. I believe that trust is the most important key as without it you will never be able to reach any student, regardless of your degrees or experience. You are not an authoritarian who is above the students, you are all equals except you happen to know a bit more than them and are trying to help them learn. Remove as many barriers to your interactions with them. Don't stand behind a podium or lecturn, sit down in a group and discuss as equals. Negative Factors 1.) Family on Welfare Having a student whose family is on welfare probably means that their home life is not the most stable and they could be under a lot of outside stresses that can affect their learning and their general attitude and behaviour. Getting to know your students and understanding what is happening in their home life is essential for teachers to connect with their students and build a foundation to help them achieve their goals 2.) Depression 1 in 8 children suffer from anxiety/depression, so there is a very good chance that a student in your class is as well, which can lead to students being disruptive or unresponsive. Be aware of any changes in a students attitude in class and work in tandem with the student, parents and school counselors to create the best possible learning environment for all students who suffer from depression. 3.) ADHD ADHD totally impacts the way a student is going to respond to any lesson as they will have a difficult time focusing on the task that you are giving them. This will make it difficult for the student to learn, but also may impact other students learning. Help the student by removing as many distractions in class as possible and do your best to bring back their focus when you think they have lost it.