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B5U01 Assignment Wong Ka Yip 1

Design principles and
Application for CBE
Task 1
Task 2
Task 3
Task 4
Total number of words: 10,691
This project is large development at Lok Wo Shan, Sha Tin which is near to Wu Kai
Sha Railway station. The whole project covering an area of 1,024,394 square feet will
be November 2014 completed, It includes 25 towers which contain more 3000 units.
Some of building can enjoy the sea view and watch Sui Kung country park view.
Task 1
For P1.1, Discuss the planning phase or pre-contract period of construction project. The
discussion must include the site investigation and sketch drawing during planning phase
in this project.
Pre-contract Process
a. This is the period during which the need for the project, the ideas in terms size,
function and appearance.
They are formulated into plans that are capable of being used for the construction
of a complete structure.
Changes to the design will continue to occur throughout this period. Variations are
also expected even after the work commenced on site.
b1. Employer’s Brief
a. On a traditional project the employer will first engage an engineer to work on the
outline ideas for the project.
In some case, the employer may decide to go straight to the contractor for a design
and construct service.
It is much more common to involve the contractor in the pre-contract design on
building projects than it is on the civil engineering projects.
Good up-to-date cost information is essential at this stage if the project is to be
successful. The money available may be determined on the basic of the employer
capital resources and funding ability. Possible alternative design solutions will
need to be considered, along with the appropriate construction costs.
b2. Site Investigation
a. Assuming that the initial requirements can be agreed, the project moves towards a
second stage. During this period, many of the aspects are examined to ascertain
the viability of the project. A site survey and investigation should be carried out to
determine the nature of the ground and site conditions, and, where possible, to
locate the proposed project in the advantageous position on the site. This
advantageous position will consider the design restraints that may be present and
the necessity to achieve and economic solution and value for money.
Prior to the commencement of construction, it is necessary to conduct a site
investigation. This generally entails drilling below the surface of the site to
ascertain the nature and strength of the underlying soil or rock. The nature of the
material on which a building is founded will determine the type, layout and size
of foundation used. Therefore, a site investigation is necessary before design can
be undertaken.
Hong Kong is founded on dense granite, which provides a very strong foundation,
but this may be overlaid by decomposed granite. Large areas of Hong Kong have
been reclaimed from the sea and these areas will be compose of layers of fill
material perhaps overlying sand or mud. Consequently, every project requires a
thorough site investigation normally done by a specialist contracting firm, with the
results interpreted by a civil or geotechnical engineer.
Available from:
Available from: https://www.nrdcs.com/images/pic6.jpg
Most site investigation work will normally be completed in a separate contract
before major construction work commences. The investigation is conducted under
the supervision of competent personnel such as the engineer or an engineering
geologist. The most common methods used are trial pits, borings, drillings and
geophysical surveys.
Bad ground conditions may have implications for the overall aspects of the design.
This will inevitably increase construction will be considered. Once the outline
design is approved, the scheme should be cost planned to ensure a balanced design
that meets the overall requirements of the design brief.
The Preliminary Site Investigation
b3. Sketch design
During this stage the engineer will be able to obtain outline planning approval and
meet other statutory requirements regarding the project. There will previously
have been discussions with the planners on the possibility of such a scheme being
approved. Where necessary, the engineer will have consulted the structure and
district plans to ensure at this early stage that the proposed development will not
contravene these plans. The major planning problems will thus be solved.
The construction phase of the project brings the dream to life and demands rigor.
It involves checking any document and drawing that the contractor puts forward
and ensuring that works are carried out in conformity with the building contract.
Depending on the type of building contract the architect helps coordinate the
works with the different trades, making sure that good common practice is
respected, standard and regulations are followed.
Tracking the project as per the schedule and also recording the delays in project
due to un expected issues like strike, weather condition, material short supply etc.
Keep a track of executed quantity against budgeted quantity. Any escalation in
quantity & financial implications in budget to be highlighted to the client in time
and getting approval. And maintaining Bills and Reports in proper filing system.
For P1.2, Discuss the design phase or post-contract of construction project. The
discussion must include the detail design, working drawing and brief tender discussion
during the design phase in this project.
Post-contract is depending on the pre-contract which involves the contract can be
allowed for expects variations to occur. And it also mentions supervision, inspections,
approvals and estimation.
Post-contract Process
1) Construction
a. The project should have been completely designed prior to release to the contractor
for tendering purposes. Although the contract allows for and expects variations to
occur, this should not provide an excuse for a design which only partly finished.
One of the engineer’s main duties during this stage is to ensure that the contractor
has all the information required for construction purposes. In addition, the
engineer will be responsible for the smooth running of the works.
As the work is carried out, the engineer’s role is largely that of a supervisor,
ensuring that the contractor complies with all the requirements. During the
construction of the works, the quantity surveyor will prepare the valuations for the
interim certificate. Certificate is, however, entirely the responsibility of the
engineer. It is preferable if the works can be re-measured and agreed soon after
they have been completed.
During the construction stage the responsibility falls on the engineer for the
performance of a multitude of duties towards the realization of the project.
These duties flow from both the service agreement he has entered into with the
employer and from those imposed on him by the construction contract entered into
between the employer and the contractor.
The duties that the engineer has to perform in relation to the construction contract
are obligations which, of course, in turn flow from the service agreement between
the employer and the engineer. The obligations of the engineer towards the
employer during this stage for a project of a civil engineering nature may broadly
be expressed as follows:
Advising the employer on the preparation of the formal contract documents
relation to the accepted tenders.
Advising the employer of staff to be employed at site by the engineer (or the
employer) for the supervision of the works.
Preparation of working drawings, bar-bending schedules and other designs and
details that are required for the due execution of the works.
Examining the contractor’s proposals.
Making such visits to site as the engineer considers necessary to satisfy himself as
to the performance of any site staff appointed on the engineer’s advice and to
satisfy himself that the works are executed generally in accordance with his
designs and specifications and otherwise in accordance with good engineering
Giving all necessary instructions to the contracts. Such instructions should not
significantly increase the cost of the works without prior approval from the
employer, unless the circumstances were such that this was not possible. In the
latter event the employer should be advised of any increases in cost as soon as it
is practicable. As a matter of good practice the engineer should prepare and issue
to the employer a revised estimate of the final capital cost every three months on
works of any complexity.
m. Performing any services which the engineer may be required to carry out under
any contract for the execution of the works provided the engineer had initially
approved such contracts.
Providing the employer on completion of the works with such records and
drawings as are reasonably necessary to operate and maintain the works in respect
of the element of work supervised by the engineer.
Assisting the employer in settling disputes that may arise between him and the
contractor, excepting litigation and arbitration, which are dealt with under a
separate arrangement.
All other duties imposed on the engineer by the construction contract entered into
between the employer and the contractor.
2) Maintenance
a. The project becomes officially complete when the engineer issues the certificate
of substantial completion of the works. The contractor is responsible for making
good any of his defects from this date for about 6 months or whatever period of
time is stated in the appendix to the conditions of contract.
The engineer should ensure that all defects are made good prior to the issue of the
final certificate. The quantity surveyor during this period will prepare and agree
the final account with the contractor’s surveyor or measurement engineer. At the
commencement of the defects liability period, one-half of the retention is released
to the contractor, with the other half being paid with the final certificate. Although
the contractor is contractually responsible for work up to the end of this period,
liability under common law will extend for a much longer period.
Tender of construction involve characters as the follows:
b1. Clients/employer
b2. Contractor
b3. Consultant
b4. Engineers
b5. Architect
b6. Quantity surveyor
b7. Suppliers else
And the tender of document must include the following patterns:
b8. Articles of agreement
b9. Conditions of drawings
b10. Specification
b11. Bill of quantities
For P1.3, Evaluate how the planning and design phase are coordinated and managed. It
should include referencing to the terms and conditions specified in the contract
Coordinated and managed in the planning and design phase should be using tender.
The usual contracts in construction projects are:
Between the client and the consultants.
Between consultants when one consultant acts as a subcontractor to the lead
Between the client and the main contractor for the construction of the project.
Between the main contractor and the subcontractors.
Construction contracts consist of a number of contract documents which may
e1. articles of agreement
e2. conditions of contract
e3. contract drawings
e4. specification
e5. bills of quantities.
Articles of Agreement
a. The articles of agreement are the formal contract signed by the parties which binds
the contract documents together.
b. the essence of the contract by stipulation the amount (the contract sum) that the
employer (client) will pay the contractor for the contractor carrying out.
c. Not all standard forms have bills of quantities as contract documents and in such
cases, they would not be included in the articles of agreement. Instead, the bills of
quantities would be replaced by a specification.
Conditions of Contract
a. The conditions of contract are the detailed provisions of the contract which seek
to determine the obligations of both parties for all the many facets of construction
projects and the actions to be taken on the occurrence of any of the many situations
which may arise during a project.
Most importantly the conditions allocate the risk involved in the project between
the parties. Upon signing the agreement the parties accept the risk enshrined
whining the clauses.
Contract Drawing
The contract drawings have to be explicitly identified as such usually by their
numbers and are normally listed in the specification or bill of quantities.
The drawings will include the general arrangement drawings showing the site
location, the position of the works on the site, means of access to the site, plans,
elevations and sections. The level of detail of the drawings will vary between
projects depending how much detail is in the specification or bill of quantities as
together they have to identify what the contractor has to provide.
a. The specification is a detailed description of the work, materials and workmanship
required for the project, and, which together with the contract drawings, identifies
what is to be provided by the contractor.
b. It is not usual to have both a specification and a bill of quantities as contract
documents for a project.
c. If a bill of quantities is used without a specification, the specification is in fact
incorporated within the bill of quantities.
d. The sequencing of the site operations.
e. A method of construction to be adopted
f. The details of any facilities to be offered to other contractors or subcontractors
working on the site.
Bill of Quantities
a. A bill of quantities is a schedule of all the items of work required to complete the
b. Usually the contractor who submits the lowest total process will be awarded the
contract. The advantage of using a bill of quantities is that all the contractors are
pricing exactly the same items and therefore directly comparable.
c. In order to maintain consistency between the descriptions and the method of
measurement of items in bills of quantities, documents are prepared using a
standard method of measurement. For building work (as opposed to civil
engineering), the Hong Kong Standard Method of Measurement for Building
Works is currently used.
When a specification is used rather than a bill of quantities, each contractor
competing for the job will prepare his own quantities since the type of information
provided by bill of quantities is not available.
A specification can be used as a contract document together with a bill of
The contractor has agreed to construct the project in accordance with the drawings
and specification, and the quantities in the bill of quantities are not guaranteed by
the client.
Alternatively, in such circumstances it may be that the conditions of contract
require the whole of the work to be remeasured on completion and priced at the
rates in the bill of quantities.
Good tendering procedure
a. Good tendering procedures will take into account the changes in the ways in which
projects are procured.
Use of a standard form or set of conditions, rather than one written solely on behalf
of one of the parties to the contract.
Six firms will be able to secure competition in prices.
In preparing a short list of tenderers, the following should be considered:
the firm’s financial standing and record
d1. recent experience of constructing over similar contract periods
d2. the general experience and reputation of the firm for similar project types
d3. adequacy of the firm’s management
d4. adequacy of capacity
All tenderers must submit their tenders on the same basis.
e1. Tender documents should be dispatched on the stated day.
e2. Alternative offers based on alternative contract periods may be admitted if
requested on the date of dispatch of the documents.
e3. Standard conditions of contract should not be amended.
e4. A time of day should be stated for receipt of tenders and tenders received late
should be returned unopened.
The tender period will depend on the size and complexity of the job, but should
not be less than 4 working weeks, i.e. 20 days.
The priced bills must remain strictly confidential.
Corrections must be initialed or confirmed in writing and the letter of acceptance
must include a reference to this.
If the tender under consideration exceeds the estimated cost, negotiations should
take place with the tenderer to reduce the price. The quantity surveyor then
normally produces reduction or addendum bills.
Task 2
For P2.1, Examine the factor that affect the specification of materials. You must explain
client requirement or constraints that affect specification of material in your selected
The execution of a construction project requires both design work and the carrying out
of construction operations on the site. Traditionally, an employer who wished to have
a project constructed would invariably commission an engineer to prepare drawings of
surveyor to prepare documentation, such as bills of quantities, on which the contractor
could prepare a price.
Contractor selection
a. Competition
b. Negotiation
This is the traditional and most popular method of awarding construction contracts. The
arrangement is shown in Figure 1.1. In essence a number of firms of known reputation
are selected by the design team to reputation are selected by the design team to submit
a price.
Project Manager
Other Consultants
Figure1.1 Project management relationship
The majority of contract documents state that the employer:
a. is not bound to accept any tender
b. may choose not to accept the lowest tender
is not responsible for the cost involved in the preparation of a contractor’s tender
The following have been identified as good practice:
a. Use of a standard form or set of conditions, rather than one written solely on behalf
of one of the parties to the contract. There are clear advantages to all parties in the
knowledge that a standard procedure will be followed in inviting and accepting
A limit should be placed on the number of firms invited to tender. Six firms will
be able to secure competition in prices. The cost of preparing tenders is
considerable and this has to be borne by the industry.
In preparing a short list of tenderers, the following should be considered:
c1. the firm’s financial standing and record
c2. recent experience of constructing over similar contract periods
c3. the general experience and reputation of the firm for similar project types
c4. the general experience and reputation of the firm for similar project types
c5. adequacy of capacity
Each firm on the short list should be sent a preliminary enquiry to determine its
willingness to tender. The enquiry should contain:
d1. Job title
d2. Names of employer and consultants
d3. Location of site and general description of the works
d4. Approximate cost range
d5. Principal nominated subcontractors
d6. Form of contract and any amendments
d7. Procedure for correction of priced bills
d8. Contract under seal or under hand
d9. Anticipated date for possession
d10. Contract period
d11. Anticipated date for dispatch of tender documents
d12. Length of tender period
d13. Length of time tender must remain open for acceptance
d14. Amount of liquidated damages
d15. Amount of bond
d16. Amount of bond
Once a contractor has confirmed an intention to tender that tender should be made.
If circumstances arise which make it necessary to with draw, the engineer should
be notified before the tender documents are issued or, at the latest, within 2 days
e1. The tender period will depend on the size and complexity of the job, but
should not be less than 4 working weeks, i.e. 20 days.
e2. If a tenderer submits a qualified tender, opportunity should be given to
withdraw the qualification without amending the tender figure,
e3. If a tenderer submits a qualified tender, opportunity should be given to
withdraw the qualification without amending the tender figure.
e4. Under English law, a tender may be withdrawn at any time before acceptance.
e5. After tenders are opened all but the lowest three tenderers should be informed
immediately. The lowest tenderer should be asked to submit a priced bill
within 4 days.
e6. After the contract has been signed, each tenderer should be supplied with a
list of tender prices.
e7. The priced bills must remain strictly confidential.
e8. The tenderer should be notified and given the opportunity to confirm or
withdraw the offer. If it is withdrawn, the next lowest tenderer is considered.
e9. The tenderer should be given the opportunity of confirming the offer or
correcting the errors.
e10. Corrections must be initialed or confirmed in writing and the letter of
acceptance must include a reference to this. The lowest tender should be
accepted, after correction or confirmation, in accordance with the alternative
e11. If the first alternative has been agreed upon and notified to all tenderers at the
time of invitation to tender, the choice facing the tenderer should clearly be
to confirm or withdraw. The employer may require a great deal of persuading
to stand by the initial agreement in such circumstances.
Open Competition
a. With this method of contract procurement, the details of the proposed project are
often advertised in the local and trade publications.
b. This method has the advantage of allowing new contractors or contractors who are
unknown to the design team the possibility of submitting a tender for consideration.
Unsuitable firms are removed from the list if the number of firms tendering
becomes too large.
Factors other than price must also be considered when assessing these tender bids,
such as the firm which has submitted the lowest tender.
They priced documents are checked for the reasonableness of the contractor’s rates
and prices and the two parties then meet to negotiate an agreed price for the works.
There is an absence of any competition or other restriction, other than the social
acceptability of the price. It normally results in a tender sum that is higher than
might otherwise have been obtained by using one of the previous procurement
methods. Negotiation does, however, have particular applications where:
e1. a business relationship exists between the employer and the contractor.
e2. only one firm is capable of undertaking the work satisfactorily.
e3. the contractor is already established on site (continuation contract)
e4. an early start on site is required by the employer.
e5. it is beneficial to bring the contractor in during the design stage to advise
on constructional difficulties and how they might best be avoided.
Design and construct (Design and Build)
a. Design and construct projects aim to overcome the problem of the separation of
the designing and constructing processes by providing for these two separate
functions within a single organization. The single firm employed is frequently the
contractor. The contractor may employ civil engineers as in-house designers or be
responsible for directly employing a firm of consultants. The major difference is
that instead of approaching a firm of engineering consultants, the employer briefs
the contractor direct.
b. The employer may choose to retain the services of an independent consultant to
assess the contractor’s design, to monitor the work on site or to approve payments.
c. A design evolved by the contractor is more likely to be suited to the needs of the
latter’s organization and construction methodology and this should result in
savings in both time and costs of construction.
d. Should result in lower production costs on site and an overall shorter design and
construction period, both of which should provide price savings to the employer.
e. A further advantage to the employer is in the implied warranty of suitability
because the contractor has provided the design as a part of the all-in service.
The advantages claimed for a design and construct approach therefore include:
a. The contractor is involved from the inception and is thus fully aware of all of the
employer’s requirements.
The contractor is able to use specialized knowledge and methods of construction
in evolving the design.
It should be possible to reduce the time from inception to completion due to the
telescoping of the various parts of the design and construction processes.
There can be no claims for delays due to a lack of design information, since the
contractor is in overall control.
There is direct contact between the employer and the contractor.
Task 2
Task 2.2(P2.2)
For P2.2, Examine the factors that affect the specification of building services. You
must explain the impact of legislation on design of service installation and sustainable
urban design.
Green Code for Architecture
a. The principles of the Building Research Establishment’s Environmental
Assessment Method (BREEAM) are: Demolition and reconstruction only if reuse
to adaptation or expansion of existing structures is uneconomical or impractical.
Reduce the need for transport during demolition, refurbishment and construction
and tightly control all processes to reduce noise, dust, vibration, pollution and
Make the most of the site.
Design the building to minimize the cost of ownership and its impact on the
environment over its life span by making it easily maintainable and by
incorporating techniques and technologies for conserving energy and water and
reducing emissions to land, water and air.
Use the construction techniques which are indigenous to the area, learning from
local traditions in materials and design.
Build to the appropriate quality to last. The building life depends greatly on the
form, surface treatment and the method of assembly of which of the materials used.
Avoid using materials from non-renewable sources or which cannot be reused or
recycled, especially in structures which have a short life.
Avoid using materials from that cannot be reused or recycled or non-renewable
sources, especially with short life spans in structures.
Green Building
a. Measures for green buildings can be divided into four areas:
a1. Reducing energy in use
a2. Minimizing external pollution and environmental damage
a3. Reducing embodied energy and resource depletion
a4. Minimizing internal pollution and damage to health
Green design emphasizes many new environmental resources and concerns for
occupant health as below points: (Ray Kuruvilla George, 2006)
b1. Reduce human exposure to harmful substances.
b2. Save non-renewable energy and scarce materials.
b3. Minimize the impact of energy and material life cycle on ecology.
b4. Use renewable energy and materials collected sustainably.
b5. Protect and restore local air, water, soil, flora and fauna.
b6. Support pedestrians, bicycles, public transportation and other vehicles that
substitute fossil fuels.
Sustainable Design
a. Long-term costs: economy cost, labor cost and environment cost.
b. Sustainable design is the careful integration of architecture with structural,
mechanical and electrical engineering.
The Rocky Mountain Institute outlines five elements for sustainable design: (Rocky
Mountain Institute, 1998)
a. Planning and design should be thorough. Sustainable design is "front loaded"
compared with traditional design. Early decisions have the greatest impact on
energy efficiency, passive solar design, daylighting, and natural cooling.
Sustainable design is more of a philosophy of building than a prescriptive building
style. Sustainable buildings don't have any particular look or style.
Sustainable buildings don't have to cost more. nor are they more complicated than
traditional construction.
Integrated design, that is design where each component is considered part of a
greater whole, is critical to successful sustainable design.
Minimizing energy consumption and promoting human health should be the
organizing principles of sustainable design. The other elements of design can be
organized: energy saving architectural features, energy conserving building
envelope, and energy-efficient and health-promoting mechanical, electrical, and
plumbing systems.
Understanding Place
Sustainable design begins where we know each other. If we are sensitive to the nuances
of a place, we can live without destroying it. Knowing the location helps determine
design practices, such as the orientation of the building on the building, the protection
of the natural environment, and the use of public transportation.
Connecting with Nature
Regardless of whether the design location is an inner city or a building in a more natural
environment, the connection with nature can regenerate the designed environment.
Effective design helps us understand our place in nature.
Understanding Natural Processes
There is no waste in nature. By-products of one organism become food for another. In
other words, natural systems are made up of closed loops. By working with life
processes, we respect the needs of all species. By regenerating processes rather than
exhausting them, we become more active. Make natural cycles and processes visible,
and reinvigorate the designed environment.
Understanding Environmental Impact
Sustainable design attempts to understand the impact of design on the environment by
assessing the inherent energy and toxicity of the site, materials, and energy efficiency
of the design, materials, and construction technologies. Negative environmental
impacts can be mitigated through the use of sustainably harvested building materials
and finishes, materials with low toxicity in manufacturing and installation, and
recycling of building materials at the job site.
Embracing Co-creative Design Processes
Sustainable designers find it important to listen to every voice. Collaboration with
system consultants, engineers, and other experts is carried out early in the design
process, not after the fact. Designers are also listening to the voice of the local
community. Designing diagrams for end users (community residents or office owners)
has become standard practice.
Understanding People
Sustainable design must take into account the broad cultures, races, religions and habits
of the people who will use and live in the built environment. This requires keen
awareness and compassion for the needs of people and communities.
l Topography
l Light-colored
Site Design
l Solar orientation
l Pedestrian
Infrastructure Efficiency
l Water supply and use
l Wastewater collection
l Use density
l Use mix
l Integrate
On-Site Energy Resources
l Geothermal/Groundwater
l Surface water
Some of the tallest building in Hong Kong such as the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank
and the Bank of China have been constructed in structural steel.
Available from:
Task 2
Task 2.3 (P2.3)
For P2.3, Explain the financial implication of specifying materials and building services.
You must explain three different types of financial implication in this contract.
a. The usual way of paying the contractor for the construction work is through
monthly or stage payments.
b. These payments help the contractor to offset the financial borrowing that is
required to pay wages, salaries, goods, components and materials.
The following are financial factors to consider:
a. payments systems
b. financial soundness of parties
c. financial remedies
d. contract funding
Below table offers a checklist of questions to help to determine an appropriate contract
Type of contract
a. Measurement
Contracts allow seating to begin early before the design is completed, and make
changes to the project relatively easy. However, due to the unknown engineering
cost, some risks will inevitably be brought to customers. In fact, the client bears
any unknown risk, and although this may cause the contractor to provide a
competitive price, the level of customer uncertainty means that, except for civil
engineering projects, measurement contracts are rarely signed. (Designing
Building Wiki, 2017)
Cost Reimbursement
Price to be paid is determined on the basis pf the actual cost incurred by the
contractor in carrying out the work, plus an agreed amount to cover overheads and
profits. This arrangement is used where the requirement are only general terms
according to the nature of work and the shortage of time.
Employer can’t determine requirement is used and not even sufficiently for
approximate quantities to be prepared. A set of preliminaries and preambles and a
form of tender will also be needed. Term contractor is one 3 where contractor is
in contract with the client for the entire contract period. For 3 year to execute any
maintenance repair/for work where the extent of work is not yet known. It consists
of a list of measured items with units of measurement stated against each, but with
no quantities give. Jobbing order contract where a purchasing order or job order is
raised to execute some simple work.
Lump Sum contract
a. The Lump Sum Contract can sometimes be called 'Stipulated Sum' and is the most
basic form of agreement where the contractor/supplier agrees a fixed lump sum
price to undertake all the specified contract works and the employer agrees to pay
this price upon completion of works.
b. The Schedule of Rates may be provided by the employer but quantities are usually
binding upon the contract drawings and specifications. The Schedule of Rates can
be used for payment purposes and the rates used for assessments of design changes
and additional work.
a. Lower financial risk to Employer.
b. Higher financial risk to Contractor.
c. Minimum Owner supervision related to quality and schedule.
d. Contractor has higher incentive to achieve earlier completion and better
e. Contractor selection is relatively easy.
Changes difficult and costly. (but it usually is)
Need to substantially complete design prior to bidding.
Contractors tend to choose the lowest methods or materials are meet the
Hard to build relationship.
Each project is unique.
Bidding expensive and lengthy.
Contractors may include high contingency within each Schedule of Rate item
The Construction Process
The complexity of construction in Hong Kong is compounded by:
a. The difficulty of sites and ground conditions. Hong Kong builds on sites which
would not be considered for development in most other countries
b. In time of high demand, there is variably a labor shortage and a restriction on
importing labor
c. The high speed of construction that is demanded by client, both public and private
d. The congested of most sites due to high plot ratios. The logistics of site transport
both horizontal and vertically are very difficult
e. Heavy dependence on imported materials which can create uncertainty in delivery.
Construction Costs
The costs for the types of projects given below are averages based on fixed price
competitive tenders and no more than rough guides. It must be understood that the
actual cost of a building will depend upon the individual design and many other factor
such as size, plan shape, height, location and specification.
Task 3
Task 3.1
For P3.1, Discuss the environmental factors that affect construction projects. You must
discuss and specify any sustainable construction or sustainable development in this
Sustainable Construction
Sustainable construction is defined as the creation and responsible management of a
healthy built environment based on resource efficient and ecological principles.
a. Resource efficient and ecological consumption
b. Minimizing non-renewable resource consumption
c. Enhancing the natural environment
d. Eliminating or minimizing the use of toxins
According to an Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)
Project, “Sustainable building" can be defined as the building with the least impact on
the building and the natural environment, including the building itself, its surroundings,
and the wider regional and global environment.
Sustainable building can be defined as a building practice that strives for overall quality
(including social, economic and environmental performance) in a wide range of ways.
Therefore, rational use of natural resources and proper management of building stock
will help to save scarce resources, reduce energy consumption and improve
environmental quality. (Raymond Wong wai-man, 2018)
Sustainable building
a. Sustainable building involves considering the entire life cycle of buildings, taking
environmental quality, functional quality and future values into account.
b. In strict quantity terms, the building and housing market is now saturated in most
countries, and the demand for quality is growing in importance.
c. Governments will be able to give a considerable impulse to sustainable buildings
by encouraging these developments. The OECD project has identified five
objectives for sustainable buildings:
c1. Resource Efficiency
c2. Energy Efficiency (including Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction)
c3. Pollution Prevention (including Indoor Air Quality and Noise Abatement)
c4. Harmonization with Environment (including Environmental Assessment)
c5. Integrated and Systemic Approaches (including Environmental Management
Sustainable design principles
economy of resources
Ø energy, water, and material
life cycle design
Ø consider environmental quality, functional quality and future values
humane design
Ø reduce impact on nature
Ø ensure human comfort and health
Resource Efficiency
a. combines the efficient use of both economic and ecological resources
b. sustainable management of natural resources
Ø conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity
Ø the ‘ecosystem’ provides services (e.g. purification of water supplies by
aquatic life-forms)
Ø adoption of more sustainable patterns of production and consumption
c. Aim
Ø to reduce the demand and the costs for energy, water, and materials
d. Results
Ø monetary savings which benefit the local economy
Ø reduced environmental impact
Ø conservation of resources
e. Integrated resources planning (IRP) & management
f. Major factors
Ø appropriate material selection
Ø waste minimization
Ø recycling of building materials
Ø efficient use of water
g. They also promote
Ø increased durability of buildings
Ø cyclical utilization of materials
Environmental Architecture
a. Healthful Interior Environment.
Measures are to be taken to clean and revitalize interior air with filtration and
b. Energy Efficiency.
Ensure that the building's use of energy is minimal.
Environmental form.
All possible measures should be taken to link the form and plan of the design
to the site, area and climate.
Good Design.
Achieve an efficient, long lasting and elegant relationship of use areas,
Ecologically Benign Materials.
Use building materials and products that minimize destruction of the global
Use of Material
a. The exterior colour theme of the building is in warm and the building and
landscape are designed to be compatible and harmony with the adjacent public
park. The material used are kept basic concrete; glazed tile; reconstituted stone;
glass and steel.
b. It’s the architect intenion to stick to materials we know to reuse and dispose of
then expent with new potentially hazardous ones which have only been in use for
a short time.
c. The mternal partitions for office area are re-cycled light weight cement panels
previously used as hoarding form and repectitive details minimize the use of
additional timber formwork limber used inside the building are from sustainable
sources. Electronic ballast are used to cut down power consumption of light fitting
and non-CFC refrigerant has been adopted for air-cool chiller.
Available from:
Task 3
Task 3.2 (P3.2)
For P3.2, Evaluate environmentally responsible methods for disposing of waste
materials. You must explain disposal of waste materials during construction process or
disposal of waste materials during life of the building.
Waste Management Strategies
a. Waste prevention
b. Recycling construction and demolition materials
c. Architectural building material reuse (include adaptive reuse, reuse of recycled
materials and conservative disassembly)
d. Design for building material recovery (destruction, durability and adaptive reuse)
Available from: https://www.cleantechloops.com/recycling-construction-wastes/
Important factors
a. On-site collection & storage space
b. Sorting & separation (paper, glass, plastic, metal
Available from:
Waste hierarchy
a. Sustainable development
b. Reduction
On-site reuse
On-site recovery
Off-site reuse
Off-site recovery
Water Conservation
a. Leak detection & prevention
b. Efficient fixture/appliances (e.g. low-flow toilets)
c. Correct use of appliances (e.g. washing machine)
d. Water use of landscaping & irrigation
Green design issues
a. Greywater reuse and rainwater recycling
b. Composting toilets & wastewater treatment
Available from:
Sources of solid waste
a. Residential & commercial
b. Industrial & agricultural
c. Construction
Element of solid waste storage, collection
a. Waste generation, on site storage, collection
b. Transfer and transport
Processing and recovery
Disposal (e.g. landfill, incineration, composting)
Available from:
Recycling organic waste
a. Make use of organic nutrients in garbage, human waste, and sewage
a1. For growing crops/flowers in gardens
a2. For feeding to farms (e.g. urban farming)
b. Food gardens and city farmers
Available from: https://penasdisposal.com/organic-recycling/
Task 3
Task3.3 (P3.3)
For P3.3 Evaluate environmentally responsible methods for promoting environmental
efficiency. You must explain different form of construction or new and renewable
sources or use of recycled material in this project.
Available from:
Environmental Impact Assessment
Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) Is a process that identifies and assesses
possible environmental impacts of a proposed project at an early stage of the planning
process. The environmental impact assessment identifies measures that can be taken to
avoid negative environmental impacts or reduce them to acceptable levels before
processing them. Therefore, EIA represents a proactive approach to preventive
environmental management and protection.
Assessment Methodologies
a. Life cycle energy audit
a1. Initial embodied energy
a2. Recurring embodied energy
a3. Operational energy
a4. Greenhouse gas assessment
a5. Lighting, thermal and ventilation audit
a6. Life cycle costing audit
a7. Post occupancy evaluation
Preservation criteria
b1. Species richness, abundance, diversity Ecological diversity
b2. High number of endemic species & important pool
b3. Habitat
Three forms of biodiversity
c1. Genetic
c2. Species
c3. Ecosystems
Natural environment to protect
d1. Grassland
d2. Forest
d3. Mangrove
Impact of urban development
e1. Direct species loss
e2. Habitat destruction
e3. Habitat destruction (pollution, decrease in size) due to disturbance, noise,
e4. Food wed disruption
Impact of urban development
f1. Avoidance: No development, Alternative
f2. Reduction minimize impacts
f3. Compensation (on site/offsite)
f4. Habitat creation/restoration
The client must awareness and goal setting: green vision, project goals & green design
criteria. Unlike building projects, where the projects often determine the constructional
methods to be used, civil engineering projects are heavily dependent upon particular
contactor’s method of working. Try the best effort, to implicate the cost of the various
solutions to determine that the cost remains on the target.
The Principles of Sustainable Design:
a. Understanding Place
b. Connecting with Nature
c. Understanding Natural Processes
d. Understanding Environmental Impact
e. Embracing Co-creative Design Processes
f. Understanding People
Figure is a chart of the criteria, grouped by the affected building life-cycle phase. This
chart helps compare the sustainable qualities of different materials used for the same
purpose. The presence of one or more of these "green features" in a building material
can assist in determining its relative sustainability.
Manufacturing Process
Building Operations
Water Management
Waste Reduction (WR)
Energy Efficiency (EE)
Biodegradable (B)
Pollution Prevention (P2)
Water Treatment &
Conservation (WTC)
Recyclable (R)
Recycled (RC)
Nontoxic (NT)
Reusable (RU)
Embodied Energy
Reduction (EER)
Renewable Energy Source
Others (O)
Natural Materials (NM)
Longer Life (LL)
Different form of construction
Curtain walling
Many office and commercial buildings in Hong Kong are clad with curtain walling.
Basically, a curtain wall is a thin layer (or skin) on the outside of a building which is
supported from the structural frame of the building. Most curtain walls are made up(in
part or in whole) of reflective glass. The reflective property of the glass is helpful in
reducing thermal transfer, and reduces the cost of maintaining the building internal
Available from: https://www.reynaers.com/en/products/curtain-walls
Task 4
Task 4.1 (P4.1)
For P4.1, Explain the roles and responsibilities of all parties involved in the planning
and design phase.
a. Define the extent of the project and the functions it is to perform
b. Provide information required by the engineer during design and construction
c. Obtain the necessary legal authority to allow the construction of the project
d. Secure funding for the project and ensure that this is available at the appropriate
e. Acquire the necessary land for development
An Engineer (Designer)
The extent of professional service offered by the engineer is specified in agreement
between him and the promoter. The engineer performs the feasibility study, design the
works, prepares contract documents, ar4ranges the contract and supervises construction
Organization for large project involving tunneling and bridgeworks
Senior Resident Engineer
A senior resident engineer is usually appointed to head the whole site organization.
Each section of works is then under the supervision of a resident engineer, supported
by inspectors and works supervisors and so on. In some cases, specialists are required
to reside on site depending on the nature of the works and the site conditions.
Resident Engineer (RE)
The resident engineer is an agent of the engineer. He may be and engineer seconded
from the engineer’s office or may be recruited from an outside firm. In some cases he
may be employed and paid by the promoter.
Delegation of Power
The resident engineer’s responsibilities are delegated by the engineer.
Decisions made by the resident engineer have the same effect as if made by the engineer.
The extent of delegation of the engineer’s power, and the duties of the resident engineer
are listed in an appointment letter. himself. However, the engineer always has the final
Assistant Resident Engineers
Assistant resident engineers are assistants to the resident engineer in carrying out
normal day-to-day business.
Most of the assistant resident engineer’s duties are concerned with document
preparation. This includes:
a. re-designing of minor works
b. report writing
c. tests recording
d. measurement of quantities
e. keeping survey records with the assistance of the survey officer
Duties of the Resident Engineer
The main duty of the resident engineer is to see and check that the materials used, the
workmanship employed and the works constructed by the contractor are in accordance
with the specification and conditions of the contract. In addition, he has to ensure that
the contractor has carried out the obligations required in the contract.
The actual extent of the resident engineer’s duty of course varies depending on the
type of contract. In general, the main duties are grouped into the following sections:
a1. Administration
a2. to organize and assign duties to site staff and to ensure that all construction
works are properly supervised.
a3. to perform tests so as to ensure that the raw materials and the final product
comply with specifications, both on site and at the place of manufacture;
a4. to watch out for defected works and to ensure that appropriate remedial
actions are proposed an taken by the contractor;
a5. to examine the construction methods proposed by the contractor;
a6. to examine the construction methods proposed by the contractor;
a7. to redesign the works when it is necessary;
a8. to check if sufficient materials of suitable quality are ordered and delivered
to the site at the right times
a9. assessment and payment
a10. to assess and finally agree with the contractor on the quantity of work which
is completed to specifications;
a11. to check the day works, materials, etc. on site, so that based on the resident
engineer’s recommendation, the engineer can certify payments.
a12. Records
a13. to keep a diary recording each stage of the history of construction and events
on site such as visitors, accidents, stop of works, etc.
The Inspector and the Works Supervisor
The inspector’s main duty is to check the materials and workmanship provided by the
contractor. In the past he was often a tradesman who got promoted by acquiring
knowledge and experience of trades, materials and methods.
Assistant Inspector of work
They assist to the Inspector of work check the material and workmanship provided in
the contractor.
Works Supervisor
The duty of a works supervisor is, by constant checking, to ensure that the contractor’s
staff are constructing the work as specified in the contract by using the right amount of
suitable materials. A works supervisor should have a basic technical training
qualification and several years’ experience of detailed construction in a particular
A works supervisor, who is responsible to the inspector, should spend most of his time
outside the office observing and recording progress and production on the spot and
ensuring that the contractor’s foreman gives proper instructions to the labor.
Task 4
Task 4.2 (P4.2)
For P4.2, Explain the roles and responsibilities of all parties involved in the production
The contractor is a firm which undertakes to carry out construction work laid down in
a contract signed between the contractor and the promoter (client).
The client accepts the tender submitted by the contractor, the contractor will commence
planning the provision of labour, materials and plant as required for the construction
master programme.
For large construction contracts (such as new town development involving a large
number of bridge works and road works) in which different types of works are handled
simultaneously, the previous organization chart no longer applies.
Generally, it depends on the value of the contract, the duration of the contract, the
location of the site, and the scope and complexity of the project.
In small contracts, such as remedial work in slope protection, there is no diversity of
work, and although the contractor may need to perform engineering and other
administrative duties, it may be sufficient to have one person represent the contractor.
Site Organization chart for large project
In a contractor’s site organization key personnel include:
a. Site Agent
a1. The main person in charge of the on-site representative contractor is the onsite agent. In some contractors, this position is called a project manager.
a2. The qualification and experience of the site agent is always specified in the
a3. After the contractor receives the rejection notice, the engineer shall replace the
on-site agent with another more capable agent.
a4. As the site's chief administrator, the site agent is responsible for directing and
controlling all construction projects. His main responsibility is to ensure that
all work is performed as required by the contract.
a5. The company's policy and the nature of the contract, agents can have the right
to recruit necessary personnel, rent machinery and purchase materials.
a6. Agents are usually experienced engineers in the construction of civil
engineering projects. As the head of the construction team, he must be able to
demonstrate his ability to organize and make informed decisions.
a7. A good agent helps not only the contractor but also the engineer. Very often
the site agent may discover omissions or errors in the contract drawings, which,
if made known to the engineer early, could avoid delay and minimize extra
cost for additional work.
a8. For a large job, a deputy agent (sub agent) is sometimes appointed to assist the
agent. Again, if the extent of the works is still too large, a number of sub-agents
will be appointed to take direct control of specific areas of the job.
b. Sub-agent
b1. Assist the agent, a number of sub-agents will be appointed to take direct
control of specific area of the job. Sometimes, a sub-agent may take up
administrative functions.
c. Site Engineer
c1. The site engineer is responsible for the engineering aspect and in particular the
accuracy of construction work. He has to check all information in the drawings
issued by the engineer and to liaise with the foreman to plan the materials and
plant requirement before work can begin.
c2. The design of engineering work on site is also one of the site engineer’s duties.
The engineering works include temporary works such as the construction of
approach bridges, falseworks, site drainage, alignment and layout of access
d. Plant manager
d1. In modern construction projects the use of plant helps to speed up the
completion time. The contractor’s head office usually determines the type and
the number of plant to be used for a particular project.
d2. It is also his job to have the plant available as stated in the construction
programme proposed by the agent. He is kept informed of the long-term
planning of the project and of short-term requirements.
e. The Office Manager/clerk
e1. The office manager is responsible for the efficient administration of nontechnical matters on site. The extent of the administration varies considerably
depending on the location of the site and the complexity and service
requirements of the works. His basic duty is to carry out the paper work such
as issuing purchasing orders, arrangement payment of wages and dealing with
all correspondence.
f. General foreman
f1. The general foreman is responsible for issuing instructions to section foremen
and ensuring that the works are constructed according to the agent’s
construction programme. He is the key person in controlling the execution of
works by mobilizing the labour force as required. He spends some of his time
visiting every part of the site every day. He has to advise the agent about the
requirement of materials, the plant manager about the type of plant needed and
the site engineer about the setting out and recording of the required lines and
f2. The general foreman usually has extensive practical knowledge in various
construction skills.
g. Quantity surveyor
g1. During the course of construction, the contractor receives payment, usually on
a monthly basis, according to the amount of work completed. The quantity
surveyor measures this is meaning the quantity of completed site work. The
amount of work must be agreed upon by the resident engineer’s staff.
g2. The quantity surveyor is also responsible for other duties such as preparing
information about the financial state of the contract and dealing with matters
in connection with costs, such as claims and extra work agreements.
h. Land surveyor
h1. Setting out works and making sure that works are constructed at correct levels
are the responsibilities of the contractor.
i. Ganger/Chainmen
i1. Actually, who is carrying out such works of land surveyor. Theodolites, line
tapes and steel tapes are essential tools for accurate surveying.
Task 4
Task 4.3 (P4.3)
For P4.3, Evaluate the corporate and personal responsibilities of all parties involved in
construction projects. You must evaluate current legislation applicable to each stage of
this project (Planning, development, design, production).
In HK, General Conditions of Contract (GCC) (clause 10 to 38).
Contractor’s General Responsibilities (clause 10)
Design responsibility
a. Design
b. Specification
There is provision in the conditions of contract to cover permanent works designed by
the contractor. The contractor is also not responsible for the adequacy of the temporary
works designed by the engineer.
The responsibility for most temporary works will be borne by the contractor. The
provision of temporary works will be greatly influenced by the methods that the
contractor chooses to carry out and complete the works.
Contractor responsible for safety of site operations
The contractor must be fully responsible for temporary or permanent works during the
construction period.
Performance Security
It has become common today for employers to require performance bonds for
construction contracts. This is to ensure that the contractor completes the works. The
bond provides for a third party, often a bank, to provide the additional funds that may
be required to complete a project in the event of the contractor becoming insolvent or
for some other reason not completing the works.
Under the Conditions of Contract the employer can request such a security for up to
10% of the tender total. This will be required within 28 days of the awarding of a
contract to a contractor. The security for the bond must be provided in the Appendix to
the Conditions of Contract. It is usual for the fees associated with a bond to be paid by
the contractor, unless the contract provides otherwise.
A contractor may be prohibited from even tendering for a project where it is known
either that it will not be possible to arrange a bond, or that it will be prohibitive in terms
of its fee.
Provision and interpretation of information (clause 11)
Nature of ground, subsoil and hydrological conditions
Pipes and cables in, on or over the ground
This information will have been obtained by the employer through a site investigation
prior to the design of the works. It is the contractor’s responsibility to correctly interpret
this for the purpose of constructing the works. If the contractor is responsible for
designing any part of the work, it must also be used.
Basic and sufficiency of tender
The contractor will therefore formulate the tender on the basis of:
a. Information supplied to them from the employer
b. Inspection of the site
c. Examination of the contract documents
d. Correctness and sufficiency of the rates and process in the bills of quantities which
will cover all of the contractor’s obligations.
Adverse Physical Conditions and Artificial Obstructions (clause 12)
During the execution of the works the contractor may encounter physical conditions or
artificial obstructions. If an experienced contractor cannot reasonably foresee these, the
engineer should be notified in writing. These conditions exclude weather conditions
and conditions due to bad weather.
The use of this clause on major civil engineering works is common in the support of
claims for additional expense. This is due in part because of the nature of civil
engineering works and the fact that much of the work is at or below the ground level.
More sophisticated means of determining the full extent of the ground conditions are
constantly being brought in to use.
Intention to claim
At the time of writing to the engineer the contractor should state whether a contractual
claim is to be made. The claim may be in the form of an additional payment (clause 52)
or an extension of time (clause 44).
Measures being taken
The contractor should also provide details to the engineer of any anticipated effects of
the adverse physical condition.
The contractor should also inform the engineer of the:
Estimated costs involved
Extent of anticipated delay
Effects upon the works
Action by Engineer
The engineer should consider whether to
a. Ask the contractor to investigate and report upon possible alternative measures
that might be used together with their costs and timing
b. Give written consent to the measures notified by the contractor
c. Give the contractor written instructions on how the adverse physical condition is
to be dealt with
d. Suspend the works under clause 54
e. Issue a variation under clause 60
Conditions reasonably foreseeable
The engineer may decide that the physical conditions or artificial obstructions could
have been reasonably foreseen by an experienced contractor.
Works to be to satisfaction of the engineer (clause 13)
The materials, equipment, and labor provided by the contractor (clause 8) and the
manner, speed, and speed of construction of the works are works and are performed in
a manner acceptable to the engineer. (Ir David Y.K. Leung, 2010)
Removal of contractor’s employees (clause 18)
a. Misconduct
b. Incompetence
c. Negligence
d. Failing in the performance of duties
e. Failing to conform with particular provisions regarding safety
f. Persisting in conduct which is prejudicial or health
Setting out (clause 19)
The engineer is responsible for providing the contractor with all the information
necessary for the contractor to set out the works.
Safety and security (clause 20)
The contractor shall give full consideration to the safety of all persons entitled to work
on site during the entire project.
Employer’s responsibilities
The employer may employ other contractors or use a form of direct labour for certain
aspects of the work (clause 31).
Task 5
Task 5.1 (P5.1)
For P5.1, Discuss the modern technology available to designers, planners and builders.
You must detail discuss the modern methods of construction or effect of design on this
Intelligent building (IB)
a. first coined in USA in early 1980s
b. its definition/model is evolving
b1. automated buildings (1981-85)
b2. responsive buildings (1986-91)
b3. effective buildings (1992-)
c. development of IB
c1. closely linked with computers and information technology (IT)
c2. but, IB ≠ high-tech building
Major IB features
a. automatic reactions (adjust internal conditions)
b. effective communication & IT management
c. responsiveness to changes
Integrated pyramid
a. single function/dedicated systems
b. multifunctional systems
c. integrated systems
d. computer integrated building
IB in Europe study
It turns out that Proved provides a responsive, effective and supportive intelligent
environment in which organizations can achieve their business goals.
Three main goals:
a1. building management
a2. space management
a3. business management
An intelligent building does not make occupants seem stupid.
a. maximizes the efficiency of its occupants and allows effective management of
resource with minimum life costs.
more responsive to user needs and has the ability to adapt to new technology or
changes in the organizational structures.
Intelligent and Green
Available from: https://slidesplayer.com/slide/11396705/
Key issues for intelligent buildings
a. site (access, local amenities, car parking)
b. shell (thermal strategy, structure, floor layout)
c. skin (services strategy, solar control)
d. building services (HVAC, small power, cabling)
e. information technology (communication, space
f. management, network)
Criteria: business value/benefits, efficiency and effectiveness
Common objectives
a. responsive (to user needs / to climate)
b. efficient (building design & systems)
c. effective (operation & management)
d. better integration (with IT & within systems)
a. smart buildings and Internet connectivity
b. sustainability in business (quantifying the benefits)
Smart & Green Building
energy efficient
use renewable energy
green building materials
low environmental impact
responsive to climate/site
responsive to user needs
healthy environment
Intelligent building Model
Energy information system
a. There is widespread recognition that there is often a large gap between building
energy performance as designed, and measured post-occupancy energy
b. EIS is the idea that building are complex, dynamic systems, and that realizing
optimal energy performance requires higher-granularity data and more time
analysis than can be gained monthly utility bills.
EIS are critically important because they can process data into actionable
information and thereby serve as the information link between the primary actors
who affect building energy efficiency
EIS are broadly defined as performance monitoring software, data acquisition
hardware, and communication systems used to store, analyze, and display building
energy data.
Task 5
Task5.2 (P5.2)
For P5.2, Evaluate the effect of technological advances on the various phases of
construction projects. You must evaluate use of computer systems or development of
new materials in this project.
Intelligent Buildings are the centralized control of heating, ventilation and air
conditioning, lighting and other systems of buildings through building management
systems or Building Automation Systems (BAS). The goals of building automation are
to improve occupant comfort, the efficient operation of building systems, reduce energy
consumption and operating costs, and improve the useful life of utilities.
Building automation is an example of a distributed control system-a computer network
of electronic equipment designed to monitor and control machinery, safety, fire and
flood safety, lighting (especially emergency lighting), HVAC and humidity control and
ventilation systems in buildings. (Wiki, 2020)
Intelligent Building at work
Available from: https://electrical-engineering-portal.com/conceptual-model-of-smartgrid-framework-by-iec
Integrated Intelligent Engergy Saving Solution for Electrical System in Building
Available from: http://takamulsystems.com/Solution%20Smart%20BMS.html
Office space and commercial buildings
a. Speculative offices (USA or European)
b. Organizational/functional requirements
c. Impact of IT and business strategy
Major systems
a. Building Automation System (BAS)
b. Office Automation System (OAS)
c. Communication Automation System (CAS)
Typical features
a. Building control & energy management
b. Lighting management
c. Addressable fire alarm
d. Structured cabling
e. Voice/data/image communication
Office automation
Facility management & cad system
Multi-function cardkeys
Current and future development
New ways of working
More interaction
More collaboration (physically or electronically)
More individual autonomy
More group spaces
More shared spaces
Intelligent Building at Home
Available from:
Present technology
a. Phones and intercoms
b. Home automation
c. Video distribution (e.g. Tv)
d. Video surveillance (e.g. Security)
e. Structured wiring
f. Home theater, game station
Future home
a. home networking
Home network today usually comprised of an Internet connection to the house,
which links to a wireless router with which everything else to smartphone,
Internet appliances
They can seamlessly connect with each other rather than beings isolated.
Interaction are achieved between home appliance and human being via terminal
including mobile
c1. IP webcam is based on an inexpensive ARM development board, which hosts
its own web server to display the webcam feed.
c2. The server has ability to either to a wired router or to act as a wireless access
point in order for to connect and control its function via Wi-Fi enabled device.
Video walls
d1. Video wall is a special type of multiple computer monitors, video projectors
or televisions, or overlapped to form a large screen.
d2. Typical display technologies include LCD panels, Direct View LED arrays,
hybrid projection screens, laser fluorescent displays, and rear projection.
(Wiki, 2020)
Home office
Virtual clinic/hospital
Task 2.2
Ray Kuruvilla George (2006) Science and Technology for Sustainable Development
Rocky Mountain Institute (1998) Green Development: Integrating Ecology and Real
Task 2.3
Designing Building Wiki (2017) Measurement contracts
[online] https://www.designingbuildings.co.uk/wiki/Measurement_contract
Task 3.1
Mr Raymond Wong wai-man (2018) Green and Sustainable Buildings Design Criteria
and Practices in Hong Kong
Task 4.3
Ir David Y.K. Leung (2010) A Practical Approach to Conditions of Contact for Civil
Engineering Works
[online] https://hkupress.hku.hk/pro/con/367.pdf
Task 5.2
Wiki, 2020, Building Automation
[online] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Building_automation
Wiki, 2020, Video Wall
[online] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_wall