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Building brain activity

Brain assignment
Read the case history and then on the brain images label the region that causes the
symptoms - write the name as well as symptom associated with it. One region can have
more than one symptom associated with it. There are three brain images
Exercise 1
Mr. Livingston is a 39 year-old African-American male who has been brought into your
neurology clinic by his wife. She has become increasingly alarmed regarding her husband's
health over the past four months. Upon completion of a CT scan, it is determined that Mr.
Livingston's condition is the result of the presence of two tumors that have developed within his
brain. Using the patient history information listed below and the information from class and
your textbook, determine where these two tumors are probably located in the brain diagram .
Label the various brain regions that are damaged in the brain image and also write which
symptoms are associated with this damage
muscle weakness
vastly increased appetite (gained 25 lbs in the last three months)
inappropriate body temperature
fluctuations jerky movements
poor balance when walking and standing
inability to throw objects
inappropriate sleep patterns (seems to fall asleep randomly during day and night)
uncontrolled aggressiveness (rather violent, "short fuse•)
exaggerated efforts to coordinate movements in a task
Exercise 2
At 1:30 am you (a trauma surgeon) are called for emergency surgery on a 17 year old Caucasian
female that was shot in the head during a drive-by shooting. After a tedious surgery, the patient
remarkably remains alive and doing reasonably well. The bullet traveled completely through
the skull leaving a path of destroyed tissue behind it. You have decided to speak with the
parents about what noticeable changes will occur in their daughter due to the destruction of
neural tissue. Based on the information below, determine the approximate path the bullet
traveled (i.e., what structures were damaged- keep in mind that it is possible for fragmenting
and ricocheting of the bullet resulting in somewhat unlikely combinations of areas effected).
limb apraxia
inability to control the muscular movements of the left shoulder, arm, forearm, and hand
slow, laborious, non-fluent speech
inability to sound out words and write them phonetically
pure alexia
difficulty finding appropriate words when speaking
inability to use or recall nouns in speech and communication
inability for sensory input to be recognized verbally
poor word repetition
Exercise 3
You are a pathologist in a large Northwestern city. You are conducting an autopsy on an 83 year
old male who was found dead in his home with no obvious cause of death.
During the autopsy, you discover the individual suffered two strokes. Based on the functional
information below provided by the next-of-kin, where were the two areas that suffered from the
cerebral vascular accidents?
failure to do certain specific movements
massive over eating
disrupted circadian rhythms
poor muscle tone
inability to adjust heart rate
loss of control to react to body temperature changes
failure of the respiratory. system
inability to do locomotion
Neurotransmitters and Receptors
Acetylcholine is released at the synaptic ends of nerve fibers in the sympathetic and
parasympathetic nervous systems and results in transmission of nerve impulses that contract or
dilate muscles. It also increases stomach peristalsis, urinary tract contractions and voluntary
voiding pressure on the bladder.
Amphetamine, a volatile liquid, C 9H13N, is a central nervous system stimulant that releases
noradtenaline neurotransmitter and activates cellular activities.
Cocaine, an alkaloid, C 17H21N04, is an analgesic that induces euphoria.
Dopamine is a neurotransmitter that inhibits the transmission of nerve impulses-in the
substantia nigra, basal ganglia, and corpus striatum of the brain. It is controlled by the enzyme
Monamine Oxidase · (MAO-B) that inhibits its production.
Nicotine inhibits MAO and hence raises level of dopamine with euphoric results. Low levels of
dopamine are associated with Parkinson’s Disease.
Endorphins are a group of peptide hormones that bind to opiate receptors and are found
mainly in the brain. Endorphins reduce the sensation of pain and. affect emotions. ·
Epinephrine (adrenaline) C9H13NO3 is a hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla and is
released into the bloodstream in response to physical or mental stress. It is a v asoconstrictor
that increases heart rate and blood pressure.
Ephedrine is an alkaloid C 10H 15CO that stimulates the nervous system and is used for
allergies and asthma.
Melatonin is a ·hormone derived from serotonin that is produced by the epineal gland at the
base of the brain. Ingested as a chemical, it induces drowsiness (sleep), lowers blood pressure
by artery constriction, and is contra indicated for asthma.
Norepinephrine is a hormone and neurotransmitter secreted by the adrenal medulla and the
nerve endings of the sympathetic nervous · system to cause vasoconstriction and increase heart
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter arising from emotional stimuli of the limbic system. It is an
organic compound, C 10H 12 N 2 0, formed from tryptophan and found in animal and human
tissue, especially the brain, blood serum, and gastric mucous membranes. It is active in
vasoconstriction, stimulation of the smooth muscles, transmission of impulses between nerve
cells, and regulation of cyclic body processes. Low levels are associated with depression that
seems to be relieved by Prozac type chemicals that act as serotonin uptake blockers.
Exercise 1
Exercise 2
Exercise 3