Uploaded by Frensarah Rabino


Audit Command Language (ACL) software is one of the computer assisted audit
tools that auditors, accountants, finance executives and other data analysts can use for
data extraction and analysis for the detection and investigation of frauds in a
computerized environment. ACL is data software that allows auditor to extract data and
increases probability of detecting fraud and errors, by summarizes large amounts of
data. ACL software is used to find irregularities or patterns in transactions that could
indicate control weaknesses. Importing data is a common ACL task, so is exporting data.
ACL can perform several tasks. ACL is used to view, explore, and analyze data
efficiently. ACL also lets you combine data from different systems for conversion,
reconciliation, and control. ACL helps auditors and accountants collect the kinds of
information they need to improve day-to-day operations.
 Why should an auditor use it?
 It captures, cleanse and normalize data to ensure consistency and
accurate results.
 It joins files based on a key field.
 It identifies trends, pinpoint exceptions and highlight potential areas of
 It determines thar records of fields in 2 files match (or do not)
 It locates errors and potential fraud.
 Ages and analyze financial or any other time-sensitive transactions.
 It schedules, script, and automate analyses.
 Basic Step.
 Plan your project
Identify the objective in business and technical terms. Determine the
steps necessary to achieve the objectives within the context of the
subsequent phases.
Acquire the data
Gain physical and logical access by identifying the location and the format
of the source data that you require.
Access the data with ACL
Add the data to your project as tables, which define how ACL reads the
source data.
Verify the integrity of data
Ensure that the data does not contain corrupt elements and that the table
is properly constructed. Test for uniqueness, data, relationships, and
Analyze the data
Interrogate and manipulate the data to identify exceptions.
Report the findings
Prepare the result for formal presentation. You can generate view-based
reports and create graphs from command and views.
Design and print your report
Reports in ACL are based on views. The report specifications are “saved”
as part of the view. You may want to use names for your report views that
readily identify them as reports, and that indicate each report’s content.
Generate graphs of your data
Graph form a view; graph from commands that produce graphable
numeric output.
2. PhilGEPS
The Philippine procurement system used to be described a cumbersome and
prone to corruption as there were many outdated and inconsistent laws and many
agencies dealing with issuance of guidelines and procedure in procurement the public
perception was that government procurement was characterized by fraud inefficiency
and lack of transparency. Moreover, the mandated advertisement and at least three
major newspapers of general publication for each bidding project increases the
budgeted expense for government agencies. The PhilGEPS, which stands for the
Philippines Government Electronic Procurement System was established in the year
2000, to host online information on government procurement opportunities and to
streamline procurement processes and enable public monitoring of procurement
activities of government agencies.
PhilGEPS was created primarily to establish an open, transparent, efficient, and
competitive marketplace. For government procurement get just and better prizes, build
the framework to continually improve the procurement processes and be sustainable
over the long term. The passage of Republic Act 9184, or the Government Procurement
Reform Act in 2003 further boosted the importance of PhilGEPS It required all
government requirements from goods consulting services to Civil Works to be centrally
posted through the PhilGEPS website. It also mandated the registration of all national
government agencies like Government Owned and controlled Corporations, Government
Financial Institutions, State Universities and Colleges including the local government
units in the system. Suppliers, manufacturers, contractors, and consultants dealing with
the government are also required to register as well.
PhilGEPS, promotes transparency as all bidding opportunities and information
are visible online, allowing real-time observation of changes in references bid schedules,
ridding bidder and contract amount with RA 9184, bid opportunities are now mandated to
be posted on PhilGEPS, and only required to be advertised once in one newspaper of
general circulation. As a result, the government has been able to save close to ninehundred thirty-two point eight million pesos in aggregated newspaper advertisement
expenses alone. From 2000 to 2012, the integrated notices publication interface also
facilitates the linking of opportunities hosted in PhilGEPS to the agency’s own website.
The use of PhilGEPS by government agencies was likewise mase and important criteria
in good governance related to the grant of the yearly performance-based bonus of
government employees in accordance with administrative order number 25 issued in
3. Data Analytics
The use of data analytics probably has not advanced as rapidly in external
financial statement auditing as it has in internal auditing, where many organizations use
continuous auditing and continuous monitoring of data to identify risks and anomalies as
part of their system of internal control. But data analytics has the potential to transform
external auditing just as it has changed internal auditing.
The power of data analytics could make it possible for external financial statement auditors to
improve audits by:
Testing complete sets of data, rather than just testing samples.
Aiding risk assessment through identification of anomalies and trends, perhaps even
through comparison to industry data, pointing auditors toward items they need to
investigate further.
Providing audit evidence through comprehensive analysis of organizations’ general
ledger systems.
The possibilities for data analytics technology to change auditing are explored in the white
paper Reimagining Auditing in a Wired World, published by the Emerging Assurance
Technologies Task Force of the AICPA Assurance Services Executive Committee (ASEC).
According to the white paper:
The profession needs to achieve a “quantum leap” to redesign audit processes using
today’s technology, rather than using information technology to computerize legacy audit
plans and procedures.
Existing auditing standards that are the framework for audit procedures need to be
modified to incorporate the concepts of Big Data and “continuous auditing” and
encourage auditors to use technologies that increase assurance beyond minimum
required levels.
Data Analytics: The Auditor’s Role
Regardless of the industry or profession, the prospect of mechanization or
automation brings concerns about the potential loss of jobs. But increased use of data
analytics in auditing is not expected to diminish the need for skilled and trained auditors.
They can aggregate data and provide us with a whole lot of information. But at the end
of the day, it still requires a knowledgeable auditor to stand back from that, analyze that
information, and make a determination whether that information is consistent with what
the auditor expected, or whether it’s not, in which case there is more investigative work
that the auditor has to do. And I don’t think that will change anytime soon.”
As data analytics takes on a larger role in auditing of financial statements, auditors may
want to consider:
Planning carefully. While maintaining objectivity and skepticism, auditors may
want to inquire extensively with clients about the metrics monitored by clients’
management. This effort to understand the business and what’s important to
management can help the auditors set up data analytics tools in the most useful way for
the audit.
Getting IT involved. Auditors may have their firms’ IT professionals engage the clients’ IT
staff to make sure the clients’ systems are producing reliable data. Audit data analytics
software won’t produce the desired results if the data entering the system are not
reliable and appropriately precise.
Learning how to use the tools. Younger auditors may be more comfortable at first with
the technology than veteran auditors who have been conducting engagements for a long
time with little or no use of analytical technology. Firms that plan to use audit data
analytics need to have programs in place to train all auditors on how to use the
Maintaining traditional testing skills. “There will always be a need to do a certain amount
of detailed testing around certain aspects of U.S. GAAP,” Comito said. “You’re going to
have to read contracts. There are clauses in contracts that have meaning in U.S. GAAP
that a pure analytic may not cover.”
4. Philippine Procurement Law
Section 17. Form and Contents of Bidding Documents
17.1. The Bidding Documents shall be prepared by the procuring entity following the
standard forms and manuals prescribed by the GPPB. The Bidding
Documents shall include the following:
Approved Budget for the Contract.
Invitation to Bid/Request for Expression of Interest.
Eligibility Requirements.
Instructions to Bidders, including scope of bid, documents comprising the
bid, criteria for eligibility, bid evaluation methodology/criteria in
accordance with the Act, and post-qualification, as well as the date, time
and place of the prebid conference (where applicable), submission of bids
and opening of bids;
Terms of Reference (TOR), for consulting services.
Scope of work, where applicable.
Plans/Drawings and Technical Specifications.
Form of Bid, Price Form, and List of Goods or Bill of Quantities.
Delivery Time or Completion Schedule.
Form, Amount, and Validity Period of Bid Security.
Form, Amount, and Validity of Performance Security and Warranty; and
Form of Contract and General and Special Conditions of Contract.
The specifications and other terms in the Bidding Documents shall reflect
minimum requirements or specifications required to meet the needs of the
procuring entity in clear and unambiguous terms.
To provide prospective bidders ample time to examine the Bidding Documents
and to prepare their respective bids, the concerned BAC shall make the Bidding
Documents for the contract to be bid available for the following period:
a) For the procurement of goods and infrastructure projects, from the time the
Invitation to Bid is first advertised/posted until the deadline for the
submission and receipt of bids.
b) For the procurement of consulting services, eligibility documents shall be
made available from the time the Request for Expression of Interest is first
advertised/posted until the deadline for the eligibility check, and the Bidding
Documents, from the determination of the short list until the deadline for
the submission and receipt of bids.(21a)
Bidders may be asked to pay for the Bidding Documents to recover the cost of
its preparation and development. The BAC shall issue the Bidding Documents
upon payment of the corresponding cost thereof to the collecting/disbursing
officer of the procuring entity concerned.
The procuring entity shall also post the Bidding Documents at its website and at
the PhilGEPS website from the time that the Invitation to Bid/Request for
Expression of Interest is advertised. Prospective bidders may download the
Bidding Documents from any of the said websites; Provided that, bidders shall
pay the fee for the Bidding Documents upon submission of their Bids.(n)
17.6. Detailed Engineering for the Procurement of Infrastructure Projects
No bidding and award of contract for infrastructure projects shall be made
unless the detailed engineering investigations, surveys and designs, including
the acquisition of the ROW, for the project have been sufficiently carried out
and duly approved in accordance with the standards and specifications
prescribed by the Head of the Procuring Entity concerned or his duly
authorized representative, and in accordance with the provisions of Annex “A”
of this IRR.
The exception is design and build scheme, wherein the bidders shall be
allowed to submit its detailed engineering designs as part of its bid. The
procedures for the procurement and contract implementation of infrastructure
projects using a design and build scheme shall be in accordance with the
provisions of Annex “G” of this
Section 18. Reference to Brand Names
Specifications for the procurement of goods shall be based on relevant characteristics and/or
performance requirements. Reference to brand names shall not be allowed.
Section 19. Access to Information
In all stages of the preparation of the Bidding Documents, the procuring entity shall ensure
equal access to information. Prior to their official release to prospective bidders, no aspect of
the Bidding Documents shall be divulged or released to any prospective bidder or person
having direct or indirect interest in the project to be procured, or to any party, except those
officially authorized in the handling of the documents.
Section 20. Pre-procurement Conference
20.1. Prior to the advertisement or the issuance of the Invitation to Bid/Request for
Expression of Interest for each procurement undertaken through a public
bidding, the BAC, through its Secretariat, shall call for a pre-procurement
conference. The pre-procurement conference shall be attended by the BAC,
the Secretariat, the unit or officials, including consultants hired by the procuring
entity, who prepared the Bidding Documents and the draft Invitation to
Bid/Request for Expression of Interest for each procurement. During this
conference, the participants, led by the BAC, shall:
Confirm the description and scope of the contract, the ABC, and contract
Ensure that the procurement is in accordance with the project and annual
procurement plans.
Determine the readiness of the procurement at hand, including, among
other aspects, the following:
i) availability of appropriations and programmed budget for contract; ii)
completeness of the Bidding Documents and their adherence to relevant
general procurement guidelines;
completion of the detailed engineering according to the prescribed
standards in the case of infrastructure projects; and
confirmation of the availability of ROW and the ownership of affected
Review, modify and agree on the criteria for eligibility screening,
evaluation, and post-qualification.
Review and adopt the procurement schedule, including deadlines and
timeframes, for the different activities; and
Reiterate and emphasize the importance of confidentiality, in accordance
with Section 19 of this IRR, and the applicable sanctions and penalties, as
well as agree on measures to ensure compliance with the foregoing.
20.2. The holding of a pre-procurement conference may not be required for small
procurements, i.e., procurement of goods costing Two Million Pesos
(P2,000,000.00) and below, procurement of infrastructure projects costing Five
Million Pesos (P5,000,000.00) and below, and procurement of consulting
services costing One Million Pesos (P1,000,000.00) and below.
Section 21. Advertising and Contents of the Invitation to Bid/Request for Expression of Interest
21.1. Contents of the Invitation to Bid/Request for Expression of Interest
The Invitation to Bid/Request for Expression of Interest shall provide
prospective bidders the following information, among others:
For the procurement of:
i) Goods, the name of the contract to be bid and a brief description of the
goods to be procured.
ii) Infrastructure projects, the name and location of the contract to be bid, the
project background and other relevant information regarding the
proposed contract works, including a brief description of the type, size,
major items, and other important or relevant features of the works; and
iii) Consulting services, the name of the contract to be bid, a general
description of the project and other important or relevant
A general statement on the criteria to be used by the procuring entity for
the eligibility check, the short listing of prospective bidders, in the case of
the procurement of consulting services, the examination and evaluation of
bids, post-qualification, and award;
The date, time and place of the deadline for the submission and receipt of
the eligibility requirements, the pre-bid conference if any, the submission
and receipt of bids, and the opening of bids.
ABC to be bid.
The source of funding.
The period of availability of the Bidding Documents, the place where the
Bidding Documents may be secured, the website where the Bidding
Documents may be downloaded, and, where applicable, the price of the
Bidding Documents.
The contract duration or delivery schedule.
The name, address, telephone number, facsimile number, e-mail and
website addresses of the concerned procuring entity, as well as its
designated contact person; and
Such other necessary information deemed relevant by the procuring
21.2. Advertising and Posting of the Invitation to Bid/Request for Expression of Interest
21.2.1. Except as otherwise provided in Sections 21.2.2 and 54.2 of this IRR and
for the procurement of common-use goods and supplies, the Invitation to
Bid/Request for Expression of Interest shall be:
Advertised at least once in one (1) newspaper of general nationwide
circulation which has been regularly published for at least two (2)
years before the date of issue of the advertisement.
Posted continuously in the PhilGEPS website, the website of the
procuring entity concerned, if available, and the website prescribed
by the foreign government/foreign or international financing
institution, if applicable, for seven (7) calendar days starting on date
of advertisement; and
Posted at any conspicuous place reserved for this purpose in the
premises of the procuring entity concerned for seven (7) calendar
days, if applicable, as certified by the head of the BAC Secretariat of
the procuring entity concerned.(a)
21.2.2. Advertisement of the Invitation to Bid/Request for Expression of Interest in a
newspaper of general nationwide circulation provided in Section 21.2.1(a) shall not be
required for contracts to be bid with an approved budget of Two Million Pesos
(P2,000,000.00) and below for the procurement of goods, Five Million Pesos
(P5,000,000.00) and below for the procurement of infrastructure projects, and
One Million Pesos (P1,000,000.00) and below or those whose duration is four (4)
months or less for the procurement of consulting services.
Section 22. Pre-bid Conference
22.1. For contracts to be bid with an approved budget of One Million Pesos
(P1,000,000.00) or more, the BAC shall convene at least one (1) pre-bid
conference to clarify and/or explain any of the requirements, terms, conditions,
and specifications stipulated in the Bidding Documents. For contracts to be
bid with an approved budget of less than One Million Pesos (P1,000,000), prebid conferences may be conducted at the discretion of the BAC. Subject to the
approval of the BAC, a pre-bid conference may also be conducted upon
written request of any prospective bidder.
22.2. The pre-bid conference shall be held at least twelve (12) calendar days before
the deadline for the submission and receipt of bids. If the procuring entity
determines that, by reason of the method, nature, or complexity of the contract
to be bid or when international participation will be more advantageous to the
GOP, a longer period for the preparation of bids is necessary, the pre-bid
conference shall be held at least thirty (30) calendar days before the deadline
for the submission and receipt of bids.(a)
22.3. The pre-bid conference shall discuss, among other things, the eligibility
requirements, and the technical and financial components of the contract to be
bid. Attendance of the bidders shall not be mandatory. However, at the option
of the Procuring Entity,1 only those who have purchased the Bidding
Documents shall be allowed to participate in the pre-bid conference and raise
or submit written queries or clarifications. (a)
22.4. The minutes of the pre-bid conference shall be recorded and made available to
all participants not later than three (3) calendar days after the pre-bid
conference. Any statement made at the pre-bid conference shall not modify
the terms of the Bidding Documents, unless such statement is specifically
identified in writing as an
amendment thereto and issued as a Supplemental/Bid Bulletin.
22.5. Supplemental/Bid Bulletins
22.5.1. Requests for clarification(s) on any part of the Bidding Documents or for an
interpretation must be in writing and submitted to the BAC of the procuring entity
concerned at least ten (10) calendar days before the deadline set for the submission
and receipt of bids. The BAC shall respond to the said request by issuing a
Supplemental/Bid Bulletin, duly signed by the BAC chairman, to be made available to
all those who have properly secured the Bidding Documents, at least seven (7)
calendar days before the deadline for the submission and receipt of bids.(a)
22.5.2. Supplemental/Bid Bulletins may be issued upon the procuring entity’s
initiative for purposes of clarifying or modifying any provision of the
Bidding Documents at least seven (7) calendar days before the deadline
for the submission and receipt of bids. Any modification to the Bidding
Documents shall be identified as an amendment.
22.5.3. Any Supplemental/Bid Bulletin issued by the BAC shall also be posted on the
PhilGEPS and2 the website of the procuring entity concerned, if available. It shall be the
responsibility of all those who have properly secured the Bidding Documents to inquire
and secure Supplemental/Bid Bulletins that may be issued by the BAC. However,
bidders who have submitted bids before the issuance of the Supplemental/Bid Bulletin
must be informed and allowed to modify or withdraw their bids in accordance with
Section 26.1 of this IRR.