Uploaded by Francisco Fallas Madrigal

ASHRAE Poket Book

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ASHRAE
POCKET
GUIDE
for
Air Conditioning, Heating,
Ventilation, Refrigeration
(I-P Edition)
7th Edition
ASHRAE
1791 Tullie Circle, NE Atlanta, GA 30329
www.ashrae.org
©1987, 1989, 1993, 1997, 2001, 2005, 2009 ASHRAE
All rights reserved.
Printed in the United States of America
ISBN 978-1-933742-67-0
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Pocket guide for air conditioning, heating, ventilation, refrigeration. -- Inch-pound ed., 7th ed.
p. cm.
Includes index.
ISBN 978-1-933742-67-0 (softcover)
1. Heating--Equipment and supplies--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Ventilation--Handbooks, manuals,
etc. 3. Air conditioning--Handbooks, manuals, etc. 4. Refrigeration and refrigerating machinery-Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers.
II. Title: ASHRAE pocket guide for air conditioning, heating, ventilation, refrigeration.
TH7011.P63 2009
697--dc22
2009046254
No part of this manual may be reproduced without permission in writing from ASHRAE, except by a reviewer who may
quote brief passages or reproduce illustrations in a review with appropriate credit, nor may any part of this book be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any way or by any means—electronic, photocopying, recording,
or other—without permission in writing from ASHRAE. Requests for permission should be submitted at
www.ashrae.org/permissions.
ASHRAE has compiled this publication with care, but ASHRAE has not investigated, and ASHRAE expressly disclaims
any duty to investigate, any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like that may be described herein. The
appearance of any technical data or editorial material in this publication does not constitute endorsement, warranty, or
guaranty by ASHRAE of any product, service, process, procedure, design, or the like. ASHRAE does not warrant that
the information in this publication is free of errors, and ASHRAE does not necessarily agree with any statement or opinion in this publication. The entire risk of the use of any information in this publication is assumed by the user.
ASHRAE STAFF
SPECIAL PUBLICATIONS
Mark Owen
Editor/Group Manager of Handbook and Special Publications
Cindy Sheffield Michaels
Managing Editor
James Madison Walker
Associate Editor
Amelia Sanders
Assistant Editor
Elisabeth Parrish
Assistant Editor
Michshell Phillips
Editorial Coordinator
PUBLISHING SERVICES
David Soltis
Manager
Jayne Jackson
Publication Traffic Administratorr
PUBLISHER
W. Stephen Comstock
Updates/errata for this publication will be posted
on the ASHRAE Web site at www.ashrae.org/publicationupdates.
Errata noted in the lists dated 3/310 and 6/7/10 have been corrected.
ii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Air Handling and Psychrometrics
Page
Air Friction Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1–3
Velocity vs. Velocity Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Fittings and Flexible Duct . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Duct Leakage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5–6
Circular Equivalents of Rectangular Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7–9
Spiral Flat Oval Duct Equivalents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Velocities for HVAC Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Fan Laws. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12–13
Types of Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14–15
Fan System Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
Psychrometric Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Air-Conditioning Processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18–19
Enthalpy of Air . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20–22
Temperature and Altitude Correction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Moist Air Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Space Air Diffusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
Principles of Jet Behavior. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25–27
Airflow Patterns of Different Diffusers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Mixed-Air Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29
Outlet Classification and Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29–32
Air Diffusion Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33–34
Fully Stratified Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
Partially Mixed Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Return Air Design. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Air Contaminants and Control
Air Quality Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Electronic Air Cleaners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Bioaerosols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
Filter Installations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
MERV Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
Filter Application Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41
Indoor Pollutant Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42
Low-Temperature Absorbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43
Ultraviolet Lamp Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44–45
Hood Capture Velocities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
Industrial Exhaust Duct Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46–48
Contaminant Transport Velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
Hood Entry Loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
Kitchen Ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50–51
Laboratory Hoods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
Clean Spaces. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
Airborne Particle Concentration Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54
Water
Pump Terms and Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
Pump Affinity Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
iii
Application of Affinity Laws . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56
Suction Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57–58
Typical Pump Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59–61
General Information on Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
Density and Specific Heat of Water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Freezing Points of Glycols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63
Vertical Cylindrical Tank Capacity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Horizontal Cylindrical Tank Capacity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Volume of Water in Pipe and Tube . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
Water Pipe Friction Chart, Copper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
Water Pipe Friction Chart, Plastic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Water Pipe Friction Chart, Steel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
Friction Losses in Pipe Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Steam
Steam Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Steam Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Steam Pipe Flow Rate. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
Steam Pipe Capacities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73–74
Steam Pipe Capacities—Return Mains. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Piping
Steel Pipe Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
Copper Tube Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Properties of Plastic Pipe Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Application of Pipe, Fittings, and Valves for Heating and Air Conditioning. . . . . 79
Pipe, Fitting, and Valve Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
Thermal Expansion of Metal Pipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Hanger Spacing and Rod Sizes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Plumbing and Solar Heating
Drainage and Vent Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Water and Drainage Fixture Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82–83
Demand Load (Hot and Cold Water) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Hot Water Demand for Buildings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Solar Irradiation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85
Solar Collector Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Solar Heating Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88–89
Mechanical and Absorption Refrigeration
Absorption and Vapor Compression. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
Lithium Bromide Chiller Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
Vapor Compression Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92–93
Refrigerants
Refrigeration Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Pressure-Enthalpy Chart—R-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Property Tables—R-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96–97
Pressure-Enthalpy Chart—R-123 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
Pressure-Enthalpy Chart—R-134a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
iv
Property Tables—R-134a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100–101
Pressure-Enthalpy Chart—R-717 Ammonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102
Property Tables—R-717 Ammonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103–104
Pressure Enthalpy Chart—R-404A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
Property Tables—R-404A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Pressure Enthalpy Chart—R-407C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107
Property Tables—R-407C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108
Pressure Enthalpy Chart—R-410A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Property Tables—R-410A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Pressure Enthalpy Chart—R-507A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
Property Tables—R507A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112
Comparative Refrigerant Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113–114
Refrigerant Line Capacities—R-404A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115–116
Refrigerant Line Capacities—R-507A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117–118
Refrigerant Line Capacities—R-410A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119–120
Refrigerant Line Capacities—R-407C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121–122
Refrigeranr Line Capacities—R-22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Refrigerant Line Capacities—R-134a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Oil Entrained in Suction Risers—R-22 and R-134a. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
Hot-Gas Risers—R-22 and R-134a . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126
Refrigerant Line Capacities—Ammonia (R-717) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127–128
Liquid Ammonia Line Capacities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
Lubricants in Refrigerant Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Secondary Coolants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Relative Pumping Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130
Refrigeration Safety
Safety Group and Quantities. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
Refrigeration Machinery Rooms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Pressure Relief . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132
Refrigeration Load
Transmission Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133
Product Load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Internal Load. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Infiltration Air Load . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Forced Circulation Air Coolers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
Air-Conditioning Load Data
Cooling and Heating Loads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
Cooling Load Check Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139
Cooling Load Computation Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
Heat Flow Through Building Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Horizontal Air Space Heat Flow Coefficients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141
Surface Conductances and Resistances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Emittance Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
Thermal Resistance of Ventilated Attics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143
Thermal Properties of Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144–149
CLTDs for Flat Roofs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150–151
v
CLTDs for Sunlit Walls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152–154
Solar Cooling Load for Sunlit Glass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155–156
Shading Coefficients for Glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157
Heat Gain from People . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158
Heat Gain from Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159–161
Heat Gain from Motors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162
Heat Gain from Restaurant Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163–166
Heat Gain from Hospital and Laboratory Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
Heat Gain from Office Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168–169
Display Fixtures Refrigerating Effect. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170
Ventilation
Ventilation Rate Data (ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2007) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
ASHRAE Standard 62.1-2007 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172–182
Energy Conserving Design
Sustainablility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Energy Efficiency Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184–185
Electrical
Allowable Ampacities of Insulated Conductors. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186–187
Characteristics of AC and DC Motors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188–189
Motor Full-Load Amperes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Useful Electrical Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Variable Speed Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Photovoltaic Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193
Sorbents and Desiccants
Desiccant Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Desiccant Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195
Desiccant Dehumidification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Rotary Solid Desiccant Dehumidifier Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197–198
Combined Heat and Power Systems
Engine Sizing Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Recommended Engine Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Gas Engine Chiller Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Engine Heat Balance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Heating Application Temperatures. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Mass Flows and Temperatures for Various Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Steam Rates for Steam Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Combustion Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Fuel Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Fuels and Combustion
Gas Pipe Sizing Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Viscosity and Heating Values of Fuels. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Liquid Fuels for Engines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Fuel Oil Pipe Sizing Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210
vi
Owning and Operating
Maintenance Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211
Owning and Operating Cost Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212–213
Economic Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214–215
Sound
Sound Pressure and Sound Pressure Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216
Combining Decibels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
Octave bands and 1/3 Octave Bands. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
A- and C- Weighting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
HVAC System Noise in Unoccupied Spaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
Sound Rating Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Silencers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Sound Paths in HVAC Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Mechanical Equipment Noise Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222
Mechanical Equipment Sound Isolation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222–223
Vibration
Single-Degree of Freedom Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Two-Degree of Freedom Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224
Isolator Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225–227
Evaporative Cooling
Direct Evaporative Air Coolers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228
Indirect Evaporative Coolers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
Multistage Evaporative Coolers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Automatic Controls
HVAC System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231–233
HVAC Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Occupant Comfort
Operative and Effective Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Predicted Mean Vote. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Air Speed to Offset Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Clothing Insulation Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
Local Discomfort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237–238
Adaptive Standard for Thermal Comfort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238
Geothermal Systems
Ground Source Heat Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239–240
Thermal Properties of Soils and Rocks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241–242
Ground Piping. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242–243
Surface Water Piping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
General
System Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244–245
Air-Conditioning Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
Sizing Formulas for Heating/Cooling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
vii
Cooling Tower Performance. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
Thermal Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
Cold Air Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Mechanical Dehumidification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
Heat Pipes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251
Air-to-Air Energy Recovery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252–253
Panel Heating and Cooling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254–255
SI Units and Air Conditioning Formulas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257–260
Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
viii
PREFACE
This Pocket Guide was developed to serve as a ready reference for engineers whose mobility keeps them from easy access to the large ASHRAE
Handbook volumes. Most of the information is taken from the four
volumes of the ASHRAE Handbook series and abridged or reduced to fit
the smaller page size.
Additions and changes since the sixth edition in 2005 have included
updated space air diffusion data and equipment heat loads; added combustion turbines, fuel cells, and ultraviolet lamp systems.
This seventh edition of the Pocket Guide, which was first published in
1987, was again compiled by Frederick H. Kohloss; previous major
contributors were Carl W. MacPhee, Griffith C. Burr, Jr., and Harry E.
Rountree.
ix
AIR HANDLING AND PSYCHROMETRICS
Friction Chart
1
2
3
Velocities vs. Velocity Pressures
Velocity
fpm
Velocity Pressure (Pv),
in. H2O
300
400
500
600
700
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.03
800
900
1000
1100
1200
0.04
0.05
0.06
0.08
0.09
1300
1400
1500
1600
1700
0.11
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
1800
1900
2000
2100
2200
0.20
0.22
0.25
0.27
0.30
2300
2400
2500
0.33
0.36
0.39
Pv = (V/4005)2
Noncircular Ducts
Hydraulic diameter Dh = 4A/P, where A = duct area, in.2 and P = perimeter, in. Ducts having
the same hydraulic diameter will have approximately the same fluid resistance at equal velocities.
Fittings
Resistance to flow through fittings can be expressed by fitting loss coefficients, C. The friction loss in a fitting in inches of water is CPv. The more radically the airflow is changed in direction
or velocity, the greater the fitting loss coefficient. See ASHRAE Duct Fitting Database for a
complete list. 90° mitered elbows with vanes will usually have C between 0.11 and 0.33.
Round Flexible Ducts
Non-metallic flexible ducts fully extended have friction losses approximately three times
that of galvanized steel ducts. This rises rapidly for unextended ducts by a correction factor of 4 if
70% extended, 3 if 80% extended, and 2 if 90% extended. For centerline bend radius ratio to diameter of 1 to 4 the approximate loss coefficient is between 0.82 and 0.87.
4
Duct Leakage Classificationa
Predicted Leakage Class CL
Duct Type
Metal (flexible excluded)
Round and flat oval
Sealedb,c
Unsealedc
3
30
(6 to 70)
Rectangular
≤ 2 in. of water
12
(both positive and negative pressures)
> 2 and ≤ 10 in. of water
6
(both positive and negative pressures)
Flexible
Metal, aluminum
8
Nonmetal
12
Fibrous glass
Round
Rectangular
3
6
48
(12 to 110)
48
(12 to 110)c
30
(12 to 54)
30
(4 to 54)
na
na
a
The leakage classes listed in this table are averages based on tests conducted by AISI/ SMACNA (1972), ASHRAE/SMACNA/
TIMA (1985), and Swim and Griggs (1995).
b The leakage classes listed in the sealed category are based on the assumptions that for metal ducts, all transverse joints, seams, and
openings in the duct wall are sealed at pressures over 3 in. of water, that transverse joints and longitudinal seams are sealed at 2 and
3 in. of water, and that transverse joints are sealed below 2 in. of water. Lower leakage classes are obtained by careful selection of
joints and sealing methods.
c
Leakage classes assigned anticipate about 25 joints per 100 linear feet of duct. For systems with a high fitting to straight duct ratio,
greater leakage occurs in both the sealed and unsealed conditions.
Recommended Ductwork Leakage Class by Duct Type
Leakage Class, cfm/100 ft2 at
1 in. of water
Duct Type
Metal (flexible excluded)
Round
Flat oval
Rectangular
Flexible
Fibrous glass
Round
Rectangular
3
3
6
6
3
6
Leakage Class, CL = Q/ΔPS0.65
where
Q
=
ΔPs =
leakage rate, cfm/100 ft2 surface area
static pressure difference, inches of water between inside and outside of duct
5
Duct Seal Levels
Sealing Requirementsa
A
All transverse joints, longitudinal seams, and duct wall penetrations
B
All transverse joints and longitudinal seams
C
Transverse joints only
a
Transverse joints are connections of two duct or fitting elements oriented perpendicular to flow. Longitudinal seams are joints oriented in the direction of airflow. Duct wall penetrations are openings made by screws, non-self-sealing fasteners, pipe, tubing, rods, and wire. Round and flat oval
spiral lock seams need not be sealed prior to assembly, but may be coated after assembly to reduce leakage. All other connections are considered
transverse joints, including but not limited to spin-ins, taps and other branch connections, access door frames, and duct connections to equipment.
Recommended Duct Seal Levels
Duct Location
Outdoors
Unconditioned spaces
Conditioned spaces
(concealed ductwork)
Conditioned spaces (exposed ductwork)
Duct Type
Supply
≤2 in.
>2 in.
Exhaust
of water
of water
A
A
A
B
A
B
C
B
B
A
A
Unsealed Longitudinal Seam Leakage, Metal Ducts
Type of Duct/Seam
Rectangular
Round
Pittsburgh lock
26 gage
22 gage
Button punch snaplock
26 gage
22 gage
Spiral (26 gage)
Snaplock
Grooved
B
A
B
C
B
Leakage, cfm per ft Seam Length
at 1” Water Pressure
Range
Average
0.01 to 0.02
0.001 to 0.002
0.0164
0.0016
0.03 to 0.15
NA (1 test)
NA (1 test)
0.04 to 0.14
0.11 to 0.18
0.0795
0.0032
0.015
0.11
0.12
Total and Static Pressure Changes in a Duct
At Exit, the Fitting Coefficient Co Affects ρt Loss.
6
Return
7
4.4
4.9
4.0
5.0
6.6
7.6
8.4
9.1
9.8
10.4
11.0
11.5
12.4
13.2
14.0
14.7
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
24
28
32
36
6
3.8
3.0
Lgth.
Adj.b
4.0
Lgth.
Adj.b
16.1
15.3
14.5
13.5
12.6
11.9
11.3
10.8
9.9
9.1
8.2
7
9.8
8.7
8
17.4
16.5
15.6
14.6
13.5
12.9
12.2
11.4
10.7
5.2
4.6
4.0
4.5
18.6
17.7
16.7
15.6
14.4
13.7
13.0
12.2
11.3
10.4
9
5.5
4.9
4.2
5.0
19.8
18.8
17.7
16.5
15.2
14.5
13.7
12.9
12.0
10.9
10
5.7
5.1
4.4
5.5
20.9
19.8
18.7
17.4
16.0
15.3
14.4
13.5
12.6
11
6.0
5.3
4.6
6.0
6.4
5.7
4.9
7.0
6.7
5.8
5.1
7.5
6.9
6.1
5.2
8.0
7.3
6.4
5.5
9.0
7.6
6.7
5.7
10.0
21.9
20.8
19.6
18.3
16.8
16.0
15.1
14.2
13.1
12
22.9
21.8
20.5
19.1
17.5
16.7
15.7
14.7
13
23.9
22.7
21.3
19.9
18.2
17.3
16.4
15.3
14
24.8
23.5
22.1
20.6
18.9
17.9
16.9
15
25.7
24.4
22.9
21.3
19.5
18.5
17.5
16
26.6
25.2
23.7
22.0
20.1
19.1
17
27.4
26.0
24.4
22.7
20.7
19.7
18
28.2
26.7
25.1
23.3
21.3
19
Length of One Side of Rectangular Duct (a), in.
6.2
5.5
4.7
6.5
29.0
27.5
25.8
34.9
21.9
20
8.0
7.0
6.0
11.0
Length of One Side of Rectangular Duct (a), in.
30.5
28.9
27.1
25.1
22
8.3
7.3
6.2
12.0
32.0
30.2
28.3
26.2
24
8.6
7.6
6.4
13.0
Circular Equivalents of Rectangular Duct for Equal Friction and Capacitya
33.3
31.5
29.5
26
8.9
7.8
6.6
34.6
32.7
30.6
28
14.0
35.9
33.9
30
9.1
8.0
6.8
15.0
36
32
28
24
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
Lgth.
Adj.b
9.4
8.3
7.0
16.0
8
16.5
17.1
17.6
18.1
48
52
56
60
35.0
37.1
39.0
40.9
42.6
44.3
45.8
47.3
48.7
32
36
40
44
48
52
56
60
64
Lgth.
Adj.b
32
15.9
64
15.3
44
6
40
Lgth.
Adj.b
50.4
48.9
47.3
45.7
44.0
42.2
40.3
38.2
34
20.3
19.8
19.3
18.7
18.1
17.5
16.8
7
51.9
50.4
48.8
47.1
45.3
43.5
41.5
39.4
36
22.0
21.5
20.9
20.2
19.6
18.9
18.2
8
53.5
51.9
50.2
48.4
46.6
44.7
42.6
38
23.6
23.0
22.4
21.7
21.0
20.3
19.5
9
54.9
53.3
51.6
49.7
47.9
45.8
43.7
40
25.1
24.5
23.8
23.1
22.3
31.5
20.7
10
56.4
54.7
52.9
51.0
49.1
48.1
42
26.6
25.9
25.2
24.4
23.6
22.7
21.8
11
29.3
28.6
27.7
26.9
26.0
25.0
24.0
13
30.6
29.8
28.9
28.0
27.1
26.1
25.0
14
31.9
31.0
30.1
29.2
28.2
27.1
26.0
15
33.1
32.2
31.2
30.3
29.2
28.1
27.0
16
34.3
33.3
32.3
31.3
30.2
29.1
27.9
17
35.4
34.4
33.4
32.3
31.2
30.0
28.8
18
36.5
35.5
34.4
33.3
32.2
30.9
29.6
19
57.8
60.0
54.2
52.2
50.2
44
59.1
57.3
55.4
53.4
51.4
46
60.4
58.6
56.6
54.6
52.5
48
61.7
59.8
57.8
55.7
50
63.0
61.0
59.0
56.8
52
65.4
63.4
61.2
56
67.7
65.6
60
70.0
64
Length of One Side of Rectangular Duct (a), in.
28.0
27.3
26.5
25.7
24.8
23.9
22.9
12
Length of One Side of Rectangular Duct (a), in.
68
37.6
36.5
35.4
34.3
33.1
31.8
30.5
20
72
39.6
38.5
37.4
36.2
34.9
33.5
32.1
22
76
41.6
40.4
39.2
37.9
36.6
35.1
33.6
24
Circular Equivalents of Rectangular Duct for Equal Friction and Capacitya (Continued)
80
43.5
42.3
41.0
39.6
38.2
36.7
35.1
26
84
45.3
44.0
42.7
41.2
39.7
38.1
36.4
28
88
47.1
45.7
44.3
42.8
41.2
39.5
37.8
30
64
60
56
52
48
44
40
36
32
Lgth.
Adj.b
64
60
56
52
48
44
40
Lgth.
Adj.b
9
a
b
51.4
52.7
53.9
55.1
56.3
57.4
58.4
76
80
84
88
92
96
60.5
59.3
58.2
57.0
55.8
54.5
53.2
51.8
34
62.4
61.3
60.1
58.8
57.5
56.2
54.8
53.4
36
64.3
63.1
61.9
60.6
59.3
57.9
56.5
55.0
38
66.2
64.9
63.6
62.3
60.9
59.5
58.0
56.5
40
68.0
66.7
65.4
64.0
62.6
61.1
59.6
58.0
42
Table based on De = 1.30 (ab)0.625/(a + b)0.25
Length of adjacent side of rectangular duct (b), in.
50.1
72
32
68
Lgth.
Adj.b
69.7
68.4
67.0
65.6
64.1
62.6
61.1
59.4
44
71.5
70.1
68.7
67.2
65.7
64.1
62.5
60.8
46
73.1
71.7
70.2
68.7
67.2
65.6
63.9
62.2
48
74.8
73.3
71.8
70.3
68.7
67.0
65.3
63.6
50
76.3
74.9
73.3
71.7
70.1
68.4
66.7
64.9
52
79.4
77.9
76.3
74.6
72.9
71.1
69.3
67.4
56
82.4
80.8
79.1
77.3
75.4
73.7
71.8
69.8
60
85.3
83.5
81.8
80.0
78.1
76.2
74.2
72.1
64
Length of One Side of Rectangular Duct (a), in.
88.0
86.2
84.4
82.5
80.6
78.6
76.5
74.3
68
90.7
88.8
86.9
85.0
82.9
80.9
78.7
72
93.2
91.3
89.3
87.3
85.2
83.1
76
Circular Equivalents of Rectangular Duct for Equal Friction and Capacitya (Concluded)
95.7
93.7
91.7
89.6
87.5
80
98.1
96.1
94.0
91.8
84
100.5
98.4
96.2
88
96
92
88
84
80
76
72
68
Lgth.
Adj.b
10
Typical Design Velocities for HVAC Components
Duct Element
Louvers
Intake
7000 cfm and greater
Less than 7000 cfm
Exhaust
5000 cfm and greater
Less than 5000 cfm
Face Velocity, fpm
400
See Figure 14
500
See Figure 14
Filters
Panel filters
Viscous impingement
Dry-type, extended-surface
Flat (low efficiency)
Pleated media (intermediate efficiency)
HEPA
Renewable media filters
Moving-curtain viscous impingement
Moving-curtain dry media
Electronic air cleaners
Ionizing type
200 to 800
Duct velocity
Up to 750
250
500
200
150 to 350
Heating Coils
Steam and hot water
500 to 1000
200 min., 1500 max.
Electric
Open wire
Finned tubular
Refer to mfg. data
Refer to mfg. data
Dehumidifying Coils
400 to 500
Air Washers
Spray type
Cell type
High-velocity spray type
Refer to mfg. data
Refer to mfg. data
1200 to 1800
Louvers:
Pertinent Parameters Used in Establishing Figure
Parameter
Minimum free area
(48-in. square test section,%)
Water penetration,
oz/(ft2/0.25 h)
Maximum static
pressure drop, in. of water
11
Intake
Parameter
Exhaust
Parameter
45
45
Negligible
(less than 0.2) Not applicable
0.15
0.25
Fan Lawsa b
For All Fan Laws: ηt1 = ηt2 and (Pt. of Rtg.)1 = (Pt. of Rtg.)2
No.
Dependent
Variables
Independent Variables
1a
Q1 = Q2
⎛ D 1⎞ 3 N 1
× ⎜ -------⎟ × ------N2
⎝ D 2⎠
1b
Press.1 = Press.2c
⎛ D 1⎞ 2 ⎛ N 1⎞ 2
× ⎜ -------⎟ × ⎜ -------⎟
⎝ D 2⎠
⎝ N 2⎠
ρ1
× -----ρ2
1c
W1 = W2
⎛ D 1⎞ 5 ⎛ N 1⎞ 3
× ⎜ -------⎟ × ⎜ -------⎟
⎝ D 2⎠
⎝ N 2⎠
ρ1
× -----ρ2
2a
Q1 = Q2
⎛ D 1⎞ 2 ⎛ Press.1⎞ 1/2
× ⎜ -------⎟ × ⎜ -----------------⎟
⎝ D 2⎠
⎝ Press.2⎠
⎛ ρ 2⎞ 1/2
× ⎜ ------⎟
⎝ ρ 1⎠
2b
N1 = N2
⎛ D 2⎞ ⎛ Press. 1⎞ 1/2
× ⎜ -------⎟ × ⎜ -----------------⎟
⎝ D 1⎠ ⎝ Press. 2⎠
⎛ ρ 2⎞ 1/2
× ⎜ ------⎟
⎝ ρ 1⎠
2c
W1 = W2
⎛ D 1⎞ 2 ⎛ Press.1⎞ 3/2
× ⎜ -------⎟ × ⎜ -----------------⎟
⎝ D 2⎠
⎝ Press.2⎠
⎛ ρ 2⎞ 1/2
× ⎜ ------⎟
⎝ ρ 1⎠
3a
N1 = N2
⎛ D 2⎞ 3 Q 1
× ⎜ -------⎟ × ------Q2
⎝ D 1⎠
3b
Press.1 = Press.2
⎛ D 2⎞ 4 ⎛ Q 1⎞ 2
× ⎜ -------⎟ × ⎜ -------⎟
⎝ D 1⎠
⎝ Q 2⎠
ρ1
× -----ρ2
3c
W1 = W2
⎛ D 2⎞ 4 ⎛ Q 1⎞ 3
× ⎜ -------⎟ × ⎜ -------⎟
⎝ D 1⎠
⎝ Q 2⎠
ρ1
× -----ρ2
a
×1
×1
The subscript 1 denotes that the variable is for the fan under consideration.
b The subscript 2 denotes that the variable is for the tested fan.
c P or P
tf
sf
Unless otherwise identified, fan performance data are based on dry air at standard
conditions 14.696 psi and 70 °F (0.075 lbm/ft3). In actual applications, the fan may
be required to handle air or gas at some other density. The change in density may
be because of temperature, composition of the gas, or altitude. As indicated by the
Fan Laws, the fan performance is affected by gas density. With constant size and
speed, the horsepower and pressure varies directly as the ratio of gas density to the
standard air density.
12
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