Uploaded by Saeed Sarwar

Week1 - Lecture

Week 1
Batch: BBA 2019
7th Sept, 2020
Business Communication Defined
Communication: The word
“communication” is derived from
“communis”(Latin), meaning “common”. It
stands for a natural activity of all human
beings to convey opinions, feelings,
information, and ideas to others through
words (written or spoken), body language, or
Business Communication: The sharing of
information between people within an
enterprise that is performed for the
commercial benefit of the organization. In
addition, business communication can also
refer to how a company shares information to
promote its product or services to potential
Classification of Communication
Classification as per number of persons (receivers):
Intrapersonal communication: It is talking to
oneself in one’s own mind. Examples are soliloquies
or asides in dramatic works.
Interpersonal communication: It is the
exchange of messages between two persons. For
example, a conversation, dialogue, or an interview in
which two persons interact (others may also be
present as audience).
Group communication: It can be among small or
large groups, like an organisation, club or classroom,
in which all individuals retain their individual
Mass communication: It occurs when the message
is sent to large groups of people, for example, by
newspaper, radio, or television. In this process, each
person becomes a faceless individual with almost no
opportunity for personal response or feedback.
Classification as per Medium Employed
Verbal communication: It means
communicating with words, written or
spoken. Verbal communication consists of
speaking, listening, writing, reading, and
Non-verbal communication: It
includes using of pictures, signs, gestures,
facial expressions for exchanging
information between persons.
Metacommunication: Here the
speaker’s choice of words unintentionally
communicates something more than what
the actual words state. For example, a
flattering remark like “I’ve never seen you
so smartly dressed” could also mean that
the regular attire of the listener needed
Purpose of Communication
• To Inform
• To Persuade
Communication to inform
(expository communication) is
directed by the desire to expose,
develop, and explain the subject.
It focuses on the subject of the
The communicator may seek
primarily to persuade the reader.
In such a form of
communication the focus is on
the receiver and not the
For example: consider the short
expository piece of writing given For example, consider the “home
loan” advertisement by HSBC.
“Now your dream home is just a
“Farming provides most of the
food we eat. Our chief food crops step away from being a reality.
Simply get an HSBC home loan
are cereals or grains. Cereals
include maize, rice, and wheat. and choose from a range of
We also grow barley and gram.” highly flexible repayment
options, based on your
Process of Communication
1. The Linear Concept
According to the linear view, a receiver passively
receives the message and acts as directed or
desired by the sender. Communication is intended
to control/manipulate the receiver. It is assumed
that the message, while passing through the
medium .chosen by the sender, reaches the
receiver without any distortion or change.
Shannon Weaver Model
Shannon and W Weaver were the first to point out
that in actual practice, messages can be changed or
The model is based on the idea that communication
occurs only when the message has been received and
that it should be received, as far as possible,
Real Life Complete Model
• In real life, filters in the minds of both sender and
receiver affect the content of message.
• To an extend, feedback corrects the distortions, if any,
and and tends to complete the cycle of communication.
Elements of Communication
• Message: It is information, written or spoken, which is to be sent
from one person to another.
• Sender: The person who transmits, spreads, or communicates a
message or operates an electronic device is the one who conceives
and initiates the message with the purpose of informing/persuading
/influencing/changing the attitude, opinion, or behaviour of the
receiver (audience/listener).
• Encoding: is changing the message (from its mental form) into
symbols, that is, patterns of words / gestures / pictorial forms or
signs (physical or of sounds) of a specific visual /aural language. In
short, it means putting ideas, facts, feelings, and opinions into
symbols, which can be words, actions, signs, pictures, and
• Channel: This is the vehicle or medium which facilitates the sender
to convey the message to the receiver. The medium of
communication can be written, oral, audio-visual, or live projections.
• Receiver: is the targeted audience of the message. The
receiver gets the message, understands, interprets, and tries
to perceive the total meaning of the message as transmitted by
the sender.
• Decoding: This is the act of translating symbols of
communication into their ordinary meanings.
• Acting: Communication manipulates the receiver to act in a
desired manner. A receiver’s response action shows that he ha
sunderstood the message.
• Feedback: This is the loop that connects the receiver in the
communication process with the sender, who, in turn, acts as a
feedback receiver and, thus, gets to know that communication
has been accomplished.
Barriers to Communication
Verbal Barriers
• Inadequate Knowledge or Vocabulary: Before you can
even begin to think about how you will communicate an idea,
you must first have the idea; that is, you must have sufficient
knowledge about the topic to know what you want to say.
• Differences in Interpretation: Sometimes senders and
receivers attribute different meanings to the same word or
attribute the same meaning to different words. When this
mismatch happens, miscommunication can occur.
• Language Differences: In an ideal world, all managers
would know the language of each culture with which they
• Inappropriate Use of Expressions: Expressions are groups
of words whose intended meanings are different from their
literal interpretations. Examples include slag, jargon, and
• Slang is an expression, often short-lived, that is identified with a
specific group of people.
As If—“In your dreams”
Bounce—To leave
Crib—A place of residence
Homey—A friend, usually male
My bad—My fault
Ride—A car
Stoked—Happy or excited
• Jargon is the technical terminology used within specialized groups;
jargon provides a very precise and efficient way of communicating
with those familiar with it. The problem comes either in using jargon
with someone who doesn’t understand it or in using jargon in an
effort to impress others.
• Euphemism are inoffensive expressions used in place of words that
may offend or suggest something unpleasant. Sensitive writers and
speakers use euphemisms occasionally, especially to describe bodily
functions. How many ways, for example, can you think of to say that
someone has died?
• Over abstraction and Ambiguity: An abstract word identifies an idea
or a feeling instead of a concrete object. For example,
“communication” is an abstract word, whereas “memorandum” is a
concrete word, a word that identifies something that can be seen or
touched. Abstract words are necessary to communicate about things
you cannot see or touch. The higher the level of abstraction, the more
difficult it is for thereceiver to visualize exactly what the sender has in
• For example, which sentence communicates more information: “I
acquired an asset at the store” or “I bought a laser printer at Computer
• Similar communication problems result from the overuse of
ambiguous terms such as a few, some, several, and far away, which
have too broad a meaning for use in much business communication.
• Polarization: At times, some people act as though every situation is
divided into two opposite and distinct poles, with no allowance for a
middle ground. Of course, some true opposites do exist.
• Remember that what you do not say can also produce barriers to
communication. Suppose, for example, that you congratulate only one
of the three people who took part in making a company presentation.
How would the other two presenters feel—even though you said
nothing negative about their performance? Or suppose you tell one of
them, “You really did an outstanding job this time.” The presenter’s
natural reaction may be, “What was wrong with my performance last
Non Verbal Barriers
• Inappropriate or Conflicting Signals: Suppose a
well-qualified applicant for an administrative assistant
position submits a résumé with a typographical error, or an
accountant’s personal office is in such disorder that she can’t
find the papers she needs for a meeting with a client. When
verbal and nonverbal signals conflict, the receiver tends to
put more faith in the nonverbal signals because nonverbal
messages are more difficult to manipulate than verbal
• Differences in Perception: Even when they hear the same
speech or read the same document, people of different ages,
socioeconomic backgrounds, cultures, and so forth often
form very different perceptions. We discussed earlier the
mental filter by which each communication source is
interpreted. Because each person is unique, with unique
experiences, knowledge, and viewpoints, each person forms
a different opinion about what he or she reads and hears.
Non Verbal Barriers
• Inappropriate Emotions: In most cases, a moderate level of
emotional involvement intensifies the communication and
makes it more personal. However, too much emotional
involvement can impose an obstacle to communication. For
example, excessive anger can create such an emotionally
charged environment that reasonable discussion becomes
impossible. Likewise, prejudice (automatically rejecting
certain people or ideas), stereotyping (placing individuals into
categories), and boredom all hinder effective communication.
Such emotions tend to create a blocked mind that is closed
to new ideas, rejecting or ignoring information that is contrary
to one’s prevailing belief.
• Distractions: Any environmental or competing element that
restricts one’s ability to concentrate on the communication
task hinders effective communication. Such distractions are
called noise. Examples of environmental noise include poor
acoustics, extreme temperature, uncomfortable seating, body
odor, poor telephone connections, and illegible photocopies.
Examples of competing noise include other important
business to handle, too many meetings, and too many
reports to read.