ARCH. DESIGN PLUMBING SERVICES (SANITARY AND DRAINAGE) PRESENTED BY: ROHIT BHATT B.ARCH VI SEM K.C.A.D. BAREILLY (IN) TYPES OF WASTE WATER BLACK WATER: Origin- toilet fixtures, dishwashers, and food preparation sinks It includes human excreta, toilet paper and wipes; body cleaning liquids, anal cleansing water and so on. They are known to be highly contaminated with dissolved chemicals, particulate matter and is very pathogenic. GRAY WATER: Origin- non-toilet and food fixtures (i.e. bathroom sinks, laundry machines, spas, bathtubs and so on. Technically it is sewage that does not contain human excreta. Graywater is treated very differently from Blackwater and is usually suitable for re-use. YELLOW WATER: This is basically urine collected with specific channels and not contaminated with either blackwater or graywater. SOURCES OF WASTE WATER DOMESTIC SEWAGE: This includes all wastewater generated by home dwellings, public restrooms, hotels, restaurants, motels, resorts, schools, places of worship, sports stadiums, hospitals and other health centers, apartments and the like. They all produce high volumes of wastewater. For residential buildings, water requirement per head per day: 135 litres (90 litres for domestic purposes and rest 45 litres comes under flushing requirements. NON- SEWAGE: These include water from floods (stormwater), runoff (rainwater running through cracks in the ground and into gutters), water from swimming pools, water from car garages and cleaning centers. They also include laundromats, beauty salons, commercial kitchens, energy generation plants and so on. WHAT IS HOUSE DRAINAGE? The arrangemnet provided in a house or building, for collecting and conveying waste water through drain pipes, by gravity, to join either a public sewer or a domestic septic tank, is termed as house drainage or building drainage. AIMS OF HOUSE DRAINAGE To maintain healthy conditions in the building. To dispose off waste water as early and quickly as possible. To avoid the entry of foul gases from the sewer or the septic tank. To facilitate quick removal of foul matter (e.g. human excreta). To collect and remove waste matters systematically. PRINCIPLES OF HOUSE DRAINAGE • • • • • • • • • House Drainage should be preferable laid by side of the building to facilitate easy repair and better maintenance. House sewer joints should be leek proof because any leekage shall create an odour problem and leaked wastewater shall infilterate in the ground and shall reduce bearing capacity of soil below foundation, which is not desirable. The sewage or sullage should flow under the force of gravity. The house sewer should always be straight. The entire system should be well ventilated from start to the end. The house sewer should be connected to the manhole such that the invert level is sufficiently higher to avoid back flow of sewage in house sewer. Where ever there is change in direction of sewer line in the premises, provide inspection chamber at the junction. Rain water from roofs or open courtyards should not be allowed to flow through the house sewers. Siphonage action can never be permitted and therefore adequate ventilation systems should be installed. TYPES OF PIPES • Soil Pipe: Pipe through which human excreta flows. • Waste Pipe: Pipe which carries only the liquid waste & does not carry human excreta. • • • • Vent Pipe: Pipe which is provided for the purpose of the ventilation of the system. A vent pipe is open at top and bottom, to facilitate exit of foul gases. It is carried at least 1 m higher than the roof level. Rain Water Pipe: Pipe which carries only the rain water. Anti-siphonage Pipe: Pipe which is installed in the house drainage to preserve the water seal of traps. TABLE : commonly used pipes in house drainage Type Soil Pipe Waste Pipe (horizontal) Waste Pipe (Vertical) Vent Pipe Rain water pipe Anti-siphonage pipe Size (in mm) 100 30 - 50 75 50 75 50 TRAPS AND THEIR TYPES • • • • • • A trap is depressed or bent fitting that, when provided in a drainage system, always remains full of water, thus maintaining water seal. It prevents the passage of foul air or gas through it, though it allows the sewage or waste water to flow through it. The depth of water seal is the vertical distance between the crown and dip of a trap. The depth of water seal represents its strength or effectiveness. Greater the depth of water seal more effective is the trap. The depth of water seal varies from 25mm to 75mm. According to Use: • Floor trap (Nahani trap) • Gully trap • Intercepting trap • Grease and oil traps • Silt traps According to Shape: • P trap • Q trap • S trap TYPES OF TRAPS FLOOR TRAPS (NAHANI TRAPS) • • • This trap is generally used to admit sullage from the floors of rooms, bathrooms, kitchen etc. in to the sullage pipe. This is provided with cast iron or stainless steel or galvanised gratings (Jallis) at its top so that the entr y of larger matter is prevented therby chances of blockage a re r e d u c e d . A c o m m o n l y used name of trap is Nahani Trap. Th e d e p t h of w a te r s e a l of floor trap should not be less than 40mm. TYPES OF TRAPS GULLEY TRAPS • • • • A Gully trap or gully is provided at a junction of a roof drain and other drain coming from kitchen or bathroom. As shown in figure below the foul sullage shall enter through the side inlet which is also called as back inlet and unfoul rain water shall enter from the top which is covered with cast iron grating. Gully traps may either have a P shaped or Q shaped water sealing arrangement. The water seal is normally 50 mm to 75 mm deep. The maximum distance between the gulley trap and the first manhole should be 6m. TYPES OF TRAPS INTERCEPTING TRAPS • • • Intercepting traps are provided at junction of a house sewer and muncipal sewer for preventing entry of foul gases of municipal sewer in to the house drainage system. The trap is made of glazed stoneware with an inspection arm for the purpose of cleaning or inspection. The inspection arm is keot closed by a lid or a plug. The water seal is deeper than that of normal traps (not less than 100mm). TYPES OF TRAPS GREASE & OIL TRAPS: • These type of traps are used in large hotels restaurants or industries where large quantity of oils waste is generated. These work on the principle that grease or oil being light in weight float on the surface of sewage. Thus, the inlet pipe is near the top of the chamber and the outlet pipe is near the bottom. SILT TRAP • These are provided only in situations where the waste water carries large amount of silt, sand, coarse particles, etc. Silt trap is masonary chamber where inlet and outlets are provided at the higher level so that the silt, sand settles down. PLUMBING SYSTEM FOR HOUSE DRAINAGE ONE PIPE SYSTEM COMBINED STACK FOR SOIL AND WASTE WATER WITH ANTI SIPHONAGE PIPE. TWO PIPE SYSTEM INDPENDENT STACKS FOR SOIL AND WASTE WATER WITH ASP. SINGLE STACK SYSTEM C O M B I N E D S TA C K F O R S O I L A N D WA S T E WAT E R W I T H O U T A N T I SIPHONAGE PIPE. SINGLE STACK PARTIALLY VENTILATED SYSTEM VIA MEDIA BETWEEN ONE PIPE AND SINGLE STACK. ONLY SOIL TRAPS ARE VENTILATED. ONE PIPE SYSTEM • • • • A Separate vent pipe is provided in this system. It is clear from the study of sketch that in comparision to single stack system: This system is costly and difficult to construct Ventilation is p r o vi d e d to sullage pipe and soil pipe too. Arrangement of pipe work is difficult. TWO PIPE SYSTEM • • • • • • Following are the features of this system. Water closets, bath traps, kitchen traps and wash basin traps all are connected to vent pipes. Separate soil pipe and waste pipes are provided. Two vent pipes are provided. There are four stakes in this system I t i s e ff i c i e n t s y s t e m b u t costlier than other systems. SINGLE STACK SYSTEM • • • • From the figure it is clear that only single pipe acts as soil pipe waste pipe and ventilation pipe. This is poorly ventilated system It is simple system and easy to construct. Risk of water seal breaking in the trap is high because of induced siponage. • Waste or air of the waste pipe m ay b e f o r c e d u p d u e t o back pressure. PARTIALLY VENTILATED SINGLE STACK SYSTEM • • • • • • Following are the features of this system. Only water closet traps are ventilated. Traps of baths, washbasins and kitchen are not joined with vent pipe. This is economical system It is required to maintain water seal of 75 mm or more. It has simple arrangement of pipe. CHOICE OF PLUMBING SYSTEM ADVANTAGES OF TWO PIPE SYSTEM ENSURE SEGREGATION OF FOUL SEWAGE FROM WASTE WATER. NO DANGER OF BACKFLOW OF SEWAGE IN WASTE FITTINGS INCASE OF BLOCKAGE OF SOIL PIPE. ENABLES USE OF WASTE WATER DIRECTLY FOR IRRIGATION/GARDENING. SEPARATE WASTE WATER STACK PERMITS ARREST OF SOLIDS FROM KITCHEN IN THE GULLY TRAP THUS PREVENTING IT FROM ENTERING SEWER. GULLY TRAPS NEEDS TO BE CLEANED PERIODICALLY. DISADVANTAGES OF TWO PIPE SYSTEM DIFFICULT TO INSTALL IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS WHERE STACKS TERMINATE IN SERVICE FLOOR OR IN THE CEILING OF THE BASEMENT. LONG HORIZONTAL RUNS TO REACH EXTERNAL WALLS /EXTERNAL SEWERS. PROVISION OF GULLY TRAP DIFFICULT TO IMPLEMENT IN ABOVE SITUATION. REQUIRE MORE SHAFT/DUCT SPACE. CONGESTED SHAFT RESULTS IN DIFFICULT TO MAINTAIN SYSTEM. USED IN INDIA AS MATTER OF CONVENTION AND CONSERVATIVE APPROACH RATHER THAN AS A PRAGMATIC APPROACH. CHOICE OF PLUMBING SYSTEM ADVANTAGES OF ONE PIPE SYSTEM LARGELY REPLACED TWO PIPE SYSTEM IN MOST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES. FAST BECOMING PREFERRED SYETEM IN OTHER PARTS OF THE WORLD. HIGH QUALITY PIPES,FITTINGS AND INSTALLATION TECHNIQUES AVAILABLE THESE DAYS. CONSTANT FLOW OFWATER ENSURES REDUCTION IN BLOCKAGE PROBLEM. ELIMINATED GULLY TRAPS. THUS PRECLUDES THE NEED TO CLEAN THEM. REQUIRE LESSER SHAFT/DUCT SPACE. HIGHLY ECONOMICAL IN TERMS OF COST. QUICK TO CONSTRUCT AND COMMISION. DISADVANTAGES OF ONE PIPE SYSTEM DANGER OF BACK FLOW OF SEWAGE IN WASTE FITTINGS. CHOICE OF PLUMBING SYSTEM TWO PIPE SYSTEM IS AGE OLD AND SAFE SYSTEM. ADVANTAGEOUS WHERE WASTE WATER IS RECYCLED FOR USE IN GARDENING ETC. REASONING BEHIND THE SEGREGATION OF THE SOIL AND WASTE STACKS HAS BEEN TO PUT SECOND LINE OF DEFENCE IN THE FORM OF TRAPPED GULLY AGAINST PASSAGE OF SEWER AIR INTO THE BUILDING VIA WASTE FIXTURES. THIS WAS CONSIDERED A SERIOUS DEFECT SINCE THE FOUL AIR FROM WASTE PIPE INTO A BUILDING MAY BE AS OBJECTIONABLE AS FOUL AIR FROM SOIL PIPE. IT WAS CONSIDERED THAT THERE IS NO SECOND LINE OF DEFENCE AND SEPARATE PIPE FOR WASTE WATER IS NOT REQUIRED. CHOICE OF PLUMBING SYSTEM ONE PIPE SYSTEM IS TO BE PREFERRED WHERE BUILDING PROVIDES FOR SUITABLE GROUPING OF ALL SOIL AND WASTE APPLIANCES AND WHERE ALL TYPES OF WATERS ARE TAKEN TO A COMMON SEWER TO THE PLACE OF DISPOSAL OR TREATMENT. TRAP SEAL OF 40 MM AND 50 MM FOR WASTE AND SOIL WATER RESPECTIVELY CONSIDERED SUFFICIENT SAFEGUARD. IN ADDITION FOLLOWING SAFEGUARDS ARE TO BE TAKEN:• EACH WASTE PIPE CONNECTED ABOVE SOIL BRANCH TO COMMON STACK. • ALL TRAPS SHALL BE VENTILATED BY LOOP VENTS BY A PIPE NOT LESS THAN 50MM DIA. MODERN TREND IS TO GO IN FOR PARTIALLY VENTILATED ONE PIPE OR SINGLE STACK SYSTEM. CHOICE OF PLUMBING SYSTEM USE 100MM DIA SINGLE STACK SYSTEM UPTO 4 STOREYS. USE 150 MM DIA SINGLE STACK UPTO 15 STOREYS. USE 150 MM DIA ONE PIPE SYSTEM BEYOND 15 STROREYS. IN HIGH RISE BUILDINGS, PARTIALLY VENTILATED ONE PIPE OR SINGLE STACK SYSTEM IS BEING USED WHERE VENT STACK IS CONNECTED TO THE DRAINAGE STACK OR THE SOIL APPLIANCES AT EACH OR ALTERNATE FLOOR. FOLLOWING SAFEGUARDS TO BE TAKEN IS SUCH A SYSTEM: • VERTICAL DISTANCE BETWEEN WASTE BRANCH AND SOIL BRANCH SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN 20 CM. • IF WB/SINK DIRECTLY CONNECTED TO MAIN STACK THEY SHALL HAVE 75MM MIN WATER SEAL TRAP FOR BRANCH CONNECTION OF LESS THAN 75MM DIA OR 50 MM FOR BRANCH CONNECTION MORE THAN 75MM DIA . FIXTURE UNITS FOR WATER SUPPLY S.No TYPE OF FIXTURE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. ABLUTION TAP BATH TUB/SHOWER BIDET SINK AND DRAIN BOARD DRINKING FOUNTAIN KITCHEN SINK (DOMESTIC) 7. WASH BASIN 8. WASH BASIN SURGEONS (OR FILL AND EMPTY TYPE) 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. FUs 1 3 3 3 0.5 2 SIZE OF INLET IN MM 12 15 15 15 9 15 1 2 9 15 SHOWER (DOMESTIC) SHOWER (GROUP) 2 3 15 15 URINAL WC FLUSH TANK WC FLUSH VALVE 4 4 8 15 12 25/32 FIXTURE UNITS FOR WATER SUPPLY TYPICAL EXAMPLE OF A TOILET IN A HIGH RISE BUILDING SOURCES: National Building Code of India, Bureau of Indian Standards, 2005. Handbook on Water Supply & Drainage (SP 35:1987), Bureau of Indian Standards, 1993. Punmia B. C., Jain A. J., and Jain A.J., Building Construction, Laxmi Publications, 2005. Shah, Charanjit S., Water supply and Sanitation, Galgotia Publishing Company, 1998. THANK YOU !!!