# toc

```CONTENTS
PART I FLUID MOTIONS
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
The nature of fluids
Pressure
Viscosity
Diffusion
Viscosity as a diffusion coefficient
2
2
3
10
15
17
Chapter 2 FLOW PAST A SPHERE I: DIMENSIONAL; ANALYSIS, REYNOLDS
NUMBERS, AND FROUDE NUMBERS
19
Introduction
19
Which variables are important?
20
Some dimensional reasoning, and its consequences
21
How to construct dimensionless variables
25
What if you choose the wrong variables?
25
“Dimensional analysis”
31
Significance of Reynolds numbers and Froude numbers
32
Conclusion
34
Chapter 3 FLOW PAST A SPHERE II: STOKES’ LAW, THE BERNOULLI
EQUATION, TURBULENCE, BOUNDARY LAYERS, FLOW SEPARATION
Introduction
The Navier–Stokes equation
Flow past a sphere at low Reynolds numbers
Inviscid flow
The Bernoulli equation
Turbulence
Boundary layers
Flow separation
Flow past a sphere at high Reynolds numbers
Settling of spheres
35
35
35
36
40
43
48
58
65
70
74
Chapter 4 FLOW IN PIPES AND CHANNELS
Introduction
Laminar flow down an inclined plane
Turbulent flow in pipes and channels: initial material
Turbulent shear stress
The turbulence closure problem
Structure of turbulent boundary layers
Flow resistance
Velocity profiles
Coherent structures in turbulent shear flow
83
83
84
91
93
98
99
103
115
149
Chapter 5 OPEN-CHANNEL FLOW
Introduction
Two practical problems
Uniform flow
Energy in open-channel flow
157
157
159
160
164
The hydraulic jump
Hydraulic regimes of open-channel flow
172
176
178
Chapter 6 OSCILLATORY FLOW
Introduction
The nature of waves
Water motions due to waves
Wave boundary layers
190
Combined flow (waves plus current
Chapter 7 FLOW IN ROTATING ENVIRONMENTS
Introduction
Playing on a rotating table
The Coriolis effect on the Earth’s surface
The Rossby number
Inertia currents
The Ekman spiral
Geostrophic motion
Ekman layers
Planetary boundary layers
184
184
184
187
194
201
201
201
205
212
213
215
220
227
230
PART II SEDIMENT TRANSPORT
Chapter 8 SEDIMENTS, VARIABLES, FLUMES
Introduction
Sediment
Hydrodynamic perspective
Particle motions vs. turbulence
Observing sediment transport
Variables
Flumes
237
237
238
241
242
245
246
254
Chapter 9 THRESHOLD OF MOVEMENT
Introduction
Forces on bed particles
Balance of forces
Dimensional analysis
How is the threshold for movement identified?
Representations of the movement threshold
Recasting the Shields diagram
The Hjulstr&oslash;m diagram
260
260
260
265
267
269
272
275
278
Chapter 10 MOVEMENT OF SEDIMENT BY WATER FLOWS
Introduction
The bed, the flow, and the load
Transport mode vs. flow intensity
Suspension in a shear flow: the diffusional theory of suspension
The effect of acceleration of gravity
285
285
286
289
294
307
314
Chapter 11 MOVEMENT OF SEDIMENT BY THE WIND
320
Introduction
Saltation
320
321
Chapter 12 BED CONFIGURATIONS
Introduction
Unidirectional-flow bed configurations
Oscillatory-flow and combined-flow bed configurations
Wind ripples
Eolian dunes
350
350
352
419
431
432
Chapter 13 THE SEDIMENT TRANSPORT RATE
Introduction
The sediment load and the sediment transport rate
Predicting the sediment transport rate
450
445
445
445
Chapter 14 MIXED-SIZE SEDIMENTS
Introduction
A useful thought experiment
The bed-surface size distribution
Fractional transport rates
A thought experiment gradation independence versus equal mobility
Real data on fractional transport rates, from the flume and from the field
Movement threshold in mixed-size sediments
Deviations from the condition of equal mobility
More on sediment-discharge formulas
457
457
458
458
459
460
462
467
471
477
479
PART III CURRENT-GENERATED SEDIMENTARY STRUCTURES
Chapter 15 DEPOSITION
Introduction
Modes of deposition
Why deposition or erosion?
483
483
483
491
496
Chapter 16 CROSS STRATIFICATION
Stratification and cross stratification
The nature of cross stratification
The basic idea behind climbing-bed-form cross stratification
Important kinds of climbing-bed-form cross stratification
Cross stratification not produced by climbing bed forms
497
497
498
499
503
508
526
Chapter 17 PLANAR STRATIFICATION
Introduction
Features of planar lamination
The origin of planar lamination in sands and sandstones
Planar lamination in fine sediments
531
531
533
533
533
INDEX
PARTIAL LIST OF SYMBOLS
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