Question Answer 1 Safina, a project manager, uses a number of project management tools for planning the conversion of an existing classroom into a new computer room. Describe how Safina would use these tools to plan the project. Mark 6 Award 1 mark for each correct answer up to a maximum of 6. Six from: Use of Gantt charts to track the progress of tasks to show the dependency of tasks on each other ... to show the schedule of work throughout the duration of the project Use of Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) charts to identify the specific tasks and their milestones Creation of arrow/node activity/network diagrams to show how each task is related ... to determine the expected time required for each task ... to determine the critical path Use of critical path method to show all activities/parts/tasks of project ... to show the sequence of tasks required and the shortest time these can be completed ... to show the time duration of each task Online calendars to schedule meetings with developers Private and public calendars to inform/invite participants 2 Fig. 1 shows a sequence of tasks that are required to complete a project. The duration of each task is shown in this table: There are three paths through this set of tasks. 2.a Use the information given in Fig. 1 and in the table to determine the critical path through the sequence of tasks. Six from: 1 mark for correct identification of critical path 2 marks for each correctly calculated path Path 3 is the critical path Path 1: start Task 1 Task 3 Task 4 finish = 3+7+2 = 12 Path 2: start Task 2 Task 5 finish = 5+4 = 9 Path 3: start Task 2 Task 5 Task 3 Task 4 = 5+4+7+2 = 16 6 2.b Each task can have an extra amount of time allowed over its stated duration before it causes the project to be delayed. This is the ‘float’. Explain how you would calculate the float for each of the tasks in the project. 4 Four from: Each task on critical path has float of 0... ..tasks 2, 3, 4, and 5 Next longest path is path 1 with tasks 1, 3 and 4.... ..3 and 4 are on critical path so their float is still 0 ..so task 1 has float of critical path duration (16) minus Duration of path 1 (12) giving float of 4 3 Eight from: All 5 correct labels/abbreviations in activity column 1 mark All 5 tasks in most appropriate order in chart 1 mark All 5 correct lengths of activity 2 marks 4 correct lengths of activity 1 mark less than 4 correct 0 marks Initial research/interview users in parallel and write initial report starts after initial research 1 mark Sequential tasks shown 1 mark (evaluation must start after write initial report) Initial report end before/on due date/1st Friday 1 mark Final report end on before/due date/2nd Thursday 1 mark E.g. 8 4 A software company produces games for use on smartphones. It uses the Rapid Application Development method to develop the games. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the Rapid Application Development method. 8 Eight from: Advantages: Increased quality of product …focusses on problems that are critical to end users …rather than technical problems of interest to developers More likely to complete project on time More likely to complete within budget …method focuses on incremental development so chances of failure are reduced More risk control …the key risk factors show in the early part of the process provides a flexible/adaptable process Disadvantages: Users are involved from the beginning and at all stages of the entire project… …takes more interaction throughout the entire life-cycle between users and developers …takes up the time of the experts …costs are likely to be higher RAD can be a new approach for some developers …new tools/methods will be more likely to fail the first time as the team learns the process Less control over the process as it is adaptable Poor design of prototypes …developers constantly make minor changes to individual components …ignore overall system architecture issues that produce a better overall design Not suitable for very large systems. Max 6 for all advantages or all disadvantages. 1 mark is available for a reasoned conclusion/opinion. 5 A software developer has decided to use a conventional ‘waterfall’ method of development to produce a new game application. a Describe the stages of the ‘waterfall’ method that should be followed. Six from: Waterfall/traditional is a linear approach to software development Determine the software/system/game requirements ...produce a requirements document for the game application Analyze the requirements ...produce a model/overview of what is required for the game application Design the software ...produce e.g. system flowchart/DFD for the game application Create the code ...program, document and test the code ...unit test the source code/modules for the game application ...integrate the units/modules into the whole system/game Carry out whole system testing of the game application remedy any errors/bugs found ...revisit any code with improvements/alterations as a result of testing 6 Carry out user acceptance testing (UAT) install ...remedy any issues discovered Develop support mechanisms for users of the game application Deliver/implement the finished product. b Discuss the benefits and drawbacks to the developer of using the ‘waterfall’ method for developing the game application. 8 Eight from: Benefits: Problems can be found and fixed early in the processes Emphasis on full documentation (requirements documents, design documents) means that individual team members can be replaced/no team member is irreplaceable/new teams can complete/carry on the work Enforces a structured approach through separate/discrete stages... ...stages easy to understand ...provides identifiable milestones Drawbacks: Requirements not fully known before working software created ...clients may change their requirements ...requirements may not cover all details ...clients may not know exactly what they want/all the details required ...leading to increased costs due to redesign/redevelopment/retesting Designers may be unaware of future difficulties of designing a new software product/feature. Max 6 marks for all benefits or all drawbacks. 1 mark is available for a reasoned conclusion. 6 A building project has a number of activities, F, G, H, I, J and K, that need to be carried out between the stages A, B, C, D and E. Fig. 2 shows a Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) chart for the building project. a The building project has a series of milestones to help the managers monitor the progress of the project. Identify the first two milestones in this project. One mark for both milestones: A and C 1 b Describe the critical path through this project Two from: Critical path made up of activities F, I and J / A to C C to D and D to E Totaling 4 + 2 + 3 = 9 months. c To create the PERT chart, managers first produced a Gantt chart. On the grid below, draw and label the Gantt chart from which the PERT chart in Fig. 2 would have been derived. Five from: Max 2 from: Activities on Y axis and labelled Time on X axis and labelled Milestones identified Max 3 marks from: All activities shown correctly 3 marks 5 activities shown correctly 2 marks 4 activities shown correctly 1 mark Less than 4 shown 0 marks 2 7 Describe the advantages of evolutionary prototyping compared to throw-away prototyping. Four from: User/client may decide that the early version is all that is needed Developers can focus on developing parts of the system that they understand Instead of developing a whole system which might be beyond their comprehension Improvements/alterations/add-ons to the system can be created later First prototype is not discarded so materials/time are not wasted Throw-away prototypes may not work at all/be on paper only Can be used in interim until final system is complete. 8 A store has a large number of departments each with its own sales staff. The sales staff are responsible for selling only the goods in their department. Each department has its own dedicated checkouts which are connected to the store’s network. A new checkout system is to be implemented so that the staff in the clothing department can use any of the checkouts in the store to sell goods. Staff with experience of the new system will be expected to assist in the training of staff in other departments when the new system is eventually introduced throughout the store. 4 The store managers have to decide how to implement the new sales and checkout system. Describe the most appropriate method of implementation and explain how the change would be carried out in the store.  5 8 Eight from: Pilot implementation where the system is introduced one branch/department at a time Clothing department has new checkouts installed before the others Staff in clothing department are trained to sell all goods ...and use the new checkouts Checkouts and staff performance is tested for some time Ensures that new checkouts are working correctly Ensures that staff in clothing department understand/can use new checkouts/sell all goods successfully Stock and accounting systems are correctly updated If new system works then staff from other departments can take turns working in the clothing department If new system does not work then only clothing department is affected Other departments can carry on as before until faults are corrected/new system does work The changeover may take a long time to implement in the whole store But there is no danger of having to close the whole store if one section fails to work properly. 9 A software company is developing a new ‘app’ for smartphones. The Rapid Application Development (RAD) method is used to ensure that the ‘app’ is available as soon as possible. a The RAD process involves several phases. The first phase is often referred to as Business Modelling. 3 Describe the tasks that must occur in this phase of RAD. Three from: Defining the project in terms of what is to be developed Gathering user requirements via focus groups/workshops Defining data flow Plan processes for managing project e.g. Risk assessment/communication between development team/quality of product Planning tasks/activities. b Describe two other phases of RAD. Two phases from, max 4 per phase: Data Modelling/Requirements phase: Review/analysis of data from business model/requirements phase To create sets of data objects Define relationship between data objects Define test plans Define training strategies where required Determine implementation methodology Process Modelling/User Design phase: Conversion of data objects from previous phase into detailed data flow Define process for any changes/enhancements to data object sets Define processes for adding/deleting/modifying a data object Users interact with system analysts to develop models/early prototypes Application creation/construction phase: 8 Development/construction of prototype by expert programmers Coding may be automated Coding of components carried out simultaneously/in parallel User evaluation of prototype ...repeatedly/iterative testing by users ...users suggest improvements/changes to prototype as it is developed update/modification of prototype Implementation/testing/cutover phase: Carrying out the test plan by testing the data flow ...testing interaction/interfaces between components Testing the complete system User training where required/writing training/help notes Rollout of ‘app’ to users DNA business modelling/requirements phase – stated in part (a).