Uploaded by Jennet Setdarova

questions 1

1 Safina, a project manager, uses a number of project management tools for planning the
conversion of an existing classroom into a new computer room.
Describe how Safina would use these tools to plan the project.
Award 1 mark for each correct answer up to a maximum of 6.
Six from:
Use of Gantt charts to track the progress of tasks to show the dependency of tasks on
each other
... to show the schedule of work throughout the duration of the project
Use of Project Evaluation and Review Technique (PERT) charts to identify the specific
tasks and their milestones
Creation of arrow/node activity/network diagrams to show how each task is related
... to determine the expected time required for each task
... to determine the critical path
Use of critical path method to show all activities/parts/tasks of project
... to show the sequence of tasks required and the shortest time these can be completed
... to show the time duration of each task
Online calendars to schedule meetings with developers
Private and public calendars to inform/invite participants
2 Fig. 1 shows a sequence of tasks that are required to complete a project.
The duration of each task is shown in this table:
There are three paths through this set of tasks.
2.a Use the information given in Fig. 1 and in the table to determine the critical path through
the sequence of tasks.
Six from:
1 mark for correct identification of critical path
2 marks for each correctly calculated path
Path 3 is the critical path
Path 1: start Task 1 Task 3 Task 4 finish = 3+7+2 = 12
Path 2: start Task 2 Task 5 finish
= 5+4 = 9
Path 3: start Task 2 Task 5 Task 3 Task 4 = 5+4+7+2 = 16
2.b Each task can have an extra amount of time allowed over its stated duration before it
causes the project to be delayed. This is the ‘float’.
Explain how you would calculate the float for each of the tasks in the project.
Four from:
Each task on critical path has float of 0...
..tasks 2, 3, 4, and 5
Next longest path is path 1 with tasks 1, 3 and 4....
..3 and 4 are on critical path so their float is still 0
..so task 1 has float of critical path duration (16) minus Duration of path 1 (12) giving
float of 4
3 Eight from:
All 5 correct labels/abbreviations in activity column 1 mark
All 5 tasks in most appropriate order in chart 1 mark
All 5 correct lengths of activity 2 marks
4 correct lengths of activity 1 mark
less than 4 correct 0 marks
Initial research/interview users in parallel
and write initial report starts after initial research 1 mark
Sequential tasks shown 1 mark
(evaluation must start after write initial report)
Initial report end before/on due date/1st Friday 1 mark
Final report end on before/due date/2nd Thursday 1 mark
4 A software company produces games for use on smartphones. It uses the Rapid
Application Development method to develop the games.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the Rapid Application Development
Eight from:
Increased quality of product
…focusses on problems that are critical to end users
…rather than technical problems of interest to developers
More likely to complete project on time
More likely to complete within budget
…method focuses on incremental development so chances of failure are reduced
More risk control
…the key risk factors show in the early part of the process
provides a flexible/adaptable process
Users are involved from the beginning and at all stages of the entire project…
…takes more interaction throughout the entire life-cycle between users and developers
…takes up the time of the experts
…costs are likely to be higher
RAD can be a new approach for some developers
…new tools/methods will be more likely to fail the first time as the team learns the
Less control over the process as it is adaptable
Poor design of prototypes
…developers constantly make minor changes to individual components
…ignore overall system architecture issues that produce a better overall design
Not suitable for very large systems.
Max 6 for all advantages or all disadvantages.
1 mark is available for a reasoned conclusion/opinion.
5 A software developer has decided to use a conventional ‘waterfall’ method of
development to produce a new game application.
a Describe the stages of the ‘waterfall’ method that should be followed.
Six from:
Waterfall/traditional is a linear approach to software development
Determine the software/system/game requirements
...produce a requirements document for the game application
Analyze the requirements
...produce a model/overview of what is required for the game application
Design the software
...produce e.g. system flowchart/DFD for the game application
Create the code
...program, document and test the code
...unit test the source code/modules for the game application
...integrate the units/modules into the whole system/game
Carry out whole system testing of the game application remedy any errors/bugs found
...revisit any code with improvements/alterations as a result of testing
Carry out user acceptance testing (UAT) install
...remedy any issues discovered
Develop support mechanisms for users of the game application
Deliver/implement the finished product.
b Discuss the benefits and drawbacks to the developer of using the ‘waterfall’ method for
developing the game application.
Eight from:
Problems can be found and fixed early in the processes
Emphasis on full documentation (requirements documents, design documents) means
that individual team members can be replaced/no team member is irreplaceable/new
teams can complete/carry on the work
Enforces a structured approach through separate/discrete stages...
...stages easy to understand
...provides identifiable milestones
Requirements not fully known before working software created
...clients may change their requirements
...requirements may not cover all details
...clients may not know exactly what they want/all the details required
...leading to increased costs due to redesign/redevelopment/retesting
Designers may be unaware of future difficulties of designing a new software
Max 6 marks for all benefits or all drawbacks.
1 mark is available for a reasoned conclusion.
6 A building project has a number of activities, F, G, H, I, J and K, that need to be carried
out between the stages A, B, C, D and E. Fig. 2 shows a Project Evaluation and Review
Technique (PERT) chart for the building project.
a The building project has a series of milestones to help the managers monitor the
progress of the project.
Identify the first two milestones in this project.
One mark for both milestones:
A and C
b Describe the critical path through this project
Two from:
Critical path made up of activities F, I and J / A to C
C to D and D to E
Totaling 4 + 2 + 3 = 9 months.
c To create the PERT chart, managers first produced a Gantt chart.
On the grid below, draw and label the Gantt chart from which the PERT chart in Fig. 2
would have been derived.
Five from:
Max 2 from:
Activities on Y axis and labelled
Time on X axis and labelled
Milestones identified
Max 3 marks from:
All activities shown correctly 3 marks
5 activities shown correctly 2 marks
4 activities shown correctly 1 mark
Less than 4 shown 0 marks
7 Describe the advantages of evolutionary prototyping compared to throw-away
Four from:
User/client may decide that the early version is all that is needed
Developers can focus on developing parts of the system that they understand
Instead of developing a whole system which might be beyond their comprehension
Improvements/alterations/add-ons to the system can be created later
First prototype is not discarded so materials/time are not wasted
Throw-away prototypes may not work at all/be on paper only
Can be used in interim until final system is complete.
8 A store has a large number of departments each with its own sales staff. The sales staff
are responsible for selling only the goods in their department. Each department has its
own dedicated checkouts which are connected to the store’s network.
A new checkout system is to be implemented so that the staff in the clothing
department can use any of the checkouts in the store to sell goods. Staff with experience
of the new system will be expected to assist in the training of staff in other departments
when the new system is eventually introduced throughout the store.
The store managers have to decide how to implement the new sales and checkout
Describe the most appropriate method of implementation and explain how the change
would be carried out in the store. [8]
Eight from:
Pilot implementation where the system is introduced one branch/department at a time
Clothing department has new checkouts installed before the others
Staff in clothing department are trained to sell all goods
...and use the new checkouts
Checkouts and staff performance is tested for some time
Ensures that new checkouts are working correctly
Ensures that staff in clothing department understand/can use new
checkouts/sell all goods successfully
Stock and accounting systems are correctly updated
If new system works then staff from other departments can take turns
working in the clothing department
If new system does not work then only clothing department is affected
Other departments can carry on as before until faults are corrected/new system does
The changeover may take a long time to implement in the whole store
But there is no danger of having to close the whole store if one section fails to work
9 A software company is developing a new ‘app’ for smartphones. The Rapid Application
Development (RAD) method is used to ensure that the ‘app’ is available as soon as
a The RAD process involves several phases. The first phase is often referred to as Business
Describe the tasks that must occur in this phase of RAD.
Three from:
Defining the project in terms of what is to be developed
Gathering user requirements via focus groups/workshops
Defining data flow
Plan processes for managing project
e.g. Risk assessment/communication between development team/quality of product
Planning tasks/activities.
b Describe two other phases of RAD.
Two phases from, max 4 per phase:
Data Modelling/Requirements phase:
Review/analysis of data from business model/requirements phase
To create sets of data objects
Define relationship between data objects
Define test plans
Define training strategies where required
Determine implementation methodology
Process Modelling/User Design phase:
Conversion of data objects from previous phase into detailed data flow
Define process for any changes/enhancements to data object sets
Define processes for adding/deleting/modifying a data object
Users interact with system analysts to develop models/early prototypes
Application creation/construction phase:
Development/construction of prototype by expert programmers
Coding may be automated
Coding of components carried out simultaneously/in parallel
User evaluation of prototype
...repeatedly/iterative testing by users
...users suggest improvements/changes to prototype as it is developed
update/modification of prototype
Implementation/testing/cutover phase:
Carrying out the test plan by testing the data flow
...testing interaction/interfaces between components
Testing the complete system
User training where required/writing training/help notes
Rollout of ‘app’ to users
DNA business modelling/requirements phase – stated in part (a).