IFUGAO STATE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF EDUCATION Potia Campus Science, Technology and Society Prepared by: Christzon P. Pasigon *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. Science, Technology and Society 1. Articulate the impacts of science and technology on society, specifically Philippine society 2. Explain how science and technology affect society and the environment and its role in nation-building 3. Analyze the human condition in order to deeply reflect and express philosophical ramifications that are meaningful to the student as a part of society 4. Define and demonstrate the impact of social media on the students’ life and Philippine society in general 5. Imbibe the importance of science and technology in the preservation of the environment and the development of the Filipino nation 6. Critique human flourishing vis-à-vis the progress of science and technology such that the student may be able to define for himself/herself the meaning of the good life 7. Foster the value of a healthy lifestyle toward the holistic and sustainable development of society and the environment 8. Creatively present the importance and contributions of science and technology to society 9. Examine shared concerns that make up the good life in order to come up with innovative and creative solutions to contemporary issues guided by ethical standards 10. Illustrate how the social media and information age impact their lives and their understanding of climate change *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. Course Introduction: Happy learning dear students! The course deals with interactions between science and technology and social, cultural, political, and economic contexts that shape and are shaped by them. (CMO No. 20, series of 2013) This interdisciplinary course engages students to confront the realities brought about by science and technology in society. Such realities pervade the personal, the public, and the global aspects of our living and are integral to human development. Scientific knowledge and technological development happen in the context of society with all its socio-political, cultural, economic, and philosophical underpinnings at play. This course seeks to instill reflective knowledge in the students that they are able to live the good life and display ethical decision making in the face of scientific and technological advancement. This course includes mandatory topics on climate change and environmental awareness. In this course, lecture part has 54 hours. Students are required to engage in the online regular class attendance and be active in the online class discussion. However, when internet connection is not available, students can be contacted through other platforms. There are two examinations to be accomplished by the students – the midterm and final examination. This module is a compilation of the different sources from the web and the book. Thus, students can access the references indicated on this module for further readings. Assessments are given every after a chapter. CHRISTZON P. PASIGON Compiler *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. VISION A globally recognized University upholding excellence amidst rich cultural heritage. MISSION Produce employable graduates who are morally upright, socially and culturally responsible professionals through quality, relevant, and innovative Instruction, research, extension, and resource generation. GOALS OF THE UNIVERSITY Goal 1. Academic excellence Objectives: 1. To assure quality of programs; 2. To ensure effective student lifecycle management and career development; 3. To Provide unique and lifelong learning experience in the entire student lifecycle; 4. To integrate internationalization perspective towards global connectedness; 5. To strengthen student welfare services for a successful academic formation of students; and 6. To integrate Indigenous Knowledge, System and Practices (IKSP) in the academic programs to intensify conservation of the rich cultural heritage. Goal 2. Strong research leadership and culture Objectives: 1. To establish a strong brand and strengthen image building of IFSU as a research leader achieving a total of 29 research outputs in the last 3 years utilized by the industry or by other beneficiaries; 2. To intensify conduct of research and dissemination of RD outputs to increase percentage of faculty members; and 3. To intensify conservation of the rich cultural heritage. Goal 3. Sustainable extension and community engagement Objectives: 1. To package and transfer knowledge and technologies relevant to the needs of the clientele achieving a 95% satisfaction rating from clients of extension services; 2. To create a widely shared organizational culture that encourages, promotes, and rewards extension and community engagements with 30 of faculty and 100 of students as volunteers annually; and 3. To establish/Strengthen/Sustain linkages with LGUs, industries, and other organizations/stakeholders for resource sharing, extension program, and service complementation with increased number of active partners by 20%; Goal 4. Excellent public service and good governance Objectives: 1. To ensure efficient, transparent and accountable delivery of administrative services with 95% client satisfaction rating in all administrative offices; 2. To forge strong network system and resource-sharing through collaborative activities conducted regularly; 3. To strengthen the university’s local and international visibility; 4. To enhance efficiency in resource generation and mobilization; 5. To upgrade the competencies and capabilities of human resources; 6. To technologize front line services and other services of the University; 7. To ensure a clean, green, safe, and GAD-responsive University environment; and 8. To intensify conservation of the rich cultural heritage integrating culture in the administrative and support services. *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. College of EDUCATION VISION An academic center producing excellent educators and leaders who are prime movers of peace and progress. MISSION To provide responsive and committed professional towards social transformation. GOALS 1. To pursue meaningful teaching experiences in the profession; 2. To design education-related programs, systems, technology and information towards improved quality of life through research and extension; and 3. To produce committed, empowered, and accountable members of the society. GRADING SYSTEM OBJECTIVES: A. Bachelor in Secondary Education: The Graduate: 1. Practice dynamic professional and ethical requirements of the teaching professions; 2. Leads socio-economic, cultural, historical and political enrichment through research and extension services; 3. Manifests respect for human dignity and sensitivity to diverse cultures; and 4. Adopts holistic approaches and life-long skills that lead to fulfilling career. Midterm Grade = 1/3 Midterm Exam + 2/3 Class Standing Tentative FG = 1/3 Final Exam + 2/3 Class Standing Final Grade = 1/3 Midterm Grade + 2/3 TFG CLASS MATERIALS NEEDED 1. A4 Bond Paper 2. Green Ballpoint pen 3. Black Ballpoint pen 4. Reading materials ***STUDENTS ARE NOT REQUIRED TO BUY HIGH GRADE GADGETS LIKE CELLPHONES AND LAPTOPS. *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. CLASSROOM POLICIES Submission of Requirements 1. Submit requirements on or before the set deadline. Late requirements will have unsatisfactory consequences; however, submission of requirements can be extended depending on the situation. 2. Requirements can be submitted personally or through online. 3. INVALID reasons of not submitting requirements will not be entertained. Thus, submitted requirements with lame reasons may not be accepted. Exam and Quizzes 1. Exam and quizzes can be taken online and offline. 2. Use scientific calculators ONLY. Cellphones are NOT ALLOWED as replacement of calculator during examinations and quizzes. 3. Any form of cheating is NOT ALLOWED. Copied outputs directly from the resources will not be recorded. 4. Use blue or black ball point pen. NEVER use correction pen or pencil. 5. NEVER hesitate to ask questions to your instructor for clarifications. STATEMENT OF DISCLOSURE This statement of disclosure is intended for a smooth flow of the flexible learning to be implemented throughout the semester. Thus, as a student of Ifugao State University – Potia Campus, I declare and I am fully aware that … a. … the IFSU – Potia Campus, College of Education is implementing blended/flexible learning due to the threat of COVID-19 Pandemic. b. … the IFSU – Potia Campus, College of Education is following the protocols prescribed by CHED, IATF and DOH prior to the opening of this semester. c. … the faculty administer the lesson on this subject using different modalities in offline and online status. d. … the faculty is practicing utmost leniency in administering the lesson and in giving activities. Now, as a student enrolled on this course and as a student that upholds the ideals and virtues of IFSU, I fully understand that … Institution a. … I enrolled on this institution with full cognizance on the threat of the COVID-19 pandemic. b. … I will comply with the directives of the institution throughout the semester. *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. Health c. … I will practice the minimum health standard prescribed by the DOH and IATF whenever I will enter the premises of IFSU-Potia campus. d. … I am physically fit and healthy whenever I will meet my instructor on this subject. e. … I will fill out the logbook at the main gate properly and legibly indicate my name, address and contact details when entering the campus. f. … it is a part of my responsibility to curtail the transmission of the COVID-19 disease. Teaching-Learning Process g. … I am enrolled in this institution; thus, I will prioritize my learning as if I am having a regular class on “normal” situations even though that I am practicing distance learning. h. … I must do the activities with pure honesty and integrity and to practice self/independent learning using the different modalities given by the instructor. I will face consequences when I fail to comply with this premise. i. … I am willing to engage myself to the platforms given by the instructor and that I must participate to all the given tasks without hesitations. j. … I am willing to ask questions to my instructor regarding the topic using the different platforms. k. … I will not use social media to rant unsatisfaction to the faculty or the institution. l. … I agree to the classroom policies given by the instructor. THEREFORE, I hereby certify that I have read and understood the aforementioned information. I also declare that I agree to the premises stated above and that anything happens to me due to my own negligence will be my sole accountability and that I am willing to face the consequences. I am fully aware that the instructor discusses this premises before signing this declaration. _________________________________ (Signature over printed name) *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. Course Outline and Time Frame Week Week 1: (2 hours) Topic/s PRELIMINARY. INTRODUCTION TO THE COURSE A. School & Classroom policies B. Computation of Midterm and Final Grades C. Vision, Mission, Goals and Objectives Week 1 and 2: (4 CHAPTER 1. Historical antecedents in which social considerations hours) changed the course of science and technology a. In the World: Ancient, Middle and Modern Ages b. In the Philippines Week 3 and 4: (6 CHAPTER 2. Intellectual revolutions that defined society hours) a. Copernican b. Darwinian c. Freudian d. Information e. Mesoamerican f. Asian g. Middle East h. African Week 5 and 6: (6 CHAPTER 3. Science and Technology and Nation Building hours) a. The Philippine Government S&T Agenda b. Major development programs and personalities in S&T in the Philippines c. Science Education in the Philippines d. Selected indigenous science and technologies *** Week 7 and 8: (6 hours) CHAPTER 4. The Human Person flourishing in terms of science and technology a. Technology as a Way of Revealing b. Human flourishing Week 9 (3 hours) Week 10 (3 hours) Mid Term Examination (online) Week 11 (3 hours) CHAPTER 5. When technology and humanity cross Week 12: (3 hours) CHAPTER 6. Why does the future not need us? c. The Good Life This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. Week 13: (3 hours) CHAPTER 7. The information Age (Gutenberg to Social media) Week 14: (3 Hours) CHAPTER 8. STS NECESSARY DISCUSSION The Nano World Week 15: (3 Hours) Week 16 (3 hours) Gene therapy (stem Cells) Biodiversity and the Healthy Society Genetically Modified Organisms: Science, Health, and Politics Week 17 (3 hours) Climate Change and the Energy Crisis Environmental Awareness Week 18 (3 hours ) Final Examination CHAPTER 1 - HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS IN WHICH SOCIAL CONSIDERATIONS CHANGED THE COURSE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY Intended Learning Outcomes: ▪ ▪ ▪ Discuss the interactions between S&T and society throughout history Analyze how scientific and technological developments affect society and the environment Identify the paradigm shifts in history What is Science? the system of knowledge of the natural world gained through the scientific method What is Technology? tekhne meaning “art” or “craft” logia meaning “subject” or “interest” = practical applications of what we know about nature = using scientific principles for the betterment of the human situation While natural science is transforming human society, the changes that science produces must be assessed and the sources of its power must be questioned. Science is linked to society through technology and human culture *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. STS from the Perspective of History The Dawn of the First Civilization archaeological excavations and discoveries, the first civilizations emerged independent of one another along fertile river valleys in Mesopotamia, Egypt, China and India discovered, learned and developed science and technology essentially as the consequences of their search for food and other survival needs began to settle down in places suitable for cultivating plants and raising animals 3500 the first civilization rose in the Tigris-Euphrates valley in the Middle East during the B.C. Hoother civilizations emerged in the Egypt’s Nile Valley, in the Indus Valley, and in Huang valley in China. writing, developed a unique way of life, religion, form of government, language and system of arts and crafts advances in their applications of science and technology (astronomy, agriculture, medicine, mathematics, engineering and architecture) Pre-Historic Times Stone Age: Palaeolithic Age (3000-1000 B.C.) and Neolithic Age (9000 – 5000 B.C.) first tools were made of stone (pebbles pre-shaped by nature, picked up simply from a river bed. stone tools of various shapes and sizes suited for chopping, cutting, and digging discovery of fire (percussion method) metallurgy, pottery, brewing and steaming are applications of pre-historic cooking. Bronze Age (3500-2500 B.C.) people in the Middle East were smelting copper and making bronze tools and weapons started in Northern Europe in the 2500 B.C. Ancient Times 3500 B.C. – 1200 A.D. Sumerian Civilization Sumer in Mesopotamia is the cradle of the world’s earliest known civilization agricultural way of life eventually transformed their nuclear families into communities and tribes then eventually cities invented the world’s first writing system called cuneiform sexagesimal system of counting and place notation (using the number 60 as base) intricate system of canals, dikes, wires and reservoirs metallurgy and architecture houses were one-storey mud structure made of bricks with an open court surrounded by several rooms kitchen pots and pans were made of clay and stone *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. potter’s wheel built streets within their walled cities must have built the first known wheeled vehicle, made of solid wooden wheels on axles developed a complex but systematized technique of farming wool from sheep were made into textiles woven into fine cloth mastered the art of bleaching, dyeing, mixing pigments and preparing paints, cosmetics and perfumes invented the sailboat and brought their goods for sale along the Persian gulf where precious stones, ivory and other luxury items would be obtained made use of assorted botanical, zoological and mineralogical ingredients for medicine Babylonian Civilization developed and elaborate irrigation system of canals flanked by earthen dikes system of bookkeeping, a simple but adequate system of double-entry accounting measurements were made of fractions, squares and square roots models of planetary motions and other heavenly bodies proved their ability to compute complicated mathematical problems made accurate predictions of solar and lunar eclipses and other astronomical phenomena Egyptian Civilization a desert country thriving on an agricultural economy early settlers were depicted as animal hunters, with weapons and traps tools, weapons and utensils made of metal (copper and bronze) as well as pottery, potter’s wheel weavers used horizontal looms to weave their linens large monuments were constructed as burial places for their kings wrote with ink and brushes on paper made pf papyrus reeds Egyptian writing was in the form of pictorial symbols known as hieroglyphics, representing individual objects or actions Egyptians studied the heavens to record time, calculate distances/directions, forecast the seasons and predict the annual flooding of the Nile River the earliest Egyptian calendar was based on their observations of the regular disappearance and reappearance of Sirius another calendar was based on the phases of the moon, consisting of 29 and ½ days. the first to divide the day into 24 hours, calculated the time by means of a water clock developed an intricate irrigation system extracted cooking oil from linseed, saffron and sesame breeds of ducks, geese, pigeons, pigs, goats, cattle, and sheep were domesticated as their source of food and clothing women were engaged in weaving and making perfume while men were experts in carpentry, pottery, glass-making, metal working, leather working, paper-making and boat *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. building age of pyramids – pyramids still stand today as the monumental evidence of the scientific expertise and technical skills of the ancient Egyptians in geometry, engineering, architecture, and labor management knowledge on human anatomy, physiology, surgical, and medical plants enabled them to master the art and science of embalming their dead Greek Civilization (1100 B.C.) transition from the Bronze Age to the Iron Age which was followed by centuries of cultural development in Greece first to systematically separate scientific ideas from superstition and stressed the logical development of general principles or theories about natural phenomena Thales of Miletus (624-547 B.C.) Father of Philosophy, taught that nature was composed of or convertible into water Anaxagoras (500-428 B.C.) argues that matter was composed of countless tiny particles Empedocles (493-433 B.C.) nature was a mixture of 4 elements: earth, fire, air and water Hippocrates (about 400 B.C.) the first to regard medicine as a science apart from religion Galen ( 129-199 B.C.) made the first steps for the advancement of the science of anatomy Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) proved the importance of critical observation and systematic means to identify and classify organisms first to separate mathematics from purely practical uses by developing systematic methods of reasoning based on mathematical measurements proving the truth of mathematical statements Thales, Pythagoras, Euclid believed that men could achieve certain and external knowledge by studying mathematics geometry has been perfected by 300 B.C. as a single logical system Archimedes (200 B.C.) performed experiments which led him to discover the laws of the lever and the pulley that resulted in the invention of machines sky maps which the ancient Greek astronomers left contained surprisingly accurate locations and measurements of the heavenly bodies they observed Ptolemy (100 A.D.) postulated the geocentric theory of the universe with precise geometrical measurements and logical deductions Roman Civilization Julius Caesar (102-44 B.C.) excelled in architecture and engineering contribution to theoretical science is nil, they merely applied the wealth of scientific knowledge they assimilated mostly from the Greeks Arabic/Islamic Civilization Interest in the pseudoscience of alchemy encouraged them to mix and manipulate *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. chemical elements and conduct experiments to transform base metals into gold first to use glass lens for magnification first to manufacture the black powder produced the first gun- a bamboo tube reinforced with iron that used a charge of black powder to shoot an arrow Chinese Civilization farmed settlements where rice is cultivated, domestication of some farm animals, built walled settlements with heavy gates made bronze weapons, tools and ornaments used a pictographic and ideograph script learned the technology of silk production development of the horse-drawn war chariot Iron, ox-drawn plows, crossbows, horseback riding building and road construction technologies irrigation engineering and military capabilities coinage system astronomy, mathematics, engineering, medicine, alchemy, geology, geography, and technology poetry, painting, music, literature, philosophy, civil service system water-powered mills apothecaries and acupuncture, healing drugs and herbs advances system of pharmacology earthquake weathercock (seismograph) paper making and the printing press calligraphy, water color painting, and block printing refinements in the use of loadstone Coal as fuel, water wheel, wheel barrow, flexible bamboo pole to transport heavy load, copper coinage, artistry of wall paper and porcelain, ocean going ships Indus-Hindu Civilization construction layout of its cities which featured water wells, bathrooms, wastepipe or drains in nearly every house large buildings included a public bath and granaries or storehouses dikes tools were made of stone, bronze and wood and iron arts and skills in farming and building cities. excelled in mathematics and medicine, surgery value of pi trigonometry, spherical geometry and calculus *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. Middle Ages (400-1300 A.D.) devoted scholars in the study of theology which somehow left little interest for scientific pursuits Arab scientists were producing outstanding scientific contributions of their own in astronomy, mathematics, medicine, optics, and other sciences. algebra was expanded and organized comprehensive medical encyclopedias titled “Canon of Medicine” which contained medical knowledge and accurate descriptions of meningitis, tetanus, and other diseases introduction and spread of the Hindu-Arabic number system throughout Europe triggered the development of mathematics and its application in business. first European universities were established The Renaissance (1300-1600 A.D.) technology for printing books process for making paper improved using wood pulp Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) – astronomy, anatomy, botany, geology, and mechanics the rebirth of science began in 1543 with the publication of two books: On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres by Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) and On the fabric of the Human Body by Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564) The Scientific Revolution (1600-1700 A.D.) The Scientific Method by Francis Bacon (1561-1626) Galileo Galilei (1564-1662) applied this new scientific method in his study of astronomy Believed that observation was the guide, experiment the test, and mathematics the language that proved physical reality growing supremacy of reason over religion in human affairs Rene Descartes (1596-1650) strengthened the power of reason Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) – made the crucial discovery that the orbits of the planets were not circular, but elliptical Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) – careful and accurate way of conducting investigative experiments, recording observations, using scientific instruments like the telescope and the sextant, formulating mathematical solutions and arriving at logically valid conclusions. Discoveries and Inventions John Napier (1550-1617) – logarithms Rene Descartes (1596-1659) – brought together geometry and algebra Isaac Newton (1642-1727) and Gottfried Whilhelm von Leibniz (1646-1716) – calculus Newton – conducted a series of experiments on the composition of light; visible light is composed of primary colors; theree laws of motion and the law of universal gravitation Hans Lippershey (1570-1619) Invention of the telescope a Jans Swammerdam (1637-1723) the microscope *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. Christian Huygens (1626-1695) – started the use of the pendulum as time controller in clocks Galileo invented the thermometer in 1592 INVENTIONS AND DISCOVERIES Ancient Period 1. Nimrud lens 2. Kite 3. Seismoscope 4. Antikythera mechanism 5. Aerophile 6. Umbrella 7. Rocket 8. Baghdad battery 9. Movable type printing 10. Compass Ancient Period 1. Cuneiform Script 2. Calendar 3. Ancient Roman concrete 4. Units of Measurement 5. Alphabet 6. Ink 7. Cataract removal 8. Ancient / Water clocks 9. Roman aqueducts 10. Parabolic mirror 11. Mulberry tree bark -as paper 12. Abacus *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. Middle Ages Middle Ages 1. Eyeglasses 1. Horseshoe 2. Tide mill 2. Wind mill 3. Liquor 3. Spinning wheel 4. Hourglass 4. Medieval armor 5. Compass 5. Mechanical clock 6. Long bow 6. Gunpowder 7. Printing press 7. Microscope 8. Pike 8. Flush Toilet 9. Weighing scale 10. Parachute 10. Heavy plough 11. Air pump Modern Age Modern Age 1. Penicillin 1. Bicycle 2. Smartphones 2. Steam Engine 3. Camera 3. Pasteurization 4. Computer 4. Piano 5. Spacecrafts 5. Steam locomotive 6. iPad 6. Nanotechnology 7. Bluetooth 7. Doppler Radar 8. Airplane 8. Fuel Reﬁnery 9. ATM 10. Telephone 10. Robots 11. Calculator 12. Electron microscope *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. Philippine Inventions Other Notable Inventions -Philippines 1. karaoke 1. Quink-ink 2. 16-bit microchips 2. Fermented Fish Sauce 3. coconut oil-fueledpower generator 3. Macapuno 4. medical incubator 4. E-Jeepney 5. salt lamp 5. Mosquito Ovicidal/Larvicidal(OL) Trap 6. erythromycin -Ilosone 6. Methods of Controlling Leprosy 7. yoyo 7. Banana Catsup 8. videophone 8. Game of the Generals 9. induced mango ﬂowering (chemical spraying) 9. Coconet 10. DeBCCCream 10. Eco-G3000, a low-cost, low maintenance fuel-emission reduction device designed to reduce vehicular gas consumption and toxic emission CHAPTER 2. INTELLECTUAL REVOLUTIONS THAT DEFINED SOCIETY Intended Learning Outcomes: Articulate ways by which society is transformed by science and technology INTELLECTUAL REVOLUTIONS Intended Learning Objectives The Scientific Revolution The scientific revolution refers to the rapid advances in European scientific, mathematical, and political thought, based on a new philosophy of empiricism and a faith in progress that defined Europe in the 16th to 18th centuries. This led to Modern Science *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. What is Science? •Science as an idea •Science as an intellectual activity •Science as a body of knowledge •Science as a personal and social activity *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. 16th century to 18th century in Europe •Scientific revolution was the period of enlightenment when the developments in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature. •emergence or birth of modern science as a result of these developments •Ideas enables the people to reflect, rethink and re-examine their beliefs and their way of life COPERNICAN REVOLUTION •what created days and nights •to understand what heavenly bodies like stars, moons and planets are •invention of the telescope •Claudius Ptolemy –geocentrism •Ptolemy’s geocentric model was one of the greatest discoveries of that time. •16 th century •Nicolaus Copernicus challenged the Ptolemaic model •heliocentrism–the center of the Solar system was the sun •Copernicus was persecuted as a heretic •eventually accepted in a period called the birth of modern astronomy DARWINIAN REVOLUTION •most controversial intellectual revolution of its time *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. •In 1859, Charles Darwin published his book, “On the Origin of species” •Theory of Evolution -people perceived it to be contrary to the church’s teaching that the source of life is a powerful creator •sparked a massive debate between science and religion FREUDIAN REVOLUTION •in the past, the field of psychology was always classified under philosophy •in the late 19 th century, Sigmund Freud was able to change people’s perception with his theory of psychoanalysis •Psychoanalysis is the study that explains human behavior •personality is the product of three conflicting elements: id, ego and superego •became a clinical method in treating some mental disorders CHAPTER 3 - SCIENCE, TECHNOLOGY AND NATION BUILDING Intended Learning Outcomes: ▪ ▪ ▪ *** Discuss the role of Science and Technology in Philippine nation building Evaluate government policies pertaining to science and technology in terms of their contributions to nation building Identify actual science and technology policies of the government and appraise their impact on the development of the Filipino nation This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. PRE-COLONIAL PERIOD •use of certain plants and herbs as medicines •implementation of systems of farming and animal raising •development of different modes of transportation (terrestrial and maritime) •rice terraces were built by hand •Incorporation of an irrigation system that uses water from the forest and mountain tops •interpreted the movements of the heavenly bodies to predict seasons and climates •development of tools for everyday use •developed technologies in creating musical instruments •sophisticated designs of jewellery, ceramics and metal tools •trading with China, Indonesia, Japan and other neighboringcountries COLONIAL PERIOD SPANIARDS •modern means of construction (walls, roads, bridges and other large infrastructures) •developed health and educations systems •beginning of formal science and technology in the country AMERICANS •Established a government agency , The Bureau of Science. •establishes the public education system •improved engineering works and health of people •established a modern research university (UP) •created more public hospitals •mineral resources were explored and exploited •transportation and communication were improved •researches were done to control tropical diseases POST-COLONIAL PERIOD •Continued to pursue programs in science and technology •Ferdinand Marcos-PAGASA, The National Academy of science and Technology, and the national Science and technology Authority now the DOST DEVELOPMENT OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICIES IN THE PHILIPPINES National Goals International Treaties *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. Legal Frameworks Social Needs. Issues and Problems SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY •POLICIES •Programs •Projects FAMOUS FILIPINOS IN THE FIELD OF SCIENCE •Ramon Cabanos Barba–tissue culture in Philippine mangoes •Josefino Cacas Comiso–observing the characteristics of Antarctica using satellite images •Jose Bejar Cruz Jr. –known internationally in the field of electrical engineering •Lourdes Jansuy Cruz –research on sea snail venom •Fabian Millar Dayrit–research on herbal medicine •Rafael Dineros Guerrero III –research on tilapia culture •Enrique Mapua OstreaJr. –inventing the meconium drugs testing •Lilian Formalejo Patena–research on plant biotechnology •Mari-Jo Panganiban Ruiz –outstanding educator and graph theorist •Gregory Ligot Tangonan–research in the field of communication technology *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler. •Ceasar Saloma–physics •Edgardo Gomez–marine science •Willaim Padolinoa–chemistry •Angel Alcala –marine science *** This module is not for sale. Reproduction is prohibited without the consent of the compiler.