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Science Technology and society

Potia Campus
Science, Technology and Society
Prepared by: Christzon P. Pasigon
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and Society
Articulate the impacts of science and
technology on society, specifically
Philippine society
Explain how science and technology
affect society and the environment and
its role in nation-building
3. Analyze the human condition in order to
deeply reflect and express philosophical
ramifications that are meaningful to the
student as a part of society
4. Define and demonstrate the impact of
social media on the students’ life and
Philippine society in general
5. Imbibe the importance of science and
technology in the preservation of the
environment and the development of the
Filipino nation
6. Critique human flourishing vis-à-vis the
progress of science and technology such
that the student may be able to define for
himself/herself the meaning of the good
7. Foster the value of a healthy lifestyle
toward the holistic and sustainable
development of society and the
8. Creatively present the importance and
contributions of science and technology
to society
Examine shared concerns that make up
the good life in order to come up with
innovative and creative solutions to
contemporary issues guided by ethical
10. Illustrate how the social media and
information age impact their lives and
their understanding of climate change
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Course Introduction:
Happy learning dear students!
The course deals with interactions between science and technology and social, cultural,
political, and economic contexts that shape and are shaped by them. (CMO No. 20, series of 2013)
This interdisciplinary course engages students to confront the realities brought about by
science and technology in society. Such realities pervade the personal, the public, and the global
aspects of our living and are integral to human development. Scientific knowledge and technological
development happen in the context of society with all its socio-political, cultural, economic, and
philosophical underpinnings at play. This course seeks to instill reflective knowledge in the students
that they are able to live the good life and display ethical decision making in the face of scientific
and technological advancement.
This course includes mandatory topics on climate change and environmental awareness. In
this course, lecture part has 54 hours. Students are required to engage in the online regular class
attendance and be active in the online class discussion. However, when internet connection is not
available, students can be contacted through other platforms. There are two examinations to be
accomplished by the students – the midterm and final examination.
This module is a compilation of the different sources from the web and the book. Thus,
students can access the references indicated on this module for further readings. Assessments are
given every after a chapter.
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A globally recognized University upholding excellence amidst rich cultural heritage.
Produce employable graduates who are morally upright, socially and culturally responsible professionals
through quality, relevant, and innovative Instruction, research, extension, and resource generation.
Goal 1. Academic excellence
1. To assure quality of programs;
2. To ensure effective student lifecycle management and career development;
3. To Provide unique and lifelong learning experience in the entire student lifecycle;
4. To integrate internationalization perspective towards global connectedness;
5. To strengthen student welfare services for a successful academic formation of students; and
6. To integrate Indigenous Knowledge, System and Practices (IKSP) in the academic programs to intensify
conservation of the rich cultural heritage.
Goal 2. Strong research leadership and culture
1. To establish a strong brand and strengthen image building of IFSU as a research leader achieving a
total of 29 research outputs in the last 3 years utilized by the industry or by other beneficiaries;
2. To intensify conduct of research and dissemination of RD outputs to increase percentage of faculty
members; and
3. To intensify conservation of the rich cultural heritage.
Goal 3. Sustainable extension and community engagement
1. To package and transfer knowledge and technologies relevant to the needs of the clientele achieving a
95% satisfaction rating from clients of extension services;
2. To create a widely shared organizational culture that encourages, promotes, and rewards extension and
community engagements with 30 of faculty and 100 of students as volunteers annually; and
3. To establish/Strengthen/Sustain linkages with LGUs, industries, and other organizations/stakeholders
for resource sharing, extension program, and service complementation with increased number of active
partners by 20%;
Goal 4. Excellent public service and good governance
1. To ensure efficient, transparent and accountable delivery of administrative services with 95% client
satisfaction rating in all administrative offices;
2. To forge strong network system and resource-sharing through collaborative activities conducted
3. To strengthen the university’s local and international visibility;
4. To enhance efficiency in resource generation and mobilization;
5. To upgrade the competencies and capabilities of human resources;
6. To technologize front line services and other services of the University;
7. To ensure a clean, green, safe, and GAD-responsive University environment; and
8. To intensify conservation of the rich cultural heritage integrating culture in the administrative and
support services.
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College of EDUCATION
An academic center producing excellent educators and leaders who are prime movers of peace
and progress.
To provide responsive and committed professional towards social transformation.
1. To pursue meaningful teaching experiences in the profession;
2. To design education-related programs, systems, technology and information towards
improved quality of life through research and extension; and
3. To produce committed, empowered, and accountable members of the society.
A. Bachelor in Secondary Education:
The Graduate:
1. Practice dynamic professional and ethical requirements of the teaching professions;
2. Leads socio-economic, cultural, historical and political enrichment through research and
extension services;
3. Manifests respect for human dignity and sensitivity to diverse cultures; and
4. Adopts holistic approaches and life-long skills that lead to fulfilling career.
Midterm Grade = 1/3 Midterm Exam + 2/3 Class Standing
Tentative FG
= 1/3 Final Exam + 2/3 Class Standing
Final Grade
= 1/3 Midterm Grade + 2/3 TFG
1. A4 Bond Paper
2. Green Ballpoint pen
3. Black Ballpoint pen
4. Reading materials
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Submission of Requirements
1. Submit requirements on or before the set deadline. Late requirements will have
unsatisfactory consequences; however, submission of requirements can be extended
depending on the situation.
2. Requirements can be submitted personally or through online.
3. INVALID reasons of not submitting requirements will not be entertained. Thus, submitted
requirements with lame reasons may not be accepted.
Exam and Quizzes
1. Exam and quizzes can be taken online and offline.
2. Use scientific calculators ONLY. Cellphones are NOT ALLOWED as replacement of
calculator during examinations and quizzes.
3. Any form of cheating is NOT ALLOWED. Copied outputs directly from the resources will not
be recorded.
4. Use blue or black ball point pen. NEVER use correction pen or pencil.
5. NEVER hesitate to ask questions to your instructor for clarifications.
This statement of disclosure is intended for a smooth flow of the flexible learning to be
implemented throughout the semester. Thus, as a student of Ifugao State University – Potia Campus,
I declare and I am fully aware that …
a. … the IFSU – Potia Campus, College of Education is implementing blended/flexible
learning due to the threat of COVID-19 Pandemic.
b. … the IFSU – Potia Campus, College of Education is following the protocols prescribed
by CHED, IATF and DOH prior to the opening of this semester.
c. … the faculty administer the lesson on this subject using different modalities in offline
and online status.
d. … the faculty is practicing utmost leniency in administering the lesson and in giving
Now, as a student enrolled on this course and as a student that upholds the ideals and virtues
of IFSU, I fully understand that …
a. … I enrolled on this institution with full cognizance on the threat of the COVID-19
b. … I will comply with the directives of the institution throughout the semester.
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c. … I will practice the minimum health standard prescribed by the DOH and IATF
whenever I will enter the premises of IFSU-Potia campus.
d. … I am physically fit and healthy whenever I will meet my instructor on this subject.
e. … I will fill out the logbook at the main gate properly and legibly indicate my name,
address and contact details when entering the campus.
f. … it is a part of my responsibility to curtail the transmission of the COVID-19 disease.
Teaching-Learning Process
g. … I am enrolled in this institution; thus, I will prioritize my learning as if I am having a
regular class on “normal” situations even though that I am practicing distance learning.
h. … I must do the activities with pure honesty and integrity and to practice
self/independent learning using the different modalities given by the instructor. I will face
consequences when I fail to comply with this premise.
… I am willing to engage myself to the platforms given by the instructor and that I must
participate to all the given tasks without hesitations.
… I am willing to ask questions to my instructor regarding the topic using the different
k. … I will not use social media to rant unsatisfaction to the faculty or the institution.
… I agree to the classroom policies given by the instructor.
THEREFORE, I hereby certify that I have read and understood the aforementioned
information. I also declare that I agree to the premises stated above and that anything happens to
me due to my own negligence will be my sole accountability and that I am willing to face the
I am fully aware that the instructor discusses this premises before signing this declaration.
(Signature over printed name)
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Course Outline and Time Frame
Week 1:
(2 hours)
A. School & Classroom policies
B. Computation of Midterm and Final Grades
C. Vision, Mission, Goals and Objectives
Week 1 and 2: (4 CHAPTER 1. Historical antecedents in which social considerations
changed the course of science and technology
a. In the World: Ancient, Middle and Modern Ages
b. In the Philippines
Week 3 and 4: (6 CHAPTER 2. Intellectual revolutions that defined society
a. Copernican
b. Darwinian
c. Freudian
d. Information
e. Mesoamerican
f. Asian
g. Middle East
h. African
Week 5 and 6: (6 CHAPTER 3. Science and Technology and Nation Building
a. The Philippine Government S&T Agenda
b. Major development programs and personalities in S&T in the
c. Science Education in the Philippines
d. Selected indigenous science and technologies
Week 7 and 8:
(6 hours)
CHAPTER 4. The Human Person flourishing in terms of science and
a. Technology as a Way of Revealing
b. Human flourishing
Week 9
(3 hours)
Week 10
(3 hours)
Mid Term Examination (online)
Week 11
(3 hours)
CHAPTER 5. When technology and humanity cross
Week 12:
(3 hours)
CHAPTER 6. Why does the future not need us?
c. The Good Life
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Week 13:
(3 hours)
CHAPTER 7. The information Age (Gutenberg to Social media)
Week 14:
(3 Hours)
The Nano World
Week 15:
(3 Hours)
Week 16
(3 hours)
Gene therapy (stem Cells)
Biodiversity and the Healthy Society
Genetically Modified Organisms: Science, Health, and Politics
Week 17
(3 hours)
Climate Change and the Energy Crisis
Environmental Awareness
Week 18
(3 hours )
Final Examination
Intended Learning Outcomes:
Discuss the interactions between S&T and society throughout history
Analyze how scientific and technological developments affect society and the environment
Identify the paradigm shifts in history
What is Science?
the system of knowledge of the natural world gained through the scientific method
What is Technology?
tekhne meaning “art” or “craft”
logia meaning “subject” or “interest”
= practical applications of what we know about nature
= using scientific principles for the betterment of the human situation
While natural science is transforming human society, the changes that science produces
must be assessed and the sources of its power must be questioned.
Science is linked to society through technology and human culture
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STS from the Perspective of History
The Dawn of the First Civilization
archaeological excavations and discoveries,
the first civilizations emerged independent of one another along fertile river valleys in
Mesopotamia, Egypt, China and India
discovered, learned and developed science and technology essentially as the consequences
of their search for food and other survival needs
began to settle down in places suitable for cultivating plants and raising animals
the first civilization rose in the Tigris-Euphrates valley in the Middle East during the
civilizations emerged in the Egypt’s Nile Valley, in the Indus Valley, and in Huang
valley in China.
developed a unique way of life, religion, form of government, language and system of
arts and crafts advances in their applications of science and technology
(astronomy, agriculture, medicine, mathematics, engineering and architecture)
Pre-Historic Times
Stone Age: Palaeolithic Age (3000-1000 B.C.)
and Neolithic Age (9000 – 5000 B.C.)
 first tools were made of stone (pebbles pre-shaped by nature, picked up simply from a
river bed.
 stone tools of various shapes and sizes suited for chopping, cutting, and digging
 discovery of fire (percussion method)
 metallurgy, pottery, brewing and steaming are applications of pre-historic cooking.
Bronze Age (3500-2500 B.C.)
 people in the Middle East were smelting copper and making bronze tools and weapons
 started in Northern Europe in the 2500 B.C.
Ancient Times 3500 B.C. – 1200 A.D.
Sumerian Civilization
 Sumer in Mesopotamia is the cradle of the world’s earliest known civilization
 agricultural way of life eventually transformed their nuclear families into communities
and tribes then eventually cities
 invented the world’s first writing system called cuneiform
 sexagesimal system of counting and place notation (using the number 60 as base)
 intricate system of canals, dikes, wires and reservoirs
 metallurgy and architecture
 houses were one-storey mud structure made of bricks with an open court surrounded by
several rooms
 kitchen pots and pans were made of clay and stone
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 potter’s wheel
 built streets within their walled cities
 must have built the first known wheeled vehicle, made of solid wooden wheels on axles
 developed a complex but systematized technique of farming
 wool from sheep were made into textiles woven into fine cloth
 mastered the art of bleaching, dyeing, mixing pigments and preparing paints, cosmetics
and perfumes
 invented the sailboat and brought their goods for sale along the Persian gulf where
precious stones, ivory and other luxury items would be obtained
made use of assorted botanical, zoological and mineralogical ingredients for medicine
Babylonian Civilization
 developed and elaborate irrigation system of canals flanked by earthen dikes
 system of bookkeeping, a simple but adequate system of double-entry accounting
 measurements were made of fractions, squares and square roots
 models of planetary motions and other heavenly bodies proved their ability to compute
complicated mathematical problems
 made accurate predictions of solar and lunar eclipses and other astronomical
Egyptian Civilization
 a desert country thriving on an agricultural economy
 early settlers were depicted as animal hunters, with weapons and traps
 tools, weapons and utensils made of metal (copper and bronze) as well as pottery,
potter’s wheel
 weavers used horizontal looms to weave their linens
 large monuments were constructed as burial places for their kings
 wrote with ink and brushes on paper made pf papyrus reeds
 Egyptian writing was in the form of pictorial symbols known as hieroglyphics,
representing individual objects or actions
 Egyptians studied the heavens to record time, calculate distances/directions, forecast
the seasons and predict the annual flooding of the Nile River
the earliest Egyptian calendar was based on their observations of the regular
disappearance and reappearance of Sirius
 another calendar was based on the phases of the moon, consisting of 29 and ½ days.
 the first to divide the day into 24 hours, calculated the time by means of a water clock
 developed an intricate irrigation system
 extracted cooking oil from linseed, saffron and sesame
 breeds of ducks, geese, pigeons, pigs, goats, cattle, and sheep were domesticated as
their source of food and clothing
 women were engaged in weaving and making perfume while men were experts in
carpentry, pottery, glass-making, metal working, leather working, paper-making and boat
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 age of pyramids – pyramids still stand today as the monumental evidence of the
scientific expertise and technical skills of the ancient Egyptians in geometry,
engineering, architecture, and labor management
 knowledge on human anatomy, physiology, surgical, and medical plants enabled them to
master the art and science of embalming their dead
Greek Civilization (1100 B.C.)
 transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age
which was followed by centuries of cultural development in Greece
 first to systematically separate scientific ideas from superstition and stressed the logical
development of general principles or theories about natural phenomena
 Thales of Miletus (624-547 B.C.) Father of Philosophy, taught that nature was
composed of or convertible into water
Anaxagoras (500-428 B.C.) argues that matter was composed of countless tiny
 Empedocles (493-433 B.C.) nature was a mixture of 4 elements: earth, fire, air and
 Hippocrates (about 400 B.C.) the first to regard medicine as a science apart from
 Galen ( 129-199 B.C.) made the first steps for the advancement of the science of
Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) proved the importance of critical observation and systematic
means to identify and classify organisms
 first to separate mathematics from purely practical uses by developing systematic
methods of reasoning based on mathematical measurements proving the truth of
mathematical statements
 Thales, Pythagoras, Euclid
 believed that men could achieve certain and external knowledge by studying
 geometry has been perfected by 300 B.C. as a single logical system
 Archimedes (200 B.C.) performed experiments which led him to discover the laws of the
lever and the pulley that resulted in the invention of machines
 sky maps which the ancient Greek astronomers left contained surprisingly accurate
locations and measurements of the heavenly bodies they observed
 Ptolemy (100 A.D.) postulated the geocentric theory of the universe with precise
geometrical measurements and logical deductions
Roman Civilization
 Julius Caesar (102-44 B.C.)
 excelled in architecture and engineering
contribution to theoretical science is nil, they merely applied the wealth of scientific
knowledge they assimilated mostly from the Greeks
Arabic/Islamic Civilization
 Interest in the pseudoscience of alchemy encouraged them to mix and manipulate
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chemical elements and conduct experiments to transform base metals into gold
 first to use glass lens for magnification
 first to manufacture the black powder
 produced the first gun- a bamboo tube reinforced with iron that used a charge of black
powder to shoot an arrow
Chinese Civilization
 farmed settlements where rice is cultivated, domestication of some farm animals, built
walled settlements with heavy gates
 made bronze weapons, tools and ornaments
 used a pictographic and ideograph script
 learned the technology of silk production
 development of the horse-drawn war chariot
 Iron, ox-drawn plows, crossbows, horseback riding
 building and road construction technologies
 irrigation engineering and military capabilities
 coinage system
 astronomy, mathematics, engineering, medicine, alchemy, geology, geography, and
 poetry, painting, music, literature, philosophy, civil service system
 water-powered mills
 apothecaries and acupuncture, healing drugs and herbs
 advances system of pharmacology
 earthquake weathercock (seismograph)
 paper making and the printing press
 calligraphy, water color painting, and block printing
 refinements in the use of loadstone
 Coal as fuel, water wheel, wheel barrow, flexible bamboo pole to transport heavy load,
copper coinage, artistry of wall paper and porcelain, ocean going ships
Indus-Hindu Civilization
 construction layout of its cities which featured water wells, bathrooms, wastepipe or
drains in nearly every house
 large buildings included a public bath and granaries or storehouses
 dikes
 tools were made of stone, bronze and wood and iron
 arts and skills in farming and building cities.
 excelled in mathematics and medicine, surgery
 value of pi
 trigonometry, spherical geometry and calculus
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Middle Ages (400-1300 A.D.)
 devoted scholars in the study of theology which somehow left little interest for scientific
 Arab scientists were producing outstanding scientific contributions of their own in
astronomy, mathematics, medicine, optics, and other sciences.
 algebra was expanded and organized
 comprehensive medical encyclopedias titled “Canon of Medicine” which contained
medical knowledge and accurate descriptions of meningitis, tetanus, and other diseases
 introduction and spread of the Hindu-Arabic number system throughout Europe
triggered the development of mathematics and its application in business.
 first European universities were established
The Renaissance (1300-1600 A.D.)
 technology for printing books
 process for making paper improved using wood pulp
 Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) – astronomy, anatomy, botany, geology, and mechanics
 the rebirth of science began in 1543 with the publication of two books: On the
Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres by Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) and On the
fabric of the Human Body by Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564)
The Scientific Revolution
(1600-1700 A.D.)
 The Scientific Method by Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
 Galileo Galilei (1564-1662) applied this new scientific method in his study of astronomy
 Believed that observation was the guide, experiment the test, and mathematics the
language that proved physical reality
 growing supremacy of reason over religion in human affairs
 Rene Descartes (1596-1650) strengthened the power of reason
 Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) – made the crucial discovery that the orbits of the planets
were not circular, but elliptical
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) – careful and accurate way of conducting investigative
experiments, recording observations, using scientific instruments like the telescope and
the sextant, formulating mathematical solutions and arriving at logically valid
Discoveries and Inventions
 John Napier (1550-1617) – logarithms
 Rene Descartes (1596-1659) – brought together geometry and algebra
 Isaac Newton (1642-1727) and Gottfried Whilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) – calculus
 Newton – conducted a series of experiments on the composition of light; visible light is
composed of primary colors; theree laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation
 Hans Lippershey (1570-1619) Invention of the telescope a
 Jans Swammerdam (1637-1723) the microscope
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 Christian Huygens (1626-1695) – started the use of the pendulum as time controller in
 Galileo invented the thermometer in 1592
Ancient Period
1. Nimrud lens
2. Kite
3. Seismoscope
4. Antikythera mechanism
5. Aerophile
6. Umbrella
7. Rocket
8. Baghdad battery
9. Movable type printing
10. Compass
Ancient Period
1. Cuneiform Script
2. Calendar
3. Ancient Roman concrete
4. Units of Measurement
5. Alphabet
6. Ink
7. Cataract removal
8. Ancient / Water clocks
9. Roman aqueducts
10. Parabolic mirror
11. Mulberry tree bark -as paper
12. Abacus
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Middle Ages
Middle Ages
1. Eyeglasses
1. Horseshoe
2. Tide mill
2. Wind mill
3. Liquor
3. Spinning wheel
4. Hourglass
4. Medieval armor
5. Compass
5. Mechanical clock
6. Long bow
6. Gunpowder
7. Printing press
7. Microscope
8. Pike
8. Flush Toilet
9. Weighing scale
10. Parachute
10. Heavy plough
11. Air pump
Modern Age
Modern Age
1. Penicillin
1. Bicycle
2. Smartphones
2. Steam Engine
3. Camera
3. Pasteurization
4. Computer
4. Piano
5. Spacecrafts
5. Steam locomotive
6. iPad
6. Nanotechnology
7. Bluetooth
7. Doppler Radar
8. Airplane
8. Fuel Refinery
9. ATM
10. Telephone
10. Robots
11. Calculator
12. Electron microscope
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Philippine Inventions
Other Notable Inventions -Philippines
1. karaoke
1. Quink-ink
2. 16-bit microchips
2. Fermented Fish Sauce
3. coconut oil-fueledpower generator
3. Macapuno
4. medical incubator
4. E-Jeepney
5. salt lamp
5. Mosquito Ovicidal/Larvicidal(OL) Trap
6. erythromycin -Ilosone
6. Methods of Controlling Leprosy
7. yoyo
7. Banana Catsup
8. videophone
8. Game of the Generals
9. induced mango flowering (chemical
9. Coconet
10. DeBCCCream
10. Eco-G3000, a low-cost, low
maintenance fuel-emission reduction device
designed to reduce vehicular gas
consumption and toxic emission
Intended Learning Outcomes:
Articulate ways by which society is transformed by science and technology
Intended Learning Objectives
The Scientific Revolution
The scientific revolution refers to the rapid advances in European scientific, mathematical, and
political thought, based on a new philosophy of empiricism and a faith in progress that defined
Europe in the 16th to 18th centuries.
This led to Modern Science
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What is Science?
•Science as an idea
•Science as an intellectual activity
•Science as a body of knowledge
•Science as a personal and social activity
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16th century to 18th century in Europe
•Scientific revolution was the period of enlightenment when the developments in the fields of
mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology and chemistry transformed the views of society about
•emergence or birth of modern science as a result of these developments
•Ideas enables the people to reflect, rethink and re-examine their beliefs and their way of life
•what created days and nights
•to understand what heavenly bodies like stars, moons and planets are
•invention of the telescope
•Claudius Ptolemy –geocentrism
•Ptolemy’s geocentric model was one of the greatest discoveries of that time.
•16 th century
•Nicolaus Copernicus challenged the Ptolemaic model
•heliocentrism–the center of the Solar system was the sun
•Copernicus was persecuted as a heretic
•eventually accepted in a period called the birth of modern astronomy
•most controversial intellectual revolution of its time
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•In 1859, Charles Darwin published his book, “On the Origin of species”
•Theory of Evolution -people perceived it to be contrary to the church’s teaching that the source
of life is a powerful creator
•sparked a massive debate between science and religion
•in the past, the field of psychology was always classified under philosophy
•in the late 19 th century, Sigmund Freud was able to change people’s perception with his theory
of psychoanalysis
•Psychoanalysis is the study that explains human behavior
•personality is the product of three conflicting elements: id, ego and superego
•became a clinical method in treating some mental disorders
Intended Learning Outcomes:
Discuss the role of Science and Technology in Philippine nation building
Evaluate government policies pertaining to science and technology in terms of their
contributions to nation building
Identify actual science and technology policies of the government and appraise their impact
on the development of the Filipino nation
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•use of certain plants and herbs as medicines
•implementation of systems of farming and animal raising
•development of different modes of transportation (terrestrial and maritime)
•rice terraces were built by hand
•Incorporation of an irrigation system that uses water from the forest and mountain tops
•interpreted the movements of the heavenly bodies to predict seasons and climates
•development of tools for everyday use
•developed technologies in creating musical instruments
•sophisticated designs of jewellery, ceramics and metal tools
•trading with China, Indonesia, Japan and other neighboringcountries
•modern means of construction (walls, roads, bridges and other large infrastructures)
•developed health and educations systems
•beginning of formal science and technology in the country
•Established a government agency , The Bureau of Science.
•establishes the public education system
•improved engineering works and health of people
•established a modern research university (UP)
•created more public hospitals
•mineral resources were explored and exploited
•transportation and communication were improved
•researches were done to control tropical diseases
•Continued to pursue programs in science and technology
•Ferdinand Marcos-PAGASA, The National Academy of science and Technology, and the
national Science and technology Authority now the DOST
National Goals
International Treaties
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Legal Frameworks
Social Needs. Issues and Problems
•Ramon Cabanos Barba–tissue culture in Philippine mangoes
•Josefino Cacas Comiso–observing the characteristics of Antarctica using satellite images
•Jose Bejar Cruz Jr. –known internationally in the field of electrical engineering
•Lourdes Jansuy Cruz –research on sea snail venom
•Fabian Millar Dayrit–research on herbal medicine
•Rafael Dineros Guerrero III –research on tilapia culture
•Enrique Mapua OstreaJr. –inventing the meconium drugs testing
•Lilian Formalejo Patena–research on plant biotechnology
•Mari-Jo Panganiban Ruiz –outstanding educator and graph theorist
•Gregory Ligot Tangonan–research in the field of communication technology
This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler.
•Ceasar Saloma–physics
•Edgardo Gomez–marine science
•Willaim Padolinoa–chemistry
•Angel Alcala –marine science
This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler.
Study collections